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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5006, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408135

RESUMO

Obesity is a strong risk factor for cancer progression, posing obesity-related cancer as one of the leading causes of death. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms that endow cancer cells with metastatic properties in patients affected by obesity remain unexplored.Here, we show that IL-6 and HGF, secreted by tumor neighboring visceral adipose stromal cells (V-ASCs), expand the metastatic colorectal (CR) cancer cell compartment (CD44v6 + ), which in turn secretes neurotrophins such as NGF and NT-3, and recruits adipose stem cells within tumor mass. Visceral adipose-derived factors promote vasculogenesis and the onset of metastatic dissemination by activation of STAT3, which inhibits miR-200a and enhances ZEB2 expression, effectively reprogramming CRC cells into a highly metastatic phenotype. Notably, obesity-associated tumor microenvironment provokes a transition in the transcriptomic expression profile of cells derived from the epithelial consensus molecular subtype (CMS2) CRC patients towards a mesenchymal subtype (CMS4). STAT3 pathway inhibition reduces ZEB2 expression and abrogates the metastatic growth sustained by adipose-released proteins. Together, our data suggest that targeting adipose factors in colorectal cancer patients with obesity may represent a therapeutic strategy for preventing metastatic disease.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Reprogramação Celular , Neoplasias do Colo/fisiopatologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/citologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/genética , Fator de Crescimento de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Metástase Neoplásica , Células-Tronco/citologia , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/genética , Homeobox 2 de Ligação a E-box com Dedos de Zinco/metabolismo
2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(16)2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34439086

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality is mainly caused by patient refractoriness to common anti-cancer therapies and consequent metastasis formation. Besides, the notorious toxic side effects of chemotherapy are a concurrent obstacle to be tackled. Thus, new treatment approaches are needed to effectively improve patient outcomes. Compelling evidence demonstrated that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for treatment failure and relapse. New natural treatment approaches showed capabilities to selectively target the CSC subpopulation by rendering them targetable by standard cytotoxic compounds. Herein we show the anti-cancer properties of the polymethoxyflavones and prenylflavonoids extracted from Citrus sinensis and Humulus lupulus, respectively. The natural biofunctional fractions, singularly and in combination, reduced the cell viability of CRC stem cells (CR-CSCs) and synergized with 5-fluorouracil and oxaliplatin (FOX) chemotherapy. These phenomena were accompanied by a reduced S and G2/M phase of the cell cycle and upregulation of cell death-related genes. Notably, both phytoextracts in combination with FOX thwarted stemness features in CR-CSCs as demonstrated by the impaired clonogenic potential and decreased Wnt pathway activation. Extracts lowered the expression of CD44v6 and affected the expansion of metastatic CR-CSCs in patients refractory to chemotherapy. Together, this study highlights the importance of polymethoxyflavones and prenylflavonoids as natural remedies to aid oncological therapies.

3.
J Thorac Oncol ; 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450259

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The connection between driver mutations and efficacy of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) is the focus of intense investigations. In lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), KEAP1/STK11 alterations have been tied to immunoresistance. Nevertheless, the heterogeneity characterizing immunotherapy efficacy suggests the contribution of still unappreciated events. METHODS: Somatic interaction analysis of top-ranking mutant genes in LUAD was carried out in the AARC project GENIE (N=6208). Mutational processes, intratumor heterogeneity, evolutionary trajectories, immunological features and cancer-associated signatures were investigated exploiting multiple datasets (AACR GENIE, TCGA, TRACERx). The impact of the proposed subtyping on survival outcomes was assessed in two independent cohorts of ICI-treated patients: the tissue-based sequencing cohort (Rome/MSKCC/DFCI, tNGS cohort, N=343) and the blood-based sequencing cohort (OAK/POPLAR trials, bNGS cohort, N=304). RESULTS: Observing the neutral interaction between KEAP1 and TP53, KEAP1/TP53-based subtypes were dissected at the molecular and clinical level. KEAP1 single-mutant (KEAP1 SM) and KEAP1/TP53 double-mutant (KEAP1/TP53 DM) LUAD share a transcriptomic profile characterized by AKR gene overexpression, which are under the control of a productive super-enhancer with NEF2L2-binding signals. Nevertheless, KEAP1 SM and KEAP1/TP53 DM tumors differ by mutational repertoire, degree of intratumor heterogeneity, evolutionary trajectories, pathway-level signatures and immune microenvironment composition. In both cohorts (bNGS and tNGS), KEAP1 SM tumors had the shortest survival, the KEAP1/TP53 DM subgroup had intermediate prognosis matching that of pure TP53 LUAD, whereas the longest survival was noticed in the double-wild-type group. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide a framework for genomically-informed immunotherapy, highlighting the importance of multi-modal data integration to achieve a clinically exploitable taxonomy.

