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1.
Adv Mater ; 32(25): e1902177, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32419235

RESUMO

The most active and efficient catalysts for the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) rely on platinum, a fact that increases the cost of producing hydrogen and thereby limits the widespread adoption of this fuel. Here, a metal-free organic electrocatalyst that mimics the platinum surface by implementing a high work function and incorporating hydrogen-affine hydrogen bonds is introduced. These motifs, inspired from enzymology, are deployed here as selective reaction centres. It is shown that the keto-amine hydrogen-bond motif enhances the rate-determining step in proton reduction to molecular hydrogen. The keto-amine-functionalized polymers reported herein evolve hydrogen at an overpotential of 190 mV. They share certain key properties with platinum: a similar work function and excellent electrochemical stability and chemical robustness. These properties allow the demonstration of one week of continuous HER operation without notable degradation nor delamination from the carrier electrode. Scaled continuous-flow electrolysis is reported and 1 L net molecular hydrogen is produced within less than 9 h using 2.3 mg of polymer electrocatalyst.

2.
Nature ; 581(7807): 178-183, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32405017

RESUMO

The rapid increase in global energy demand and the need to replace carbon dioxide (CO2)-emitting fossil fuels with renewable sources have driven interest in chemical storage of intermittent solar and wind energy1,2. Particularly attractive is the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to chemical feedstocks, which uses both CO2 and renewable energy3-8. Copper has been the predominant electrocatalyst for this reaction when aiming for more valuable multi-carbon products9-16, and process improvements have been particularly notable when targeting ethylene. However, the energy efficiency and productivity (current density) achieved so far still fall below the values required to produce ethylene at cost-competitive prices. Here we describe Cu-Al electrocatalysts, identified using density functional theory calculations in combination with active machine learning, that efficiently reduce CO2 to ethylene with the highest Faradaic efficiency reported so far. This Faradaic efficiency of over 80 per cent (compared to about 66 per cent for pure Cu) is achieved at a current density of 400 milliamperes per square centimetre (at 1.5 volts versus a reversible hydrogen electrode) and a cathodic-side (half-cell) ethylene power conversion efficiency of 55 ± 2 per cent at 150 milliamperes per square centimetre. We perform computational studies that suggest that the Cu-Al alloys provide multiple sites and surface orientations with near-optimal CO binding for both efficient and selective CO2 reduction17. Furthermore, in situ X-ray absorption measurements reveal that Cu and Al enable a favourable Cu coordination environment that enhances C-C dimerization. These findings illustrate the value of computation and machine learning in guiding the experimental exploration of multi-metallic systems that go beyond the limitations of conventional single-metal electrocatalysts.

3.
Nat Mater ; 19(3): 266-276, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099112

RESUMO

The electrocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR) addresses the need for storage of renewable energy in valuable carbon-based fuels and feedstocks, yet challenges remain in the improvement of electrosynthesis pathways for highly selective hydrocarbon production. To improve catalysis further, it is of increasing interest to lever synergies between heterogeneous and homogeneous approaches. Organic molecules or metal complexes adjacent to heterogeneous active sites provide additional binding interactions that may tune the stability of intermediates, improving catalytic performance by increasing Faradaic efficiency (product selectivity), as well as decreasing overpotential. We offer a forward-looking perspective on molecularly enhanced heterogeneous catalysis for CO2RR. We discuss four categories of molecularly enhanced strategies: molecular-additive-modified heterogeneous catalysts, immobilized organometallic complex catalysts, reticular catalysts and metal-free polymer catalysts. We introduce present-day challenges in molecular strategies and describe a vision for CO2RR electrocatalysis towards multi-carbon products. These strategies provide potential avenues to address the challenges of catalyst activity, selectivity and stability in the further development of CO2RR.

6.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 32(7): 1357-1366, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31251039

RESUMO

Antibacterial agents are an important tool in the prevention of bacterial infections. Inorganic materials are attractive due to their high stability under a variety of conditions compared to organic antibacterial agents. Herein tungsten oxide nanodots (WO3-x), synthesized by a simple one-pot synthetic approach, were found to exhibit strong antibacterial capabilities. The analyses with colony-forming units (CFU) showed an excellent antibacterial activity of WO3-x against both Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strains. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images revealed clear damages to the bacterial cell membranes, which was further confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations. Additionally, exposure to simulated sunlight was found to further increase the germicidal activity of WO3-x nanodots, a 30 min exposure to sunlight combined with 50 µg/mL WO3-x nanodots showed a 70% decrease in E. coli viability compared to without exposure. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) was used to elucidate the underlying mechanism of this photocatalytic activity through the generation of hydroxyl radical species. The cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and the live/dead assay were further employed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of WO3-x nanodots on eukaryotic cells, which demonstrated their general biocompatibility. In summary, our results suggest WO3-x nanodots have considerable potential in antibacterial applications, while also being biocompatible at large.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Óxidos/farmacologia , Pontos Quânticos/química , Tungstênio/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óxidos/síntese química , Óxidos/toxicidade , Pontos Quânticos/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos da radiação , Tungstênio/toxicidade
7.
Science ; 364(6438)2019 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023896

