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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604707

RESUMO

This chapter gives an industry perspective of how digital twins are tangibly translated, implemented, and used in a biopharmaceutical environment. Technical prerequisites and components including data modeling, the lifecycle, and different skills which are required from people to be put together and collaborate efficiently with digital twins are discussed with practical examples which have been implemented in labs and in manufacturing.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(3)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530447

RESUMO

Oculo-auriculo-vertebral-spectrum (OAVS; OMIM 164210) is a rare disorder originating from abnormal development of the first and second branchial arch. The clinical phenotype is extremely heterogeneous with ear anomalies, hemifacial microsomia, ocular defects, and vertebral malformations being the main features. MYT1, AMIGO2, and ZYG11B gene variants were reported in a few OAVS patients, but the etiology remains largely unknown. A multifactorial origin has been proposed, including the involvement of environmental and epigenetic mechanisms. To identify the epigenetic mechanisms contributing to OAVS, we evaluated the DNA-methylation profiles of 41 OAVS unrelated affected individuals by using a genome-wide microarray-based methylation approach. The analysis was first carried out comparing OAVS patients with controls at the group level. It revealed a moderate epigenetic variation in a large number of genes implicated in basic chromatin dynamics such as DNA packaging and protein-DNA organization. The alternative analysis in individual profiles based on the searching for Stochastic Epigenetic Variants (SEV) identified an increased number of SEVs in OAVS patients compared to controls. Although no recurrent deregulated enriched regions were found, isolated patients harboring suggestive epigenetic deregulations were identified. The recognition of a different DNA methylation pattern in the OAVS cohort and the identification of isolated patients with suggestive epigenetic variations provide consistent evidence for the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to the etiology of this complex and heterogeneous disorder.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567536

RESUMO

The expanded CAG repeat number in HTT gene causes Huntington disease (HD), which is a severe, dominant neurodegenerative illness. The accurate determination of the expanded allele size is crucial to confirm the genetic status in symptomatic and presymptomatic at-risk subjects and avoid genetic polymorphism-related false-negative diagnoses. Precise CAG repeat number determination is critical to discriminate the cutoff between unexpanded and intermediate mutable alleles (IAs, 27-35 CAG) as well as between IAs and pathological, low-penetrance alleles (i.e., 36-39 CAG repeats), and it is also critical to detect large repeat expansions causing pediatric HD variants. We analyzed the HTT-CAG repeat number of 14 DNA reference materials and of a DNA collection of 43 additional samples carrying unexpanded, IAs, low and complete penetrance alleles, including large (>60 repeats) and very large (>100 repeats) expansions using a novel triplet-primed PCR-based assay, the AmplideX PCR/CE HTT Kit. The results demonstrate that the method accurately genotypes both normal and expanded HTT-CAG repeat numbers and reveals previously undisclosed and very large CAG expansions >200 repeats. We also show that this technique can improve genetic test reliability and accuracy by detecting CAG expansions in samples with sequence variations within or adjacent to the repeat tract that cause allele drop-outs or inaccuracies using other PCR methods.

4.
Genet Med ; 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568805

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Recent studies have identified suggestive prenatal features of RASopathies (e.g., increased nuchal translucency [NT], cystic hygroma [CH], hydrops, effusions, congenital heart diseases [CHD], polyhydramnios, renal anomalies). Our objective is to clarify indications for RASopathy prenatal testing. We compare genotype distributions between pre- and postnatal populations and propose genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS: Three hundred fifty-two chromosomal microarray-negative cases sent for prenatal RASopathy testing between 2012 and 2019 were collected. For most, 11 RASopathy genes were tested. Postnatal cohorts (25 patients with available prenatal information and 108 institutional database genotypes) and the NSeuroNet database were used for genotypic comparisons. RESULTS: The overall diagnostic yield was 14% (50/352), with rates >20% for effusions, hydrops, and CHD. Diagnostic yield was significantly improved in presence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), persistent or associated CH, any suggestive finding combined with renal anomaly or polyhydramnios, or ≥2 ultrasound findings. Largest prenatal contributors of pathogenic variants were PTPN11 (30%), RIT1 (16%), RAF1 (14%), and HRAS (12%), which considerably differ from their prevalence in postnatal populations. HRAS, LZTR1, and RAF1 variants correlated with hydrops/effusions, and RIT1 with prenatal onset HCM. CONCLUSION: After normal chromosomal microarray, RASopathies should be considered when any ultrasound finding of lymphatic dysplasia or suggestive CHD is found alone or in association.