4.
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413153

RESUMO

QUESTION: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is due to pathogenic variants in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene. Recent improvement enabled pharmacologic therapy aiming at restoring mutated CFTR expression and function. CFTR "modulators" have revolutionised the CF therapeutic landscape, particularly the last approved Trikafta. This drug-combination is indicated by FDA and very recently by EMA for genotypes carrying at least one copy of CFTR with F508del pathogenic variant. However, several genotypes, are not eligible for Trikafta treatment, yet. MATERIALS/PATIENTS AND METHODS: We exploited an innovative cellular approach allowing highly efficient in vitro-expansion of airway epithelial stem cells (AESC) through conditional reprogramming (CRC) from nasal brushing of CF patients. This approach, coupled to development of AESC-derived personalised disease models, as organoids and air liquid interface (ALI) cultures, revealed highly suitable for CFTR pharmacological-testing. RESULTS AND ANSWER TO THE QUESTION: We fully validated the experimental models and implemented the CFTR functional assays and biochemical CFTR protein characterisation, that allowed to evaluate the efficacy of clinically available modulators in restoring CFTR maturation and function of each patient-derived "avatar" (theratyping). F508del homozygous genotypes, used as controls, confirmed the higher clinical activity of Trikafta in comparison with older modulators. Trikafta showed its efficacy also on three rare genotypes previously not eligible for modulators-treatment, opening the way to clinical translation. Finally, encouraging results for innovative drug combinations were also obtained.

5.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(7): 636, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155195

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their cargo represent an intriguing source of cancer biomarkers for developing robust and sensitive molecular tests by liquid biopsy. Prostate cancer (PCa) is still one of the most frequent and deadly tumor in men and analysis of EVs from biological fluids of PCa patients has proven the feasibility and the unprecedented potential of such an approach. Here, we exploited an antibody-based proteomic technology, i.e. the Reverse-Phase Protein microArrays (RPPA), to measure key antigens and activated signaling in EVs isolated from sera of PCa patients. Notably, we found tumor-specific protein profiles associated with clinical settings as well as candidate markers for EV-based tumor diagnosis. Among others, PD-L1, ERG, Integrin-ß5, Survivin, TGF-ß, phosphorylated-TSC2 as well as partners of the MAP-kinase and mTOR pathways emerged as differentially expressed endpoints in tumor-derived EVs. In addition, the retrospective analysis of EVs from a 15-year follow-up cohort generated a protein signature with prognostic significance. Our results confirm that serum-derived EV cargo may be exploited to improve the current diagnostic procedures while providing potential prognostic and predictive information. The approach proposed here has been already applied to tumor entities other than PCa, thus proving its value in translational medicine and paving the way to innovative, clinically meaningful tools.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Proteoma , Proteômica , Adulto , Idoso , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Vesículas Extracelulares/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Neoplasias da Próstata/ultraestrutura , Análise Serial de Proteínas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067349