RESUMO

Electrocatalytic transformation of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water into chemical feedstocks offers the potential to reduce carbon emissions by shifting the chemical industry away from fossil fuel dependence. We provide a technoeconomic and carbon emission analysis of possible products, offering targets that would need to be met for economically compelling industrial implementation to be achieved. We also provide a comparison of the projected costs and CO2 emissions across electrocatalytic, biocatalytic, and fossil fuel-derived production of chemical feedstocks. We find that for electrosynthesis to become competitive with fossil fuel-derived feedstocks, electrical-to-chemical conversion efficiencies need to reach at least 60%, and renewable electricity prices need to fall below 4 cents per kilowatt-hour. We discuss the possibility of combining electro- and biocatalytic processes, using sequential upgrading of CO2 as a representative case. We describe the technical challenges and economic barriers to marketable electrosynthesized chemicals.

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4614, 2018 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397203

RESUMO

The electrochemical reduction of carbon monoxide is a promising approach for the renewable production of carbon-based fuels and chemicals. Copper shows activity toward multi-carbon products from CO reduction, with reaction selectivity favoring two-carbon products; however, efficient conversion of CO to higher carbon products such as n-propanol, a liquid fuel, has yet to be achieved. We hypothesize that copper adparticles, possessing a high density of under-coordinated atoms, could serve as preferential sites for n-propanol formation. Density functional theory calculations suggest that copper adparticles increase CO binding energy and stabilize two-carbon intermediates, facilitating coupling between adsorbed *CO and two-carbon intermediates to form three-carbon products. We form adparticle-covered catalysts in-situ by mediating catalyst growth with strong CO chemisorption. The new catalysts exhibit an n-propanol Faradaic efficiency of 23% from CO reduction at an n-propanol partial current density of 11 mA cm-2.

9.
Adv Mater ; 30(49): e1804867, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30302836

RESUMO

Electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction (CO2 ) is a promising technology to use renewable electricity to convert CO2 into valuable carbon-based products. For commercial-scale applications, however, the productivity and selectivity toward multi-carbon products must be enhanced. A facile surface reconstruction approach that enables tuning of CO2 -reduction selectivity toward C2+ products on a copper-chloride (CuCl)-derived catalyst is reported here. Using a novel wet-oxidation process, both the oxidation state and morphology of Cu surface are controlled, providing uniformity of the electrode morphology and abundant surface active sites. The Cu surface is partially oxidized to form an initial Cu (I) chloride layer which is subsequently converted to a Cu (I) oxide surface. High C2+ selectivity on these catalysts are demonstrated in an H-cell configuration, in which 73% Faradaic efficiency (FE) for C2+ products is reached with 56% FE for ethylene (C2 H4 ) and overall current density of 17 mA cm-2 . Thereafter, the method into a flow-cell configuration is translated, which allows operation in a highly alkaline medium for complete suppression of CH4 production. A record C2+ FE of ≈84% and a half-cell power conversion efficiency of 50% at a partial current density of 336 mA cm-2 using the reconstructed Cu catalyst are reported.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3828, 2018 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30237471

RESUMO

Copper-based materials are promising electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction. Prior studies show that the mixture of copper (I) and copper (0) at the catalyst surface enhances multi-carbon products from CO2 reduction; however, the stable presence of copper (I) remains the subject of debate. Here we report a copper on copper (I) composite that stabilizes copper (I) during CO2 reduction through the use of copper nitride as an underlying copper (I) species. We synthesize a copper-on-nitride catalyst that exhibits a Faradaic efficiency of 64 ± 2% for C2+ products. We achieve a 40-fold enhancement in the ratio of C2+ to the competing CH4 compared to the case of pure copper. We further show that the copper-on-nitride catalyst performs stable CO2 reduction over 30 h. Mechanistic studies suggest that the use of copper nitride contributes to reducing the CO dimerization energy barrier-a rate-limiting step in CO2 reduction to multi-carbon products.

