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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244915

RESUMO

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging causative agent of acute hepatitis worldwide. To provide insights into the epidemiology of HEV in Italy, a large-scale investigation was conducted into urban sewage over nine years (2011-2019), collecting 1374 sewage samples from 48 wastewater treatment plants located in all the 20 regions of Italy. Broadly reactive primers targeting the ORF1 and ORF2 regions were used for the detection and typing of HEV, followed by Sanger and next generation sequencing (NGS). Real-time RT-qPCR was also used to attempt quantification of positive samples. HEV RNA detection occurred in 74 urban sewage samples (5.4%), with a statistically significant higher frequency (7.1%) in central Italy. Fifty-six samples were characterized as G3 strains and 18 as G1. While the detection of G3 strains occurred in all the surveillance period, G1 strains were mainly detected in 2011-2012, and never in 2017-2019. Typing was achieved in 2 samples (3f subtype). Viral concentrations in quantifiable samples ranged from 1.2 × 103 g.c./L to 2.8 × 104 g.c./L. Our results suggest the considerable circulation of the virus in the Italian population, despite a relatively small number of notified cases, a higher occurrence in central Italy, and a noteworthy predominance of G3 strains.

2.
Food Microbiol ; 82: 194-201, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027773

RESUMO

Hepatitis E is an emerging disease in industrialized countries. The food-borne transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) is associated principally with products derived from the domestic pig, the wild boar, and deer; however, few quantitative data are available on HEV loads in animals used in food production. This study assessed HEV occurrence, viral load and genetic variability in wild boar hunted for domestic consumption in the district of Viterbo (Central Italy) where high anti-HEV IgG seroprevalence values are reported in humans. A total of 332 liver and 69 intestine samples were obtained from wild boar hunted between 2011 and 2014. The liver tissue in 54 of the animals (16.3%) was HEV-positive. Viral loads in quantifiable liver samples (n = 29) ranged between 3.2 × 102 and 3.8 × 105 genome copies (g.c.)/g with a mean value of 1.85 × 104 g.c./g. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between viral concentration in liver and intestinal tissue, though mean viral load in the intestines was lower (3.13 × 103 g.c./g). Twenty-six samples were characterized molecularly as genotype 3 (G3) and four subtypes (a, c, f and l) were detected. Finally, twelve samples with near identical sequences were identified as G3 but could not be assigned to any of the known subtypes, and could therefore represent a potentially new subtype.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Hepatite E/veterinária , Sus scrofa/virologia , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/classificação , Humanos , Intestinos/virologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Fígado/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Carga Viral
3.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 51(2): 97-101, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30499356

RESUMO

Foodborne botulism is a life-threatening disease caused by the ingestion of food containing preformed botulinum neurotoxins, the most potent natural poisons known to humans. On the basis of the new challenges in management of the diseases as well as considering the potential use of botulinum toxins as biological weapons, foodborne botulism is still considered a public health emergency. Each suspected case should be immediately notified to public health authorities with the aim of preparing a prompt response. With the aim of improving botulism surveillance systems, health authorities as well as governmental organizations should enhance national and international cooperation. Education and training activities devoted to operators involved in the disease management, and to general population, may significantly contribute to strengthen the system.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas , Botulismo , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Turquia
4.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 54(4): 358-363, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30575573

RESUMO

The transmission of enteric pathogens by fresh produce depends on the survival of the bacteria organisms during the product shelf-life. The removal of any potentially hazardous microorganism from the vegetables is therefore dependent on the washing and sanitizing techniques employed by individual households. For this purpose, in this work we investigated the persistence of enteric bacteria, using as model Salmonella enterica serovar Napoli (S. Napoli) and Yersinia enterocolitica, in vegetables stored at refrigeration temperature (4 °C). The efficiency of tap water and different chlorine solutions for cleaning vegetables experimentally contaminated with Y. enterocolitica were tested. The results showed that in lettuce spiked with different concentrations of S. Napoli and Y. enterocolitica, both microorganisms were still detected after seven days of storage at 4 °C. Lettuce contaminated with low concentrations of Y. enterocolitica was not decontaminated by washing with tap water or with water added with 60 ppm of chlorine. The presence of Y. enterocolitica in lettuce was reduced of about 1-2 logs after washing with water added with 220 ppm of chlorine. The addition of low concentration of chlorine in post harvest washing processes represents a useful tool to reduce the contamination of the vegetables, with consequent reduction of the risks. However, since complete decontamination was not achieved, foodborne infections linked to fresh produce can still be possible, although contamination is avoided during primary production.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Verduras/microbiologia , Compostos Clorados , Desinfetantes , Alface/microbiologia , Refrigeração , Salmonella enterica , Água , Yersinia enterocolitica
5.
J Med Microbiol ; 67(9): 1351-1360, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30024370