5.
Fam Cancer ; 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33210232

RESUMO

We present a 24-year-old female patient affected by neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) who developed a malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast. The molecular studies showed that the patient carried a heterozygous inactivating deleterious variant in BRCA1 inherited from the father associated with a germline de novo pathogenic alteration in NF1; the tumor presented a biallelic inactivation of both genes. Therefore, tumor analyses helped to establish that the germline NF1 and BRCA1 variants were in cis on the paternal chromosome. This last information is important to provide adequate genetic counselling regarding the risk of recurrence in the offspring, as well as opportunity for early intervention. In conclusion, we present the first case of a malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast in patient carrying pathogenic variants in NF1 and BRCA1. Further studies will be necessary to understand if the phyllodes histotype represents a very rare component of NF1-associated breast cancer.

6.
J Pers Med ; 10(4)2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202793

RESUMO

Although they cannot be considered curative, the new therapeutic integrated advances in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) have substantially improved patient outcomes. Traditionally, surgery was confined to palliation of symptomatic or ulcerating lumps. Data suggest, in some cases, a possible additive role for more aggressive locoregional surgical therapy in combination with systemic treatments in the metastatic setting, although a low level of evidence has been shown in terms of improvement in overall survival in MBC patients treated with surgery and medical treatment compared to medical treatment alone. In this light, tumor heterogeneity remains a challenge. To effectively reshape the therapeutic approach to MBC, careful consideration of who is a good candidate for locoregional resection is paramount. The patient's global health condition, impacting on cancer progression and morbidity and their associated molecular targets, have to be considered in treatment decision-making. In particular, more recently, research has been focused on the role of metabolic derangements, including the presence of metabolic syndrome, which represent well-known conditions related to breast cancer recurrence and distant metastasis and are, therefore, involved in the prognosis. In the present article, we focus on locoregional surgical strategies in MBC and whether concomitant metabolic derangements may have a role in prognosis.

7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082526

RESUMO

The RASopathies are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous developmental disorders caused by dysregulation of the RAS/MAPK signalling pathway. Variants in several components and regulators of this pathway have been identified as the pathogenetic cause. In 2015, missense variants in A2ML1 were reported in three unrelated families with clinical diagnosis of Noonan syndrome (NS) and a zebrafish model was presented showing heart and craniofacial defects similar to those caused by a NS-associated Shp2 variant. However, a causal role of A2ML1 variants in NS has not been confirmed since. Herein, we report on 15 individuals who underwent screening of RASopathy-associated genes and were found to carry rare variants in A2ML1, including variants previously proposed to be causative for NS. In cases where parental DNA was available, the respective A2ML1 variant was found to be inherited from an unaffected parent. Seven index patients carrying an A2ML1 variant presented with an alternate disease-causing genetic aberration. These findings underscore that current evidence is insufficient to support a causal relation between variants in A2ML1 and NS, questioning the inclusion of A2ML1 screening in diagnostic RASopathy testing.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 977-988, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058759