11.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(36): 11378-11386, 2018 09 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30113834

RESUMO

The electrochemical carbon dioxide reduction reaction (CO2RR) produces diverse chemical species. Cu clusters with a judiciously controlled surface coordination number (CN) provide active sites that simultaneously optimize selectivity, activity, and efficiency for CO2RR. Here we report a strategy involving metal-organic framework (MOF)-regulated Cu cluster formation that shifts CO2 electroreduction toward multiple-carbon product generation. Specifically, we promoted undercoordinated sites during the formation of Cu clusters by controlling the structure of the Cu dimer, the precursor for Cu clusters. We distorted the symmetric paddle-wheel Cu dimer secondary building block of HKUST-1 to an asymmetric motif by separating adjacent benzene tricarboxylate moieties using thermal treatment. By varying materials processing conditions, we modulated the asymmetric local atomic structure, oxidation state and bonding strain of Cu dimers. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) experiments, we observed the formation of Cu clusters with low CN from distorted Cu dimers in HKUST-1 during CO2 electroreduction. These exhibited 45% C2H4 faradaic efficiency (FE), a record for MOF-derived Cu cluster catalysts. A structure-activity relationship was established wherein the tuning of the Cu-Cu CN in Cu clusters determines the CO2RR selectivity.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(37): 31225-31232, 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30129364

RESUMO

In tandem catalysis, two distinct catalytic materials are interfaced to feed the product of one reaction into the next one. This approach, analogous to enzyme cascades, can potentially be used to upgrade small molecules such as CO2 to more valuable hydrocarbons. Here, we investigate the materials chemistry of metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films grown on gold nanostructured microelectrodes (AuNMEs), focusing on the key materials chemistry challenges necessary to enable the applications of these MOF/AuNME composites in tandem catalysis. We applied two growth methods-layer-by-layer and solvothermal-to grow a variety of MOF thin films on AuNMEs and then characterized them using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The MOF@AuNME materials were then evaluated for electrocatalytic CO2 reduction. The morphology and crystallinity of the MOF thin films were examined, and it was found that MOF thin films were capable of dramatically suppressing CO production on AuNMEs and producing further-reduced carbon products such as CH4 and C2H4. This work illustrates the use of MOF thin films to tune the activity of an underlying CO2RR catalyst to produce further-reduced products.

13.
Adv Mater ; 30(38): e1802858, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091157

RESUMO

Electrochemical reduction of CO2 is a compelling route to store renewable electricity in the form of carbon-based fuels. Efficient electrochemical reduction of CO2 requires catalysts that combine high activity, high selectivity, and low overpotential. Extensive surface reconstruction of metal catalysts under high productivity operating conditions (high current densities, reducing potentials, and variable pH) renders the realization of tailored catalysts that maximize the exposure of the most favorable facets, the number of active sites, and the oxidation state all the more challenging. Earth-abundant transition metals such as tin, bismuth, and lead have been proven stable and product-specific, but exhibit limited partial current densities. Here, a strategy that employs bismuth oxyhalides as a template from which 2D bismuth-based catalysts are derived is reported. The BiOBr-templated catalyst exhibits a preferential exposure of highly active Bi ( 11¯0 ) facets. Thereby, the CO2 reduction reaction selectivity is increased to over 90% Faradaic efficiency and simultaneously stable current densities of up to 200 mA cm-2 are achieved-more than a twofold increase in the production of the energy-storage liquid formic acid compared to previous best Bi catalysts.

14.
Nat Chem ; 10(9): 974-980, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013194

RESUMO

The electrochemical reduction of CO2 to multi-carbon products has attracted much attention because it provides an avenue to the synthesis of value-added carbon-based fuels and feedstocks using renewable electricity. Unfortunately, the efficiency of CO2 conversion to C2 products remains below that necessary for its implementation at scale. Modifying the local electronic structure of copper with positive valence sites has been predicted to boost conversion to C2 products. Here, we use boron to tune the ratio of Cuδ+ to Cu0 active sites and improve both stability and C2-product generation. Simulations show that the ability to tune the average oxidation state of copper enables control over CO adsorption and dimerization, and makes it possible to implement a preference for the electrosynthesis of C2 products. We report experimentally a C2 Faradaic efficiency of 79 ± 2% on boron-doped copper catalysts and further show that boron doping leads to catalysts that are stable for in excess of ~40 hours while electrochemically reducing CO2 to multi-carbon hydrocarbons.

15.
Science ; 360(6390): 783-787, 2018 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773749

RESUMO

Carbon dioxide (CO2) electroreduction could provide a useful source of ethylene, but low conversion efficiency, low production rates, and low catalyst stability limit current systems. Here we report that a copper electrocatalyst at an abrupt reaction interface in an alkaline electrolyte reduces CO2 to ethylene with 70% faradaic efficiency at a potential of -0.55 volts versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE). Hydroxide ions on or near the copper surface lower the CO2 reduction and carbon monoxide (CO)-CO coupling activation energy barriers; as a result, onset of ethylene evolution at -0.165 volts versus an RHE in 10 molar potassium hydroxide occurs almost simultaneously with CO production. Operational stability was enhanced via the introduction of a polymer-based gas diffusion layer that sandwiches the reaction interface between separate hydrophobic and conductive supports, providing constant ethylene selectivity for an initial 150 operating hours.