RESUMO

PURPOSE: From May 2015 to March 2016, an outbreak due to Listeria monocytogenes serotype 1/2a and clinical pulsotype never previously isolated in Europe occurred in central Italy, involving 24 confirmed clinical cases. The article provides a description of the outbreak and the investigation carried out by a multidisciplinary network. METHODOLOGY: Epidemiological and microbiological surveillance was conducted to confirm the outbreak and to detect the food vehicle of infection. The origin and destination of the implicated food and its ingredients were investigated by tracing-back and -forward investigation. RESULTS: Next-generation sequencing confirmed the unique outbreak strain. On 4 January 2016, a L. monocytogenes strain with pulsotype indistinguishable from that isolated from clinical cases in the outbreak was detected in a sample of hog head cheese purchased from a retail supermarket by one of the patients. The hog head cheese was produced by a small meat processing plant in the Marche region, where microbiological investigation confirmed environmental and food contamination by the outbreak strain. Plant production was suspended and all contaminated batches of the hog head cheese were withdrawn from the market by 19 February by local health authority. We subsequently observed a sharp decline in clinical cases, the last being reported on 11 March 2016. CONCLUSION: The key factor in the timely conclusion of this investigation was intersectoral collaboration among epidemiologists, microbiologists, veterinarians, statisticians and health and food safety authorities at national, regional and local levels.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Listeriose/microbiologia , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Listeria monocytogenes/classificação , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Listeriose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Filogenia , Suínos , Adulto Jovem
6.
Euro Surveill ; 22(24)2017 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28661393

RESUMO

Botulism is a rare but severe neuroparalytic disease caused by botulinum toxins. Because of its high potential impact on public health, botulism is a closely monitored communicable disease in Europe. In Italy, which has one of the highest incidence rates in Europe (0.03 cases per 100,000 population), botulism is monitored through a case-based passive surveillance system: the front-line physician who diagnoses a suspected case must notify the Local Health Units immediately, and the Ministry of Health's office within 12 hours. From 1986 to 2015, 466 confirmed cases of botulism were recorded in Italy (of 1,257 suspected cases). Of these, 421 were food-borne (the most frequently seen form of botulism due to the consumption of improperly home-canned foods), 36 were infant botulism, which accounts for ca 50% of all these types of cases registered in Europe, six were wound-related and three were due to adult intestinal colonisation. This scenario suggests that stronger efforts should be made towards raising public awareness of the risk of food-borne botulism, especially with respect to home-preserved foods, as well as improving the training of front-line medical personnel, to ensure that a quick and accurate diagnosis of botulism can be made.


Assuntos
Botulismo/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Saúde Pública , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Toxinas Botulínicas , Botulismo/diagnóstico , Clostridium botulinum/isolamento & purificação , Notificação de Doenças , Alimentos em Conserva , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/diagnóstico , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo
7.
Food Environ Virol ; 9(4): 423-433, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28452010