RESUMO

PRKACA and PRKACB code for two catalytic subunits (Cα and Cß) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), a pleiotropic holoenzyme that regulates numerous fundamental biological processes such as metabolism, development, memory, and immune response. We report seven unrelated individuals presenting with a multiple congenital malformation syndrome in whom we identified heterozygous germline or mosaic missense variants in PRKACA or PRKACB. Three affected individuals were found with the same PRKACA variant, and the other four had different PRKACB mutations. In most cases, the mutations arose de novo, and two individuals had offspring with the same condition. Nearly all affected individuals and their affected offspring shared an atrioventricular septal defect or a common atrium along with postaxial polydactyly. Additional features included skeletal abnormalities and ectodermal defects of variable severity in five individuals, cognitive deficit in two individuals, and various unusual tumors in one individual. We investigated the structural and functional consequences of the variants identified in PRKACA and PRKACB through the use of several computational and experimental approaches, and we found that they lead to PKA holoenzymes which are more sensitive to activation by cAMP than are the wild-type proteins. Furthermore, expression of PRKACA or PRKACB variants detected in the affected individuals inhibited hedgehog signaling in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, thereby providing an underlying mechanism for the developmental defects observed in these cases. Our findings highlight the importance of both Cα and Cß subunits of PKA during human development.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947953

RESUMO

Pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) can predict better survival outcomes in patients with early triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1), and Cluster of Differentiation 73 (CD73) are immune-related biomarkers that can be evaluated in the tumor microenvironment. We investigated if the contemporary expression of these biomarkers combined in a tissue immune profile (TIP) can predict pCR better than single biomarkers in TNBC. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), CD73 expression by cancer cells (CC), and PD-L1 expression by immune cells (IC) were evaluated on pre-NACT biopsies. We defined TIP positive (TIP+) as the simultaneous presence of TILS ≥ 50%, PD-L1 ≥ 1%, and CD73 ≤ 40%. To consider the effects of all significant variables on the pCR, multivariate analysis was performed. Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Bayesian information criterion (BIC) were used for model selection. We retrospectively analyzed 60 biopsies from patients with TNBC who received standard NACT. Pathological complete response was achieved in 23 patients (38.0%). Twelve (20.0%) cases resulted to be TIP+. The pCR rate was significantly different between TIP+ (91.7%) and TIP- (25.0%) (p < 0.0001). Using a multivariate analysis, TIP was confirmed as an independent predictive factor of pCR (OR 49.7 (6.30-392.4), p < 0.0001). Finally, we compared the efficacy of TIP versus each single biomarker in predicting pCR by AIC and BIC. The combined immune profile is more accurate in predicting pCR (AIC 68.3; BIC 74.5) as compared to single biomarkers. The association between TIP+ and pCR can be proposed as a novel link between immune background and response to chemotherapy in TNBC, highlighting the need to consider an immunological patients' profile rather than single biomarkers.

10.
Hum Mutat ; 41(12): 2087-2093, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32906221

RESUMO

Clinical expression of Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EvC) is variable and mild phenotypes have been described, including patients with mostly cardiac and limb involvement. Whether these cases are part of the EvC phenotypic spectrum or separate conditions is disputed. Herein, we describe a family with vertical transmission of atrioventricular canal defect (AVCD), common atrium, and postaxial polydactyly. Targeted sequencing of EVC, EVC2, WDR35, DYNC2LI1, and DYNC2H1 identified different compound heterozygosity in EVC genotypes in the two affected members, consisting of a nonsense (p.Arg622Ter) and a missense (p.Arg663Pro) variant in the father, and the same nonsense variant and a noncanonical splice-site in-frame change (c.1316-7A>G) in the daughter. Complementary DNA sequencing, immunoblot, and immunofluorescence experiments using patient-derived fibroblasts and Evc-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts showed that p.Arg622Ter is a loss-of-function mutation, whereas p.Arg663Pro and the splice-site change c.1316-7A>G are hypomorphic variants resulting in proteins that retain, in part, the ability to complex with EVC2. Our molecular and functional data demonstrate that at least in some cases the condition characterized as "common atrium/AVCD with postaxial polydactyly" is a mild form of EvC due to hypomorphic EVC mutations, further supporting the occurrence of genotype-phenotype correlations in this syndrome.