RESUMO

Europe is experiencing a third wave of COVID-19 due to the spread of highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants. A number of positive and negative factors constantly shape the rates of COVID-19 infections, hospitalization, and mortality. Among these factors, the rise in increasingly transmissible variants on one side and the effect of vaccinations on the other side create a picture deeply different from that of the first pandemic wave. Starting from the observation that in several European countries the number of COVID-19 infections in the second and third pandemic wave increased without a proportional rise in disease severity and mortality, we hypothesize the existence of an additional factor influencing SARS-CoV-2 dynamics. This factor consists of an immune defence against severe COVID-19, provided by SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells progressively developing upon natural exposure to low virus doses present in populated environments. As suggested by recent studies, low-dose viral particles entering the respiratory and intestinal tracts may be able to induce T cell memory in the absence of inflammation, potentially resulting in different degrees of immunization. In this scenario, non-pharmaceutical interventions would play a double role, one in the short term by reducing the detrimental spreading of SARS-CoV-2 particles, and one in the long term by allowing the development of a widespread (although heterogeneous and uncontrollable) form of immune protection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Memória Imunológica
7.
iScience ; 24(6): 102664, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169240

RESUMO

Limited therapeutic options are available for advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). Herein, we report that exposure to a neo-synthetic bis(indolyl)thiazole alkaloid analog, nortopsentin 234 (NORA234), leads to an initial reduction of proliferative and clonogenic potential of CRC sphere cells (CR-CSphCs), followed by an adaptive response selecting the CR-CSphC-resistant compartment. Cells spared by the treatment with NORA234 express high levels of CD44v6, associated with a constitutive activation of Wnt pathway. In CR-CSphC-based organoids, NORA234 causes a genotoxic stress paralleled by G2-M cell cycle arrest and activation of CHK1, driving the DNA damage repair of CR-CSphCs, regardless of the mutational background, microsatellite stability, and consensus molecular subtype. Synergistic combination of NORA234 and CHK1 (rabusertib) targeting is synthetic lethal inducing death of both CD44v6-negative and CD44v6-positive CRC stem cell fractions, aside from Wnt pathway activity. These data could provide a rational basis to develop an effective strategy for the treatment of patients with CRC.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(8)2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33921638

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) drive not only tumor initiation and expansion, but also therapeutic resistance and tumor relapse. Therefore, CSC eradication is required for effective cancer therapy. In preclinical models, CSCs demonstrated high capability to tolerate even extensive genotoxic stress, including replication stress, because they are endowed with a very robust DNA damage response (DDR). This favors the survival of DNA-damaged CSCs instead of their inhibition via apoptosis or senescence. The DDR represents a unique CSC vulnerability, but the abrogation of the DDR through the inhibition of the ATR-CHK1 axis is effective only against some subtypes of CSCs, and resistance often emerges. Here, we analyzed the impact of druggable DDR players in the response of patient-derived colorectal CSCs (CRC-SCs) to CHK1/2 inhibitor prexasertib, identifying RAD51 and MRE11 as sensitizing targets enhancing prexasertib efficacy. We showed that combined inhibition of RAD51 and CHK1 (via B02+prexasertib) or MRE11 and CHK1 (via mirin+prexasertib) kills CSCs by affecting multiple genoprotective processes. In more detail, these two prexasertib-based regimens promote CSC eradication through a sequential mechanism involving the induction of elevated replication stress in a context in which cell cycle checkpoints usually activated during the replication stress response are abrogated. This leads to uncontrolled proliferation and premature entry into mitosis of replication-stressed cells, followed by the induction of mitotic catastrophe. CRC-SCs subjected to RAD51+CHK1 inhibitors or MRE11+CHK1 inhibitors are eventually eliminated, and CRC-SC tumorspheres inhibited or disaggregated, via a caspase-dependent apoptosis. These results support further clinical development of these prexasertib-based regimens in colorectal cancer patients.

9.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 22(4): e637-e641, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642178

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The deeper knowledge of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) biology and the discovery of driver molecular alterations have opened the era of precision medicine in lung oncology, thus significantly revolutionizing the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to NSCLC. In Italy, however, molecular assessment remains heterogeneous across the country, and numbers of patients accessing personalized treatments remain relatively low. Nationwide programs have demonstrated that the creation of consortia represent a successful strategy to increase the number of patients with a molecular classification. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Alliance Against Cancer (ACC), a network of 25 Italian Research Institutes, has developed a targeted sequencing panel for the detection of genomic alterations in 182 genes in patients with a diagnosis of NSCLC (ACC lung panel). One thousand metastatic NSCLC patients will be enrolled onto a prospective trial designed to measure the sensitivity and specificity of the ACC lung panel as a tool for molecular screening compared to standard methods. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The ongoing trial is part of a nationwide strategy of ACC to develop infrastructures and improve competences to make the Italian research institutes independent for genomic profiling of cancer patients.

