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1.
Environ Res ; 178: 108683, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539823

RESUMO

As a consequence of their unique characteristics, the use of Engineered Nanomaterials (ENMs) is rapidly increasing in industrial, agricultural products, as well as in environmental technology. However, this fast expansion and use make likely their release into the environment with particular concerns for the aquatic ecosystems, which tend to be the ultimate sink for this type of contaminants. Considering the settling behaviour of particulates, benthic organisms are more likely to be exposed to these compounds. In this way, the present review aims to summarise the most recent data available from the literature on ENMs behaviour and fate in aquatic ecosystems, focusing on their ecotoxicological impacts towards marine and estuarine bivalves. The selection of ENMs presented here was based on the OECD's Working Party on Manufactured Nanomaterials (WPMN), which involves the safety testing and risk assessment of ENMs. Physical-chemical characteristics and properties, applications, environmental relevant concentrations and behaviour in aquatic environment, as well as their toxic impacts towards marine bivalves are discussed. Moreover, it is also identified the impacts derived from the simultaneous exposure of marine organisms to ENMs and climate changes as an ecologically relevant scenario.

2.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 54(11): 883-891, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311415

RESUMO

The characterization of soluble cholinesterases (ChEs) together with carboxylesterases (CEs) in Ficopomatus enigmaticus as suitable biomarkers of neurotoxicity was the main aim of this study. ChEs of F. enigmaticus were characterized considering enzymatic activity, substrate affinity (acetyl-, butyryl-, propionylthiocholine), kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) and in vitro response to model inhibitors (eserine hemisulfate, iso-OMPA, BW284C51), and carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl, aldicarb, and carbaryl). CEs were characterized based on enzymatic activity, kinetic parameters and in vitro response to carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl, aldicarb, and carbaryl). Results showed that cholinesterases from F. enigmaticus showed a substrate preference for acetylthiocholine followed by propionylthiocholine; butyrylthioline was not hydrolyzed differently from other Annelida species. CE activity was in the same range of cholinesterase activity with acetylthiocholine as substrate; the enzyme activity showed high affinity for the substrate p-nytrophenyl butyrate. Carbamates inhibited ChE activity with propionylthiocholine as substrate to a higher extent than with acetylthiocoline. Also CE activity was inhibited by all tested carbamates except carbaryl. In vitro data highlighted the presence of active forms of ChEs and CEs in F. enigmaticus that could potentially be inhibited by pesticides at environmentally relevant concentration.


Assuntos
Anelídeos/enzimologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Colinesterases/química , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Animais , Anelídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores/química , Carbamatos/química , Carbaril/química , Carbaril/toxicidade , Carbofurano/química , Carbofurano/toxicidade , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/antagonistas & inibidores , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/química , Hidrolases de Éster Carboxílico/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Cinética , Metomil/química , Metomil/toxicidade , Neurotoxinas/química
3.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(20): 20742-20752, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104242

RESUMO

Although the increased production of nanoparticles (NPs) has raised extensive concerns about the potential toxic effects on aquatic organisms, as well as the increasing evidences which documented the impact of ocean acidification (OA) on the physiology and fitness of marine invertebrates, limited number of studies reported their combined toxic effects. For these reasons, in the present study, we investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of one of the most economically important bivalve species in the World, the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, after the exposure to an environmnetally relevant concentration of carboxylated carbon nanotubes and predicted OA conditions. The results showed that the organisms were not only susceptible to NPs but also to seawater acidification. Different responses between low pH and NPs for most tested biomarkers were observed, both in terms of physiological (respiration rate) and biochemical responses (metabolic capacity, oxitative status and neurotoxicity). Acidified pH significantly decreased the respiration rate and metabolism and increased the energy reserves consumption. Moreover, increase of the oxidative damage was also detected under this condition confirming that the mechanism of enhanced toxicity in the organisms should be attributed to lower aggregation state with more suspended NPs in acidified seawater, indicating that seawater acidification significantly influenced the impact of the used NPs in the exposed organisms.