11.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 10(8)2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806529

RESUMO

Noonan syndrome (NS) is a congenital autosomic dominant condition characterized by a variable spectrum from a clinical and genetical point of view. Germline mutations in more than ten genes involved in RAS-MAPK signal pathway have been demonstrated to cause the disease. An higher risk for leukemia and solid malignancies, including brain tumors, is related to NS. A review of the published literature concerning low grade gliomas (LGGs) in NS is presented. We described also a 13-year-old girl with NS associated with a recurrent mutation in PTPN11, who developed three different types of brain tumors, i.e., an optic pathway glioma, a glioneuronal neoplasm of the left temporal lobe and a cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma. Molecular characterization of the glioneuronal tumor allowed to detect high levels of phosphorylated MTOR (pMTOR); therefore, a therapeutic approach based on an mTOR inhibitor (everolimus) was elected. The treatment was well tolerated and proved to be effective, leading to a stabilization of the tumor, which was surgical removed. The positive outcome of the present case suggests considering this approach for patients with RASopathies and brain tumors with hyperactivated MTOR signaling.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764417

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, there have been two major outbreaks where the crossover of animal Betacoronaviruses to humans has resulted in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In December 2019, a global public health concern started with the emergence of a new strain of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 or 2019 novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV) which has rapidly spread all over the world from its origin in Wuhan, China. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the Betacoronavirus genus, which includes human SARS-CoV, MERS and two other human coronaviruses (HCoVs), HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1. The fatality rate of SARS-CoV-2 is lower than the two previous coronavirus epidemics, but it is faster spreading and the large number of infected people with severe viral pneumonia and respiratory illness, showed SARS-CoV-2 to be highly contagious. Based on the current published evidence, herein we summarize the origin, genetics, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, preventions, diagnosis and up to date treatments of SARS-CoV-2 infections in comparison with those caused by SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Moreover, the possible impact of weather conditions on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is also discussed. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to reconsider the two previous pandemics and provide a reference for future studies as well as therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Surtos de Doenças , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Saúde Pública , Zoonoses
13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788663

RESUMO

RASopathies are caused by variants in genes encoding components or modulators of the RAS/MAPK signaling pathway. Noonan syndrome is the most common entity among this group of disorders and is characterized by heart defects, short stature, variable developmental delay, and typical facial features. Heterozygous variants in SOS2, encoding a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RAS, have recently been identified in patients with Noonan syndrome. The number of published cases with SOS2-related Noonan syndrome is still limited and little is known about genotype-phenotype correlations. We collected previously unpublished clinical and genotype data from 17 individuals carrying a disease-causing SOS2 variant. Most individuals had one of the previously reported dominant pathogenic variants; only four had novel changes at the established hotspots for variants that affect protein function. The overall phenotype of the 17 patients fits well into the spectrum of Noonan syndrome and is most similar to the phenotype observed in patients with SOS1-related Noonan syndrome, with ectodermal anomalies as common features and short stature and learning disabilities as relatively infrequent findings compared to the average Noonan syndrome phenotype. The spectrum of heart defects in SOS2-related Noonan syndrome was consistent with the known spectrum of cardiac anomalies in RASopathies, but no specific heart defect was particularly predominating. Notably, lymphatic anomalies were extraordinarily frequent, affecting more than half of the patients. We therefore conclude that SOS2-related Noonan syndrome is associated with a particularly high risk of lymphatic complications that may have a significant impact on morbidity and quality of life.