10.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(7): 2060-2082, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531658

RESUMO

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are tumor subpopulations driving disease development, progression, relapse and therapy resistance, and their targeting ensures tumor eradication. CSCs display heterogeneous replication stress (RS), but the functionality/relevance of the RS response (RSR) centered on the ATR-CHK1 axis is debated. Here, we show that the RSR is efficient in primary CSCs from colorectal cancer (CRC-SCs), and describe unique roles for PARP1 and MRE11/RAD51. First, we demonstrated that PARP1 is upregulated in CRC-SCs resistant to several replication poisons and RSR inhibitors (RSRi). In these cells, PARP1 modulates replication fork speed resulting in low constitutive RS. Second, we showed that MRE11 and RAD51 cooperate in the genoprotection and mitosis execution of PARP1-upregulated CRC-SCs. These roles represent therapeutic vulnerabilities for CSCs. Indeed, PARP1i sensitized CRC-SCs to ATRi/CHK1i, inducing replication catastrophe, and prevented the development of resistance to CHK1i. Also, MRE11i + RAD51i selectively killed PARP1-upregulated CRC-SCs via mitotic catastrophe. These results provide the rationale for biomarker-driven clinical trials in CRC using distinct RSRi combinations.

11.
Gut ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436496

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cancer stem cells are responsible for tumour spreading and relapse. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression is a negative prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC) and a potential target in tumours carrying the gene amplification. Our aim was to define the expression of HER2 in colorectal cancer stem cells (CR-CSCs) and its possible role as therapeutic target in CRC resistant to anti- epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. DESIGN: A collection of primary sphere cell cultures obtained from 60 CRC specimens was used to generate CR-CSC mouse avatars to preclinically validate therapeutic options. We also made use of the ChIP-seq analysis for transcriptional evaluation of HER2 activation and global RNA-seq to identify the mechanisms underlying therapy resistance. RESULTS: Here we show that in CD44v6-positive CR-CSCs, high HER2 expression levels are associated with an activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, which promotes the acetylation at the regulatory elements of the Erbb2 gene. HER2 targeting in combination with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors induces CR-CSC death and regression of tumour xenografts, including those carrying Kras and Pik3ca mutation. Requirement for the triple targeting is due to the presence of cancer-associated fibroblasts, which release cytokines able to confer CR-CSC resistance to PI3K/AKT inhibitors. In contrast, targeting of PI3K/AKT as monotherapy is sufficient to kill liver-disseminating CR-CSCs in a model of adjuvant therapy. CONCLUSIONS: While PI3K targeting kills liver-colonising CR-CSCs, the concomitant inhibition of PI3K, HER2 and MEK is required to induce regression of tumours resistant to anti-EGFR therapies. These data may provide a rationale for designing clinical trials in the adjuvant and metastatic setting.