Assuntos
Bivalves/fisiologia , Ácidos Carboxílicos/toxicidade , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Bivalves/metabolismo , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Estresse Oxidativo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 666: 1178-1187, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970483

RESUMO

Ocean acidification events are recognized as important drivers of change in biological systems. Particularly, the impacts of acidification are more severe in estuarine systems than in surface ocean due to their shallowness, low buffering capacity, low salinity and high organic matter from land drainage. Moreover, because they are transitional areas, estuaries can be seriously impacted by a vast number of anthropogenic activities and in the last decades, carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) are considered as emerging contaminants in these ecosystems. Considering all these evidences, chronic experiment was carried out, trying to understand the possible alteration on the chemical behaviour of two different CNMs (functionalized and pristine) in predicted climate change scenarios and consequently, how these alterations could modify the sensitivity of one the most common marine and estuarine organisms (the polychaeta Hediste diversicolor) assessing a set of biomarkers related to polychaetes oxidative status as well as the metabolic performance and neurotoxicity. Our results demonstrated that all enzymes worked together to counteract seawater acidification and CNMs, however oxidative stress in the exposed polychaetes to both CNMs, especially under ocean acidification conditions, was enhanced. In fact, although the antioxidant enzymes tried to cope as compensatory response of cellular defense systems against oxidative stress, the synergistic interactive effects of pH and functionalized CNMs indicated that acidified pH significantly increased the oxidative damage (in terms of lipid peroxidation) in the cotaminated organisms. Different responses were observed in organisms submitted to pristine CNMs under pH control, where the lipid peroxidation did not increase along with the increasing exposure concentrations. The present results further demonstrated neurotoxicity caused by both CNMs, especially noticeable at acidified conditions. The mechanism of enhanced toxicity could be attributed to slighter aggregation and more suspended NMs in acidified seawater (as demonstrated by the DLS analysis). Therefore, ocean acidification may cause a higher risk of CNMs to marine ecosystems.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Água do Mar/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Estresse Oxidativo , Poliquetos/fisiologia , Portugal
5.
Mar Environ Res ; 145: 11-21, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30771907

RESUMO

With the increased production and research on nanoparticles, the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in aquatic systems is very likely to increase. Although it has been shown that CNTs may cause toxicity in marine organisms, to our knowledge, the possible impacts under global temperature increase is still unknown. For this reason, biochemical and physiological impacts induced in Mytilus galloprovincialis due to the presence of functionalized multi-walled CNTs (f-MWCNTs) and increased temperature were investigated in the present study. The mussels exposed to increased temperature alone presented higher metabolic capacity and expenditure of glycogen as an energy resource to fuel up defense mechanisms and thus preventing oxidative damage. Contrarily, organisms exposed to f-MWCNTs alone seemed not stressed enough to demonstrate differences in the metabolism capacity. Furthermore, f-MWCNTs seemed not able to significantly activate their antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes, which in turn may led to oxidative damage in the cells especially when organisms were exposed to a warmer temperature. In fact, at higher temperature, the antioxidant response of organisms exposed to f-MWCNTs was not effective and oxidative damage levels were observed. Nevertheless, no additive or synergetic effects were observed when mussels were exposed to both stressors simultaneously.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30797982

RESUMO

The widespread use of Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been increasing exponentially, leading to a significant potential release into the environment. Nevertheless, the toxic effects of CNTs in natural aquatic systems are related to their ability to interact with abiotic compounds. Considering that salinity variations are one of the main challenges in the environment and thus may influence the behavior and toxicity of CNTs, a laboratory experiment was performed exposing the tube-building polychaete Diopatra neapolitana (Delle Chiaje 1841) for 28 days to pristine multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) and carboxylated MWCNTs, maintained at control salinity 28 and low salinity 21. An innovative approach based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was adopted for the first time to assess the presence of MWCNTs aggregates in the organisms. Both CNTs generated toxic impacts in terms of regenerative capacity, energy reserves and metabolic capacity as well as oxidative and neuro status, however greater toxic impacts were observed in polychaetes exposed to carboxylated MWCNTs. Moreover, both CNTs maintained under control salinity (28) generated higher toxic impacts in the polychaetes compared to individuals maintained under low salinity (21), indicating that exposed polychaetes tend to be more sensitive to the alteration induced by salinity variations on the chemical behavior of both MWCNTs in comparison to salt stress.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Estresse Oxidativo , Termogravimetria , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
7.
Mar Environ Res ; 143: 1-9, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420134

RESUMO

In recent years, oxidative stress has been recognized as one of the most common effects of nanoparticles in different organisms. Ficopomatus enigmaticus (Fauvel, 1923), a member of a large family of serpulidae polychates, is an important encrusting organism in a diverse set of marine habitats, from harbours to coral reefs. This species has been previously studied for ecotoxicological purposes, despite the lack of reported studies on this species biochemical response after exposure to different pollutants. For these reasons, and for the first time, a set of biomarkers related to oxidative status were assessed in polychaetes after 28 days of exposure. Furthermore, polychaetes metabolic performance and potential neurotoxicity were investigated. Results clearly demonstrated induced toxicity in the filter-feeder polychaetes after exposure to nanoparticles. Indeed, CNTs altered the biochemical and physiological status of F. enigmaticus, both in terms of energy reserves (reduction of protein and glycogen contents), oxidative status (expressed as damage in cell function such as protein carbonyl content and lipid peroxidation) and activation of antioxidant enzymes defences (Glutathione reductase, Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase and Glutathione S-transferases activities). The present study showed for the first time that this species can be used as a model organism for nanoparticle toxicology.