14.
Front Oncol ; 10: 1061, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766138

RESUMO

Introduction: Seroma formation represents one of the most frequent postoperative complications of axillary dissection in breast cancer (BC) patients. We aimed to retrospectively explore the effectiveness of the intraoperative use of a synthetic cyanoacrylate glue (specifically Glubran®2) vs. the intraoperative use of a fibrin sealant (specifically Tisseel) in reducing seroma formation compared to the use of nonsealant in BC patients who underwent breast surgery and axillary dissection. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective, monocentric observational study on BC patients who underwent axillary dissection associated with breast surgery. The axillary dissection was completed with the application of a closed suction drain and was preceded by the application of either Glubran®2 glue or Tisseel sealant or nonsealant. We analyzed the quantity of serum drained in the first 3 postoperative days, length of hospitalization, days of permanence of axillary drain, seroma development, and presence of postoperative infection signs. Results: Forty-one BC patients were considered. Based on the device used during the surgical treatment, the patients were divided into three groups: group A (17 patients), to whom suction axillary drain was applied; group B (7 patients), to whom Tisseel and axillary suction drain were applied; and group C (17 patients), to whom Glubran®2 and axillary suction drain were applied. Among the three groups, we did not find significant differences in terms of amount of serum drained in the first 3 postoperative days, length of hospitalization, and incidence of seroma. Group C maintained the axillary drain in a significantly lower number of days compared to the other two groups (p = 0.02); it also had a lower incidence of postoperative infections (6%) compared to group A (23%) and group B (57%) (p = 0.02). Conclusions: We did not find any evidence that the use of surgical glues may reduce the formation of seroma following axillary dissection in BC patients. Nevertheless, the use of cyanoacrylate glue in association with closed suction axillary drain seems to contribute to the reduction in days of axillary drain permanence and of postoperative infections, which are known factors delaying the schedule of any adjuvant oncological therapies.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 499-513, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721402

RESUMO

Signal transduction through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, the first described mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, mediates multiple cellular processes and participates in early and late developmental programs. Aberrant signaling through this cascade contributes to oncogenesis and underlies the RASopathies, a family of cancer-prone disorders. Here, we report that de novo missense variants in MAPK1, encoding the mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (i.e., extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2, ERK2), cause a neurodevelopmental disease within the RASopathy phenotypic spectrum, reminiscent of Noonan syndrome in some subjects. Pathogenic variants promote increased phosphorylation of the kinase, which enhances translocation to the nucleus and boosts MAPK signaling in vitro and in vivo. Two variant classes are identified, one of which directly disrupts binding to MKP3, a dual-specificity protein phosphatase negatively regulating ERK function. Importantly, signal dysregulation driven by pathogenic MAPK1 variants is stimulus reliant and retains dependence on MEK activity. Our data support a model in which the identified pathogenic variants operate with counteracting effects on MAPK1 function by differentially impacting the ability of the kinase to interact with regulators and substrates, which likely explains the minor role of these variants as driver events contributing to oncogenesis. After nearly 20 years from the discovery of the first gene implicated in Noonan syndrome, PTPN11, the last tier of the MAPK cascade joins the group of genes mutated in RASopathies.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Proteína Quinase 1 Ativada por Mitógeno/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/patologia , Síndrome de Noonan/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Proteínas ras/genética
16.
Genet Med ; 22(11): 1903-1908, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661355

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the origin and genetic characteristics of Huntington disease (HD) in the Middle East. METHODS: We performed genetic and genealogical analyses to establish the ancestral origin of the HTT pathgenic variant from a large kindred from Oman (hereafter called the OM-HD-01 pedigree) by single-nucleotide polymorphism and dense haplotype analysis genotyping. RESULTS: We traced the oldest ancestry of the largest, eight-generation, OM-HD-01 pedigree (n = 302 subjects, with 54 showing manifest HD) back to sub-Saharan Africa and identified a unique HD haplotype carried by all pedigree members, which consisted of portions of the C6 and C9 haplotypes and was carried by all affected members. Such a unique HD haplotype was of African origin and appeared to be associated with large CAG repeat expansions on average and high frequency of juvenile-onset HD. Three other families from the same area were also identified and found carrying a Caucasian HD haplotype A, also shared by most families of Arab ancestry. CONCLUSION: Mutated HTT spread into Middle East with a unique haplotype of African origin, appeared to be associated with juvenile-onset, a HD condition frequently occurring in Black Africans, and may have a significant impact on further development of novel targeted genetic therapies.