12.
Breast Cancer Res ; 22(1): 135, 2020 12 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of specificity and high degree of false positive and false negative rates when using mammographic screening for detecting early-stage breast cancer is a critical issue. Blood-based molecular assays that could be used in adjunct with mammography for increased specificity and sensitivity could have profound clinical impact. Our objective was to discover and independently verify a panel of candidate blood-based biomarkers that could identify the earliest stages of breast cancer and complement current mammographic screening approaches. METHODS: We used affinity hydrogel nanoparticles coupled with LC-MS/MS analysis to enrich and analyze low-abundance proteins in serum samples from 20 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) breast cancer and 20 female control individuals with positive mammograms and benign pathology at biopsy. We compared these results to those obtained from five cohorts of individuals diagnosed with cancer in organs other than breast (ovarian, lung, prostate, and colon cancer, as well as melanoma) to establish IDC-specific protein signatures. Twenty-four IDC candidate biomarkers were then verified by multiple reaction monitoring (LC-MRM) in an independent validation cohort of 60 serum samples specifically including earliest-stage breast cancer and benign controls (19 early-stage (T1a) IDC and 41 controls). RESULTS: In our discovery set, 56 proteins were increased in the serum samples from IDC patients, and 32 of these proteins were specific to IDC. Verification of a subset of these proteins in an independent cohort of early-stage T1a breast cancer yielded a panel of 4 proteins, ITGA2B (integrin subunit alpha IIb), FLNA (Filamin A), RAP1A (Ras-associated protein-1A), and TLN-1 (Talin-1), which classified breast cancer patients with 100% sensitivity and 85% specificity (AUC of 0.93). CONCLUSIONS: Using a nanoparticle-based protein enrichment technology, we identified and verified a highly specific and sensitive protein signature indicative of early-stage breast cancer with no false positives when assessing benign and inflammatory controls. These markers have been previously reported in cell-ECM interaction and tumor microenvironment biology. Further studies with larger cohorts are needed to evaluate whether this biomarker panel improves the positive predictive value of mammography for breast cancer detection.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biópsia , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nanopartículas/química , Proteômica/métodos
13.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 279, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33302999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HER2-targeting agents have dramatically changed the therapeutic landscape of HER2+ advanced breast cancer (ABC). Within a short time frame, the rapid introduction of new therapeutics has led to the approval of pertuzumab combined with trastuzumab and a taxane in first-line, and trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in second-line. Thereby, evidence of T-DM1 efficacy following trastuzumab/pertuzumab combination is limited, with data from some retrospective reports suggesting lower activity. The purpose of the present study is to investigate T-DM1 efficacy in pertuzumab-pretreated and pertuzumab naïve HER2 positive ABC patients. We also aimed to provide evidence on the exposure to different drugs sequences including pertuzumab and T-DM1 in HER2 positive cell lines. METHODS: The biology of HER2 was investigated in vitro through sequential exposure of resistant HER2 + breast cancer cell lines to trastuzumab, pertuzumab, and their combination. In vitro experiments were paralleled by the analysis of data from 555 HER2 + ABC patients treated with T-DM1 and evaluation of T-DM1 efficacy in the 371 patients who received it in second line. Survival estimates were graphically displayed in Kaplan Meier curves, compared by log rank test and, when possibile, confirmed in multivariate models. RESULTS: We herein show evidence of lower activity of T-DM1 in two HER2+ breast cancer cell lines resistant to trastuzumab+pertuzumab, as compared to trastuzumab-resistant cells. Lower T-DM1 efficacy was associated with a marked reduction of HER2 expression on the cell membrane and its nuclear translocation. HER2 downregulation at the membrane level was confirmed in biopsies of four trastuzumab/pertuzumab-pretreated patients. Among the 371 patients treated with second-line T-DM1, median overall survival (mOS) from diagnosis of advanced disease and median progression-free survival to second-line treatment (mPFS2) were 52 and 6 months in 177 patients who received trastuzumab/pertuzumab in first-line, and 74 and 10 months in 194 pertuzumab-naïve patients (p = 0.0006 and 0.03 for OS and PFS2, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the hypothesis that the addition of pertuzumab to trastuzumab reduces the amount of available plasma membrane HER2 receptor, limiting the binding of T-DM1 in cancer cells. This may help interpret the less favorable outcomes of second-line T-DM1 in trastuzumab/pertuzumab pre-treated patients compared to their pertuzumab-naïve counterpart.