8.
Sci Total Environ ; 647: 431-440, 2019 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30086495

RESUMO

Intertidal mussel species are frequently exposed to changes of environmental parameters related to tidal regimes that include a multitude of stressors that they must avoid or tolerate by developing adaptive strategies. In particular, besides air exposure during low tides, intertidal mussels are also subjected to warming and, consequently, to higher risk of desiccation. However, scarce information is available regarding the responses of mussels to tidal regimes, particularly in the presence of other stressors such as increased temperature. Investigating the impacts of such combination of conditions will allow to understand the possible impacts that both factors interaction may generate to these intertidal organisms. To this end, the present study evaluated the impacts of different temperatures (18 °C and 21 °C) on Mytilus galloprovincialis when continuously submersed or exposed to a tidal regime for 14 days. Results showed that in mussels exposed to increased temperature under submersion conditions, the stress induced was enough to activate mussels' antioxidant defenses (namely glutathione peroxidase, GPx), preventing oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation, LPO; protein carbonylation, PC). In mussels exposed to tides at control temperature, metabolic capacity increased (electron transport system activity, ETS), and GPx was induced, despite resulting in increased LPO levels. Moreover, the combination of tides and temperature increase led to a significant decrease of lipid (LIP) content, activation of antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase, SOD; GPx) and increase of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), despite these mechanisms were not sufficient to prevent increased cellular damage. Therefore, the combination of increased temperature and air exposure induced higher oxidative stress in mussels. These findings indicate that increasing global warming could be more impacting to intertidal organisms compared to organisms continuously submersed. Furthermore, our results indicate that air exposure can act as a confounding factor when assessing the impacts of different stressors in organisms living in coastal systems.


Assuntos
Mytilus/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura , Ar , Animais , Biomarcadores , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Estresse Oxidativo , Poluentes Químicos da Água
9.
Mar Environ Res ; 141: 186-195, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201273

RESUMO

Salinity plays a fundamental role in naturally fluctuating environments such as estuaries influencing physiological and biochemical performance of inhabiting biota. Moreover salinity is considered one of the main factors influencing nanoparticles' stability. Thus, the aim of the present paper was to show the impacts induced by different salinities (control-28 and 21) on the chemical behavior of water dispersible multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs-COOH) and the consequent toxicity in the common ragworm Hediste diversicolor, after long term exposure. Results showed a concentration-dependent toxicity in terms of energy reserves and metabolism, oxidative status and neurotoxicity. In addition, under low salinity (21), the toxicity of the carbon NMs was similar to the impacts measured under control (28), although under salinity 28 the concentrations of MWCNTs-COOH used generated greater alterations in LPO levels and antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx). These results demonstrate that higher salinity caused the formation of large-size aggregates, which increased the chance of physical retention, such as gravitational sedimentation, interception and straining of f-MWCNTs generating higher cell injuries than the impacts induced in polychaetes sensitivity to these contaminates due to low salinity.

10.
Aquat Toxicol ; 202: 163-172, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30048902

RESUMO

Intertidal species are frequently exposed to environmental changes associated with multiple stressors, which they must either avoid or tolerate by developing physiological and biochemical strategies. Some of the natural environmental changes are related with the tidal cycle which forces organisms to tolerate the differences between an aquatic and an aerial environment. Furthermore, in these environments, organisms are also subjected to pollutants from anthropogenic sources. The present study evaluated the impacts in Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (0.01 mg/L MWCNTs) when continuously submersed or exposed to tides (5 h of low tide, 7 h of high tide) for 14 days. Our results demonstrated that mussels were physiologically and biochemically affected by MWCNTs, especially when exposed to tides. In fact, when only exposed to the carbon nanoparticles or only exposed to tides, the stress induced was not enough to activate mussels' antioxidant defenses which resulted in oxidative damage. However, when mussels were exposed to the combination of tides and MWCNTs increased metabolism was observed, associated with a possible higher production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to a significant increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and glutathione peroxide, GPx) and oxidized glutathione content (GSSG), preventing the occurrence of cellular damage, expressed as no lipid peroxidation (LPO) or protein carbonylation (PC). Therefore, organisms seemed to be able to tolerate MWCNTs and air exposure during tidal regime; however, the combination of both stressors induced higher oxidative stress. These findings indicate that the increasing presence of carbon nanoparticles in marine ecosystems can induce higher toxic impacts in intertidal organisms compared to organisms continuously submerged. Also, our results may indicate that air exposure can act as a cofounding factor on the assessment of different stressors in organisms living in coastal systems.


