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Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(4)2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919737


The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (TB) has reinforced the need for the development of new anti-TB drugs. The first line drug isoniazid inhibits InhA. This is a prodrug requiring activation by the enzyme KatG. Mutations in KatG have largely contributed to clinical isoniazid resistance. We aimed to design new 'direct' InhA inhibitors that obviate the need for activation by KatG, circumventing pre-existing resistance. In silico molecular modelling was used as part of a rational structure-based drug-design approach involving inspection of protein crystal structures of InhA:inhibitor complexes, including the broad spectrum antibiotic triclosan (TCS). One crystal structure exhibited the unusual presence of two triclosan molecules within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis InhA binding site. This became the basis of a strategy for the synthesis of novel inhibitors. A series of new, flexible ligands were designed and synthesised, expanding on the triclosan structure. Low Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) were obtained for benzylphenyl compounds (12, 43 and 44) and di-triclosan derivative (39), against Mycobacterium bovis BCG although these may also be inhibiting other enzymes. The ether linked di-triclosan derivative (38) displayed excellent in vitro isolated enzyme inhibition results comparable with triclosan, but at a higher MIC (125 µg mL-1). These compounds offer good opportunities as leads for further optimisation.

Am J Pharm Educ ; 83(1): 6508, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894766


Objective. To design an integrated dyspepsia module for first year pharmacy students that combines clinical and professional practice with fundamental sciences in five different science subject areas. Methods. The approaches used in designing this module are described with emphasis on strategies adopted to integrate science and practice, and the new ways of working adopted by the design team. Students' views and experiences of the module and its integration were explored using questionnaires. Results. A high proportion of students reported positive views and experiences of the module, the integration and its impact (as self-reported) on their learning and practice. The assessment of student performance indicated learning and attainment was at an appropriate level for a first-year module. Both the student grades and research results indicate a positive student learning experience. Conclusion. The dyspepsia module provides a flexible and effective template for the integration of science and practice in theme-based modules, with students reporting positively about the integration, including their perception of its contribution to improving their learning and understanding. New and more collaborative ways of working are required when designing integrated modules.

Dispepsia , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Educação em Farmácia/organização & administração , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/organização & administração , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes de Farmácia , Inquéritos e Questionários
J Chromatogr A ; 1229: 95-106, 2012 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22305358


The retention behaviour of a series of 28 monosubstituted benzenes, representing a diverse range of functional groups and substituent shape, were investigated using porous graphitic carbon (PGC) and octadecyl-bonded silica (ODS) stationary phases. For the majority of analytes retention on PGC was greater than on ODS, and in most cases this effect occurred at both pH 2.5 and 7.0. The main trends observed on PGC (in comparison with ODS) were: (i) similar or reduced retention of low polarity molecules such as the hydrocarbon and halogenated analytes; (ii) increased retention of conjugated analytes with extended planarity; (iii) increased retention of polar and charged species; and (iv) substantial increases in retention for selected polar and negatively charged analytes, including some ionised and unionised acid analytes. Poor retention of positively charged analytes was observed on both stationary phases. Molecular modelling studies have explored the geometry of π-π stacking interactions in retention on PGC and have highlighted the strong retention of large conjugated analytes, with extended planar conformations, which can interact with the graphite surface with cofacial geometry. Quantitative structure-retention relationships showed the importance of hydrophobic (π) and electronic factors (e.g. mean polarisability and LUMO energy) in retention on PGC, whilst retention on ODS was correlated to hydrophobicity (logP and π).

Derivados de Benzeno/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Grafite/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Moleculares , Porosidade , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Eletricidade Estática
Chembiochem ; 12(8): 1203-8, 2011 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21506232


A role for the flavoprotein NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2, QR2) in human diseases such as malaria, leukemia and neurodegeneration has been proposed. In order to explore the potential of NQO2 as a therapeutic target, we have developed potent and selective mechanism-based inhibitors centered on the indolequinone pharmacophore. The compounds show remarkable selectivity for NQO2 over the closely related flavoprotein NQO1, with small structural changes defining selectivity. Biochemical studies confirmed the mechanism-based inhibition, whereas X-ray crystallography and mass spectrometry revealed the nature of the inhibitor interaction with the protein. These indolequinones represent the first mechanism-based inhibitors of NQO2, and their novel mode of action involving alkylation of the flavin cofactor, provides significant advantages over existing competitive inhibitors in terms of potency and irreversibility, and will open new opportunities to define the role of NQO2 in disease.

Flavoproteínas/antagonistas & inibidores , Indolquinonas/farmacologia , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/antagonistas & inibidores , Quinona Redutases/antagonistas & inibidores , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Indolquinonas/química , Estrutura Molecular , NAD(P)H Desidrogenase (Quinona)/genética , Quinona Redutases/genética , Quinona Redutases/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Especificidade por Substrato
J Chromatogr A ; 1217(44): 6987-93, 2010 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20850754


The retention behaviour of a series of 15 n-alkylbenzenes and pentylbenzene structural isomers and benzene were investigated using porous graphitic carbon (PGC) and octadecyl-bonded silica (ODS) stationary phases. Shorter chain n-alkylbenzenes and benzene (n=0-6), and all the pentylbenzene isomers were more strongly retained on ODS, although the selectivity was greater with PGC. For the pentylbenzene analytes the degree of branching in the alkyl chain at the position adjacent to the aromatic ring affects retention on PGC, with higher retention in less branched molecules. Molecular modelling studies have provided new insights into the geometry of aromatic π-π stacking interactions in retention on PGC. For alkylbenzenes with high branching at the position adjacent to the ring, the preferred geometry of association with the surface is with the branched chain directed away from the surface, a geometry not seen in the other alkylbenzenes. The most energetically favoured orientation for interaction between analytes and the PGC surface was found to be cofacial for toluene and ethylbenzene, whereas for other analytes this interaction was in a face-edge orientation. The alternative geometry of association observed with both toluene and ethylbenzene may explain the enhanced retention of these two analytes on PGC compared with their longer chain analogues. Quantitative structure-retention relationships revealed the importance of compactness in analyte structure during retention on PGC, with decreased compactness (associated with longer chain length and reduced chain branching) improving retention.

Derivados de Benzeno/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Grafite/química , Dióxido de Silício/química , Isomerismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular , Porosidade , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Termodinâmica
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17768344


CB1954 is an anticancer prodrug that is currently in clinical trials coupled with the Escherichia coli flavoenzyme nitroreductase (NTR) for use in directed-enzyme prodrug therapy (DEPT). The NTR enzyme is responsible for the conversion of the prodrug into a cytotoxic agent. The bifunctional alkylating agent produced by this bioactivation process leads to DNA damage and death of cancer cells. Recently, a novel flavoenzyme from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, YwrO (Bam YwrO), was reported to be able to reduce CB1954 from its noncytotoxic form into its active form. The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of two crystal forms of Bam YwrO are reported. The first crystal form is orthorhombic, with space group P22(1)2(1), and diffracts X-rays to 2.18 A resolution. The second crystal form is tetragonal, with space group P4(1), and diffracts X-rays to 3.4 A. Determination of the Bam YwrO crystal structure will provide an understanding of the molecular recognition between this enzyme and the anticancer prodrug CB1954.

Bacillus/enzimologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/química , Nitrorredutases/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Sequência de Bases , Clonagem Molecular , Cristalização , Primers do DNA , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Nitrorredutases/isolamento & purificação , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Difração de Raios X