15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2166, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193295

RESUMO

Cancer cell dormancy is a common feature of human tumors and represents a major clinical barrier to the long-term efficacy of anticancer therapies. Dormant cancer cells, either in primary tumors or disseminated in secondary organs, may reawaken and relapse into a more aggressive disease. The mechanisms underpinning dormancy entry and exit strongly resemble those governing cancer cell stemness and include intrinsic and contextual cues. Cellular and molecular components of the tumor microenvironment persistently interact with cancer cells. This dialog is highly dynamic, as it evolves over time and space, strongly cooperates with intrinsic cell nets, and governs cancer cell features (like quiescence and stemness) and fate (survival and outgrowth). Therefore, there is a need for deeper insight into the biology of dormant cancer (stem) cells and the mechanisms regulating the equilibrium quiescence-versus-proliferation are vital in our pursuit of new therapeutic opportunities to prevent cancer from recurring. Here, we review and discuss microenvironmental regulations of cancer dormancy and its parallels with cancer stemness, and offer insights into the therapeutic strategies adopted to prevent a lethal recurrence, by either eradicating resident dormant cancer (stem) cells or maintaining them in a dormant state.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/patologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/imunologia , Animais , Divisão Celular , Autorrenovação Celular , Senescência Celular , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Microambiente Tumoral
16.
Front Immunol ; 11: 565631, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33101285

RESUMO

The chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is an artificial molecule engineered to induce cytolytic T cell reactions in tumors. Generally, this molecule combines an extracellular single-chain variable fragment (scFv) able to recognize tumor-associated epitopes together with the intracellular signaling domains that are required for T cell activation. When expressed by T cells, the CAR enables the recognition and subsequent destruction of cancer cells expressing the complementary antigen on their surface. Although the clinical application for CAR T cells is currently limited to some hematological malignancies, researchers are trying to develop CAR T cell-based therapies for the treatment of solid tumors. However, while in the case of CD19, or other targets restricted to the hematopoietic compartment, the toxicity is limited and manageable, the scarcity of specific antigens expressed by solid tumors and not by healthy cells from vital organs makes the clinical development of CAR T cells in this context particularly challenging. Here we summarize relevant research and clinical trials conducted to redirect CAR T cells to surface antigens in solid tumors and cancer stem cells with a focus on colorectal cancer and glioblastoma. Finally, we will discuss current knowledge of altered glycosylation of CSCs and cancer cells and how these novel epitopes may help to target CAR T cell-based immunotherapy in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Glioblastoma/terapia , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/fisiologia , Animais , Antígenos CD19/metabolismo , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Neoplasias Colorretais/imunologia , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Glioblastoma/imunologia , Humanos
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(17)2020 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32872424

RESUMO

Intense research is being conducted using flow cytometers available in clinically oriented laboratories to assess extracellular vesicles (EVs) surface cargo in a variety of diseases. Using EVs of various sizes purified from the HT29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line, we report on the difficulty to assess small and medium sized EVs by conventional flow cytometer that combines light side scatter off a 405 nm laser with the fluorescent signal from the EVs general labels Calcein-green and Calcein-violet, and surface markers. Small sized EVs (~70 nm) immunophenotyping failed, consistent with the scarcity of monoclonal antibody binding sites, and were therefore excluded from further investigation. Medium sized EVs (~250 nm) immunophenotyping was possible but their detection was plagued by an excess of coincident particles (swarm detection) and by a high abort rate; both factors affected the measured EVs concentration. By running samples containing equal amounts of Calcein-green and Calcein-violet stained medium sized EVs, we found that swarm detection produced false double positive events, a phenomenon that was significantly reduced, but not totally eliminated, by sample dilution. Moreover, running highly diluted samples required long periods of cytometer time. Present findings raise questions about the routine applicability of conventional flow cytometers for EV analysis.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo/métodos , Fluoresceínas/química , Tamanho Celular , Difusão Dinâmica da Luz , Vesículas Extracelulares/química , Células HT29 , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem
18.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) provide significant survival benefits in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nevertheless, while some patients obtain a prolonged benefit, a non-negligible fraction of patients experiences an ultrarapid disease progression. Identifying specific molecular backgrounds predicting opposite outcomes is instrumental to optimize the use of these agents in clinical practice. METHODS: We carried out an observational study with prospective design envisioning targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) with an approved assay in 55 patients with metastatic NSCLC (Rome cohort), of whom 35 were treated with ICIs. Data from three clinically comparable datasets were collected and combined into a metadataset containing 779 patients. The datasets were related to the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) cohort (tissue-based NGS) and the randomized phase II and III POPLAR and OAK trials (blood-based NGS). RESULTS: In patients treated with ICIs in the Rome cohort, co-occurring mutations in NOTCH1-3 and homologous repair (HR) genes were associated with durable clinical benefit. Using the MSKCC/POPLAR/OAK metadaset, we confirmed the relationship between the NOTCHmut/HRmut signature and longer progression-free survival (PFS) in ICI-treated patients (multivariate Cox: HR 0.51, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.76, p=0.001). The NOTCHmut/HRmut genomic predictor was also associated with longer survival (log-rank p=0.008), despite patients whose tumors carried the NOTCHmut/HRmut signature had higher metastatic burden as compared with their negative counterpart. Finally, we observed that this genomic predictor was also associated with longer survival in patients with other tumor types treated with ICIs (n=1311, log-rank p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Co-occurring mutations in the NOTCH and HR pathways are associated with increased efficacy of immunotherapy in advanced NSCLC. This genomic predictor deserves further investigation to fully assess its potential in informing therapeutic decisions.