17.
J Ultrasound ; 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651770

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the diagnostic value of strain ratio elastography (SRE), a semiquantitative elastosonographic method based on the displacement of the tissue from an external source (manual compression with the transducer), as compared and in combination with conventional ultrasound for the differentiation of breast lesions. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-two patients with breast lesions consecutively underwent B-mode, color Doppler US, and strain US-elastography. Each lesion was classified according to the BI-RADS lexicon by evaluating the size, the B-mode, and color Doppler features and then evaluated by SRE. Histology proven by biopsy was used as the gold standard and the patients with malignant lesions subsequently underwent operations. The diagnostic performance of each method was assessed with 2 × 2 contingency tables and ROC curve analysis. To maximize the SRE sensitivity and specificity, the SRE cut-off value was calculated using the Youden test. RESULTS: Histological examination revealed 66 benign and 116 malignant breast lesions. The conventional ultrasound showed sensitivity and specificity for the differentiation of benign and malignant lesions of 86.2% and 75.8%, respectively. Similar results were found for strain US-elastography with a cut-off of 2.49, with sensitivity and specificity of 89.7% and 72.7%, respectively. The association of conventional ultrasound with the SRE value increased the sensitivity (98.3%) but decreased the specificity compared with conventional US alone (63.6%). CONCLUSION: Strain US-elastography can be associated with BI-RADS US examination. According to our preliminary results, it helped increase the sensitivity although it decreased the specificity. However, further multicenter studies on a larger population are warranted.

18.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(8): e1336, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Corpus callosum agenesis (ACC) is one of the most frequent Central Nervous System (CNS) malformations. However, genetics underlying isolated forms is still poorly recognized. Here, we report on two female familial cases with partial ACC. The proband shows isolated partial ACC and a mild neurodevelopmental phenotype. A fetus from a previous interrupted pregnancy exhibited a complex phenotype including partial ACC and the occurrence of a de novo 17q12 microduplication, which was interpreted as probably disease-causing. METHODS: A trio-based clinical exome sequencing (CES) was performed. RESULTS: Clinical exome sequencing data analysis led to identifying a heterozygous nonsense variant (NM_139058.3:c.922G>T; NP_620689.1:p.Glu308Ter) in the aristaless related homeobox gene (ARX) in the proband, with a putative de novo occurrence, producing a hypothetical protein lacking two essential domains. Sanger analysis confirmed the wild-type status of both parents in different tissues, and disclosed the occurrence of the nonsense variant in the fetus of the interrupted pregnancy, suggesting a formerly unrecognized contribution of the ARX mutation to the fetus' phenotype and gonadal or gonadosomatic mosaicism in one of the parents. CONCLUSION: This study describes the phenotype associated with a heterozygous loss of function variant in ARX. Moreover, it highlights the importance of investigating both chromosomal and genetic contributions in cases of complex syndromic phenotypes involving CNS.

20.
J Med Chem ; 63(13): 7392-7409, 2020 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463228

RESUMO

Cancer cells rely on the enzyme telomerase (EC 2.7.7.49) to promote cellular immortality. Telomerase inhibitors (i.e., azidothymidine) can represent promising antitumor agents, although showing high toxicity when administered alone. Better outcomes were observed within a multipharmacological approach instead. In this context, we exploited the validated antitumor targets carbonic anhydrases (CAs; EC 4.2.1.1) IX and XII to attain the first proof of concept on CA-telomerase dual-hybrid inhibitors. Compounds 1b, 7b, 8b, and 11b showed good in vitro inhibition potency against the CAs IX and XII, with KI values in the low nanomolar range, and strong antitelomerase activity in PC-3 and HT-29 cells (IC50 values ranging from 5.2 to 9.1 µM). High-resolution X-ray crystallography on selected derivatives in the adduct with hCA II as a model study allowed to determine their binding modes and thus to set the structural determinants necessary for further development of compounds selectively targeting the tumoral cells.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Telomerase/antagonistas & inibidores , Zidovudina/química , Anidrase Carbônica II/antagonistas & inibidores , Anidrase Carbônica II/química , Anidrase Carbônica II/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/química , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/metabolismo , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/farmacologia , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Reação de Cicloadição , Desenho de Fármacos , Células HT29 , Humanos , Células PC-3 , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Telomerase/genética , Telomerase/metabolismo , Triazóis/química
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