Assuntos
Mytilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Glutationa/metabolismo , Mytilus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mytilus/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 8571, 2018 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872071

RESUMO

Salinity shifts in estuarine and coastal areas are becoming a topic of concern and are one of the main factors influencing nanoparticles behaviour in the environment. For this reason, the impacts of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) under different seawater salinity conditions were evaluated on the common ragworm Hediste diversicolor, a polychaete species widely used as bioindicator of estuarine environmental quality. An innovative method to assess the presence of MWCNT aggregates in the sediments was used for the first time. Biomarkers approach was used to evaluate the metabolic capacity, oxidative status and neurotoxicity of polychaetes after long-term exposure. The results revealed an alteration of energy-related responses in contaminated polychaetes under both salinity conditions, resulting in an increase of metabolism and expenditure of their energy reserves (lower glycogen and protein contents). Moreover, a concentration-dependent toxicity (higher lipid peroxidation, lower ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione and activation of antioxidant defences and biotransformation mechanisms) was observed in H. diversicolor, especially when exposed to low salinity. Additionally, neurotoxicity was observed by inhibition of Cholinesterases activity in organisms exposed to MWCNTs at both salinities.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Poliquetos/fisiologia , Salinidade , Água do Mar/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poliquetos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 358: 484-493, 2018 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29908840

RESUMO

Although an increasing number of studies have been published on the effects of emergent pollutants such as carbon nanoparticles, there is still scarce information on the impact of these contaminants on marine organisms when acting in combination with classical pollutants such as meta(loid)s. The present study evaluated the impacts of Arsenic and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum, assessing the effects induced when both contaminants were acting individually (As, NP) and as a mixture (As + NP). Metabolic capacity (electron transport system activity), oxidative stress (antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes activity and cellular damage) and neurotoxicity (Acetylcholinesterase activity) biomarkers were evaluated in clams after a 28 days exposure period. The results obtained showed that the accumulation of As was not affected by the presence of the NPs. Our results demonstrated that higher injuries were noticed in clams exposed to NPs, with higher metabolic depression and oxidative stress, regardless of the presence of As. Furthermore, higher neurotoxicity was observed in clams exposed to the combination of both contaminants in comparison to the effects of As and NPs individually.


Assuntos
Arseniatos/toxicidade , Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arseniatos/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Bivalves/metabolismo , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 631-632: 1440-1456, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727968

RESUMO

Due to unique chemical and physical properties, nanomaterials from the Graphene family are being increasingly introduced in all fields of science. The specific roles they can occupy within different applications are attracting increased attention by several industrial sectors. These carbon nanoparticles are released into the environment especially accumulating in aquatic systems. Since the discovery of graphene, a number of research actives are being conducted to find out the toxic potential of the Graphene family materials to different organism's models. Although their toxicity effects are well described for biomedical applications, few data were produced with the specific aim of assessing the toxic effects of these carbon nanomaterials in the aquatic environment. The purpose of this review is to compile up-to-date information on properties, applications and characterization methods of graphene family materials in aquatic environments and identified biological toxic impacts of these NMs, with special focus on graphene oxide based on the most recent literature.