16.
Adv Mater ; 30(18): e1707635, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29578268

RESUMO

The ability to release, as electrical energy, potential energy stored at the water:carbon interface is attractive, since water is abundant and available. However, many previous reports of such energy converters rely on either flowing water or specially designed ionic aqueous solutions. These requirements restrict practical application, particularly in environments with quiescent water. Here, a carbon-based chemical-to-electricity device that transfers the chemical energy to electrical form when coming into contact with quiescent deionized water is reported. The device is built using carbon nanotube yarns, oxygen content of which is modulated using oxygen plasma-treatment. When immersed in water, the device discharges electricity with a power density that exceeds 700 mW m-2 , one order of magnitude higher than the best previously published result. X-ray absorption and density functional theory studies support a mechanism of operation that relies on the polarization of sp2 hybridized carbon atoms. The devices are incorporated into a flexible fabric for powering personal electronic devices.

17.
Nat Chem ; 10(2): 149-154, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29359759

RESUMO

The efficiency with which renewable fuels and feedstocks are synthesized from electrical sources is limited at present by the sluggish oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in pH-neutral media. We took the view that generating transition-metal sites with high valence at low applied bias should improve the activity of neutral OER catalysts. Here, using density functional theory, we find that the formation energy of desired Ni4+ sites is systematically modulated by incorporating judicious combinations of Co, Fe and non-metal P. We therefore synthesized NiCoFeP oxyhydroxides and probed their oxidation kinetics with in situ soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS). In situ sXAS studies of neutral-pH OER catalysts indicate ready promotion of Ni4+ under low overpotential conditions. The NiCoFeP catalyst outperforms IrO2 and retains its performance following 100 h of operation. We showcase NiCoFeP in a membrane-free CO2 electroreduction system that achieves a 1.99 V cell voltage at 10 mA cm-2, reducing CO2 into CO and oxidizing H2O to O2 with a 64% electricity-to-chemical-fuel efficiency.

18.
Nature ; 552(7683): 23-27, 2017 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29219978
19.
Sci Adv ; 3(8): e1700686, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28798958

RESUMO

Selective electrocatalysts are urgently needed for carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction to replace fossil fuels with renewable fuels, thereby closing the carbon cycle. To date, noble metals have achieved the best performance in energy yield and faradaic efficiency and have recently reached impressive electrical-to-chemical power conversion efficiencies. However, the scarcity of precious metals makes the search for scalable, metal-free, CO2 reduction reaction (CO2RR) catalysts all the more important. We report an all-organic, that is, metal-free, electrocatalyst that achieves impressive performance comparable to that of best-in-class Ag electrocatalysts. We hypothesized that polydopamine-a conjugated polymer whose structure incorporates hydrogen-bonded motifs found in enzymes-could offer the combination of efficient electrical conduction, together with rendered active catalytic sites, and potentially thereby enable CO2RR. Only by developing a vapor-phase polymerization of polydopamine were we able to combine the needed excellent conductivity with thin film-based processing. We achieve catalytic performance with geometric current densities of 18 mA cm-2 at 0.21 V overpotential (-0.86 V versus normal hydrogen electrode) for the electrosynthesis of C1 species (carbon monoxide and formate) with continuous 16-hour operation at >80% faradaic efficiency. Our catalyst exhibits lower overpotentials than state-of-the-art formate-selective metal electrocatalysts (for example, 0.5 V for Ag at 18 mA cm-1). The results confirm the value of exploiting hydrogen-bonded sequences as effective catalytic centers for renewable and cost-efficient industrial CO2RR applications.

20.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(27): 9359-9363, 2017 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28660764

RESUMO

Using renewable energy to recycle CO2 provides an opportunity to both reduce net CO2 emissions and synthesize fuels and chemical feedstocks. It is of central importance to design electrocatalysts that both are efficient and can access a tunable spectrum of products. Syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen (H2), is an important chemical precursor that can be converted downstream into small molecules or larger hydrocarbons by fermentation or thermochemistry. Many processes that utilize syngas require different syngas compositions: we therefore pursued the rational design of a family of electrocatalysts that can be programmed to synthesize different designer syngas ratios. We utilize in situ surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and first-principles density functional theory calculations to develop a systematic picture of CO* binding on Cu-enriched Au surface model systems. Insights from these model systems are then translated to nanostructured electrocatalysts, whereby controlled Cu enrichment enables tunable syngas production while maintaining current densities greater than 20 mA/cm2.

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