19.
Cancer Res ; 80(19): 4087-4102, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718996

RESUMO

Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) induce aggressive tumor phenotypes such as metastasis formation, which is associated with poor prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Repurposing of FDA-approved drugs that can eradicate the CSC subcompartment in primary tumors may prevent metastatic disease, thus representing an effective strategy to improve the prognosis of TNBC. Here, we investigated spheroid-forming cells in a metastatic TNBC model. This strategy enabled us to specifically study a population of long-lived tumor cells enriched in CSCs, which show stem-like characteristics and induce metastases. To repurpose FDA-approved drugs potentially toxic for CSCs, we focused on pyrvinium pamoate (PP), an anthelmintic drug with documented anticancer activity in preclinical models. PP induced cytotoxic effects in CSCs and prevented metastasis formation. Mechanistically, the cell killing effects of PP were a result of inhibition of lipid anabolism and, more specifically, the impairment of anabolic flux from glucose to cholesterol and fatty acids. CSCs were strongly dependent upon activation of lipid biosynthetic pathways; activation of these pathways exhibited an unfavorable prognostic value in a cohort of breast cancer patients, where it predicted high probability of metastatic dissemination and tumor relapse. Overall, this work describes a new approach to target aggressive CSCs that may substantially improve clinical outcomes for patients with TNBC, who currently lack effective targeted therapeutic options. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings provide preclinical evidence that a drug repurposing approach to prevent metastatic disease in TNBC exploits lipid anabolism as a metabolic vulnerability against CSCs in primary tumors.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Pirvínio/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/metabolismo , Reposicionamento de Medicamentos , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 39(1): 109, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522223

RESUMO

If we focus our attention on seven main features of COVID-19 infection (heterogeneity, fragility, lack of effective treatments and vaccines, "miraculous cures", psychological suffering, deprivation, and globalization), we may establish parallelism with the challenges faced in the steep road to the understanding and treatment of neoplastic diseases. How the similarities between these two conditions can help us cope with the emergency effort represented by the management of cancer patients in the COVID-19 era, today and in the future? In a manner similar to the Cancer Moonshot initiative in the United States, we can hypothesize a multinational moonshot project towards the management of cancer patients during COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, we believe that the main road to elaborate meaningful scientific evidence is represented by the collection of all the data on COVID-19 and cancer comorbidity that are and will become available in cancer centers, coupled with the design of large clinical studies. To address this goal, it is essential to identify the entity that can produce this scientific evidences and the potentially most successful research strategy to undertake. The largest Italian organization for cancer research, Alliance Against Cancer (Alleanza Contro il Cancro, ACC), is called to play a scientific leadership in addressing these challenges, which requires the coordination of oncology teams at regional, national, and international levels. To fulfill this commitment, ACC will create a liaison with health government agencies in order to develop "dynamic" indications able to fight such an unpredictable pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Oncologia/tendências , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , COVID-19 , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , SARS-CoV-2
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