14.
Aquat Toxicol ; 199: 199-211, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29655118

RESUMO

The toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is closely related to their physico-chemical characteristics as well as the physico-chemical parameters of the media where CNTs are dispersed. In a climate change scenario, changes in seawater salinity are becoming a topic of concern particularly in estuarine and coastal areas. Nevertheless, to our knowledge no information is available on how salinity shifts may alter the sensitivity (in terms of biochemical responses) of bivalves when exposed to different CNTs. For this reason, a laboratory experiment was performed exposing the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, one of the most dominant bivalves of the estuarine and coastal lagoon environments, for 28 days to unfunctionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube MWCNTs (Nf-MWCNTs) and carboxylated MWCNTs (f-MWCNTs), maintained at control salinity (28) and low salinity 21. Concentration-dependent toxicity was demonstrated in individuals exposed to both MWCNT materials and under both salinities, generating alterations of energy reserves and metabolism, oxidative status and neurotoxicity compared to non-contaminated clams. Moreover, our results showed greater toxic impacts induced in clams exposed to f-MWCNTs compared to Nf-MWCNTs. In the present study it was also demonstrated how salinity shifts altered the toxicity of both MWCNT materials as well as the sensitivity of R. philippinarum exposed to these contaminates in terms of clam metabolism, oxidative status and neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Mudança Climática , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Salinidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biotransformação/efeitos dos fármacos , Bivalves/enzimologia , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Multivariada , Nanotubos de Carbono/ultraestrutura , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Água do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 622-623: 1532-1542, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29056376

RESUMO

Despite of the large array of available carbon nanotube (CNT) configurations that allow different industrial and scientific applications of these nanoparticles, their impacts on aquatic organisms, especially on invertebrate species, are still limited. To our knowledge, no information is available on how surface chemistry alteration (functionalization) of CNTs may impact the toxicity of these NPs to bivalve species after a chronic exposure. For this reason, the impacts induced by chronic exposure (28days) to unfunctionalized MWCNTs (Nf-MWCNTs) in comparison with functionalized MWCNTs (f-MWCNTs), were evaluated in R. philippinarum, by measuring alterations induced in clams' oxidative status, neurotoxicity and metabolic capacity. The results obtained revealed that exposure to both MWCNT materials altered energy-related responses, with higher metabolic capacity and lower glycogen, protein and lipid concentrations in clams exposed to these CNTs. Moreover, R. philippinarum exposed to Nf-MWCNTs and f-MWCNTs showed oxidative stress expressed in higher lipid peroxidation and lower ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione, despite the activation of defense mechanisms (superoxide-dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferases) in exposed clams. Additionally, neurotoxicity was observed by inhibition of Cholinesterases activity in organisms exposed to both MWCNTs.


Assuntos
Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo
16.
Aquat Toxicol ; 187: 38-47, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28364639

RESUMO

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are one of the most important carbon Nanoparticles (NPs). The production and use of these NPs are increasing rapidly and, therefore, the need to assess their presence in the environment and associated risks has become of prime importance. Recent studies demonstrated the impacts of different NPs on bivalves, a taxonomic group where species tolerance to anthropogenic stressors, such as pollutants, is widely variable. The Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is one of the most commonly used bivalve species in environmental monitoring studies and ecotoxicology tests, however, to our knowledge, no information is available on biochemical alterations on this species due to MWCNTs exposure. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of different MWCNT concentrations (0.01; 0.10 and 1.00mg/L) in R. philippinarum biochemical (energy reserves, metabolic capacity, oxidative status and neurotoxicity) performance, after 28days of exposure. The results obtained revealed that exposure to MWCNTs altered energy-related responses, with higher metabolic capacity and lower glycogen and protein concentrations in clams exposed to these carbon NPs. Moreover, R. philippinarum exposed to MWCNTs showed oxidative stress expressed in higher lipid peroxidation and lower ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione, despite the activation of defence mechanisms in exposed clams. Additionally, neurotoxicity was observed by inhibition of cholinesterases activity in organisms exposed to MWCNTs. The present study provides valuable information regarding how these emerging pollutans could become a potential risk for the environment and living organisms.


Assuntos
Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Bivalves/metabolismo , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 595: 691-701, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28407586

RESUMO

The present study evaluated the impacts of predicted seawater acidification and Hg pollution, when stressors were acting alone and in combination, on the polychaete Hediste diversicolor. Polychaetes were exposed during 28days to low pH (7.5), Hg (5µg/L) and pH7.5+Hg, and physiological alterations (respiration rate), biochemical markers related to metabolic potential (glycogen and protein content, electron transport system activity) and oxidative status (activity of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes, lipid peroxidation) were evaluated. The results obtained clearly showed that polychaetes were sensitive to low pH and Hg contamination, both acting alone or in combination. Organisms used their energy reserves under stressful conditions, which decreased by up to half of the control content, probably to fuel defence mechanisms. Our findings further demonstrated that polychaetes exposed to these stressors presented increased antioxidant defence mechanisms (3 fold compared to control). However, organisms were not able to prevent cellular damage, especially noticed at Hg exposure and pH7.5. Overall, although all the tested conditions induced oxidative stress in Hediste diversicolor, the combined effect of seawater acidification and Hg contamination did not induce higher impacts in polychaetes than single stressor exposures. These findings may indicate that predicted climate change scenarios may not increase Hediste diversicolor sensitivity towards Hg and may not significantly change the toxicity of this contaminant to this polychaete species.

18.
Environ Res ; 154: 126-138, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28063369

RESUMO

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are one of the most important carbon Nanomaterials (NMs). The production and use of these carbon NMs is increasing rapidly and, therefore, the need to assess their presence in the environment and associated risks has become increasingly important. However, limited literature is available regarding the impacts induced in aquatic organisms by this pollutant, namely in invertebrate species. Diopatra neapolitana and Hediste diversicolor are keystone polychaete species inhabiting estuaries and shallow water bodies intertidal mudflats, frequently used to evaluate the impact of environmental disturbances in these systems. To our knowledge, no information is available on physiological and biochemical alterations on these two species due to MWCNTs exposure. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of different MWCNTs concentrations (0.01; 0.10 and 1.00mg/L) in both species physiological (regenerative capacity and respiration rate) and biochemical (energy reserves, metabolic activities, oxidative stress related biomarkers and neurotoxicity markers) performance, after 28 days of exposure. The results obtained revealed that exposure to MWCNTs induced negative effects on the regenerative capacity of D. neapolitana. Additionally, higher MWCNTs concentrations induced increased respiration rates in D. neapolitana. MWCNTs altered energy-related responses, with higher values of electron transport system activity, glycogen and protein concentrations in both polychaetes exposed to this contaminant. Furthermore, when exposed to MWCNTs both species showed oxidative stress with higher lipid peroxidation, lower ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione, and higher activity of antioxidant (catalase and superoxide dismutase) and biotransformation (glutathione-S-transferases) enzymes in exposed organisms.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono/toxicidade , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poliquetos/fisiologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Enzimas/metabolismo , Análise Multivariada , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Regeneração/efeitos dos fármacos , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28111252

RESUMO

Graphene oxide (GO) is an important carbon nanomaterial (NM) that has been used, but limited literature is available regarding the impacts induced in aquatic organisms by this pollutant and, in particular in invertebrate species. The polychaete Diopatra neapolitana has frequently been used to evaluate the effects of environmental disturbances in estuarine systems due to its ecological and socio-economic importance but to our knowledge no information is available on D. neapolitana physiological and biochemical alterations due to GO exposure. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of different concentrations of GO (0.01; 0.10 and 1.00mg/L) in D. neapolitana physiological (regenerative capacity) and biochemical (energy reserves, metabolic activity and oxidative stress related biomarkers) performance, after 28days of exposure. The results obtained revealed that the exposure to GO induced negative effects on the regenerative capacity of D. neapolitana, with organisms exposed to higher concentrations regenerating less segments and taking longer periods to completely regenerate. GO also seemed to alter energy-related responses, especially glycogen content, with higher values in polychaetes exposed to GO which may result from a decreased metabolism (measured by electron transport system activity), when exposed to GO. Furthermore, under GO contamination D. neapolitana presented cellular damage, despite higher activities of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes in individuals exposed to GO.


Assuntos
Grafite/toxicidade , Óxidos/toxicidade , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biotransformação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Poliquetos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27777085

RESUMO

Cholinesterases of Diopatra neapolitana were characterized for their activity in whole body and different body segments (apical, intermediate, posterior), substrate affinity (acetyl-, butyryl-, propionylthiocholine), kinetic parameters (Km and Vmax) and in vitro response to model inhibitors (eserine hemisulfate, isoOMPA, BW284C51) and carbamates (carbofuran, methomyl, aldicarb and carbaryl). Results showed that the rate of hydrolysis for acetyl- and propionylthiocholine was higher in the posterior segment than the apical/intermediate segments and whole body. Cholinesterases of D. neapolitana showed a substrate preference for acetylthiocholine followed by propionylthiocholine; butyrylthioline was poorly hydrolyzed indicating, together with the absence of inhibition by the specific inhibitor and the absence of reactive bands in native electrophoresis, a lack of an active butyrylcholinesterase, differently than that observed in other Annelida species. The degree of inhibition by selected carbamates of cholinesterase activity with propionylthiocholine as substrate was higher than that observed with ATChI-ChE activity; aldicarb showed the highest inhibitory effect.


Assuntos
Carbamatos/toxicidade , Inibidores da Colinesterase/toxicidade , Colinesterases/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Poliquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hidrólise , Cinética , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida Nativa , Poliquetos/enzimologia , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura
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