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the trend of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in a coastal zone impacted by a contamination event, providing data for the development of management strategies. A total of 352 samples, including four bivalve mollusc species (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Solen vagina, Venus gallina and Donax trunculus), were taken over a period of 6 months from 27 production areas of the coast and analysis were performed according to ISO/TS 15216-1:2013. HAV presence was detected in 77 samples from 11 production areas and all positive results were related to samples collected in the first 3 months of the surveillance, during which HAV prevalence was 39.9% and values as high as 5096 genome copies/g were detected. A progressive reduction of viral contamination was evident during the first trimester of the monitoring, with prevalence decreasing from 78.8% in the first month, to 37.8% in the second and 3.9% in the third and quantitative levels reduced from an average value of 672 genome copies/g to 255 genome copies/g over a period of 4 weeks (virus half-life: 21.5 days). A regression analysis showed that, during the decreasing phase of the contamination, the data fitted a reciprocal quadratic model (Ra2 = 0.921) and, based on the model, a residual presence of HAV could be estimated after negativization of the production areas. The statistical analysis of the results per shellfish species and per production area showed that there were limited differences in contamination prevalence and levels among diverse bivalve species, while a statistically significant difference was present in quantitative levels of one production area. These data could be useful for the development of both risk assessment models and code of practice for the management of viral contamination in primary production.


Assuntos
Bivalves/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite A/isolamento & purificação , Norovirus/isolamento & purificação , Frutos do Mar/virologia , Animais , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Vírus da Hepatite A/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Humanos , Norovirus/classificação , Norovirus/genética
8.
Infect Genet Evol ; 46: 28-32, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27771520

RESUMO

Clostridium botulinum is the bacterial agent of botulism, a rare but severe neuro-paralytic disease. Because of its high impact, in Italy botulism is monitored by an ad hoc surveillance system. The National Reference Centre for Botulism, as part of this system, collects and analyzes all demographic, epidemiologic, microbiological, and molecular data recovered during cases and/or outbreaks occurred in Italy. A panel of 312 C. botulinum strains belonging to group I were submitted to MLVA sub-typing. Strains, isolated from clinical specimens, food and environmental samples collected during the surveillance activities, were representative of all forms of botulism from all Italian regions. Through clustering analysis isolates were grouped into 12 main clusters. No regional or temporal clustering was detected, demonstrating the high heterogeneity of strains circulating in Italy. This study confirmed that MLVA is capable of sub-typing C. botulinum strains. Moreover, MLVA is effective at tracing and tracking the source of contamination and is helpful for the surveillance system in terms of planning and upgrading of procedures, activities and data collection forms.


Assuntos
Botulismo/microbiologia , Clostridium botulinum/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular/métodos , Sequências de Repetição em Tandem/genética , Botulismo/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus
9.
PLoS One ; 11(2): e0149642, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26901877

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Foodborne Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) outbreaks are being recognized as an emerging public health problem in industrialized countries. In 2013 three foodborne HAV outbreaks occurred in Europe and one in USA. During the largest of the three European outbreaks, most cases occurred in Italy (>1,200 cases as of March 31, 2014). A national Task Force was established at the beginning of the outbreak by the Ministry of Health. Mixed frozen berries were early demonstrated to be the source of infection by the identity of viral sequences in patients and in food. In the present study the molecular characterization of HAV isolates from 355 Italian cases is reported. METHODS: Molecular characterization was carried out by PCR/sequencing (VP1/2A region), comparison with reference strains and phylogenetic analysis. RESULTS: A unique strain was responsible for most characterized cases (235/355, 66.1%). Molecular data had a key role in tracing this outbreak, allowing 110 out of the 235 outbreak cases (46.8%) to be recognized in absence of any other link. The data also showed background circulation of further unrelated strains, both autochthonous and travel related, whose sequence comparison highlighted minor outbreaks and small clusters, most of them unrecognized on the basis of epidemiological data. Phylogenetic analysis showed most isolates from travel related cases clustering with reference strains originating from the same geographical area of travel. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the study documents, in a real outbreak context, the crucial role of molecular analysis in investigating an old but re-emerging pathogen. Improving the molecular knowledge of HAV strains, both autochthonous and circulating in countries from which potentially contaminated foods are imported, will become increasingly important to control outbreaks by supporting trace back activities, aiming to identify the geographical source(s) of contaminated food, as well as public health interventions.


Assuntos
Busca de Comunicante , Surtos de Doenças , Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Hepatite A/epidemiologia , Hepatite A/virologia , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Hepatite A/transmissão , Humanos , Itália , Filogenia , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética
10.
Infect Genet Evol ; 36: 62-71, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26341861

RESUMO

Clostridium botulinum is a gram-positive bacterium capable of producing the botulinum neurotoxin, a powerful poison that causes botulism, a severe neuroparalytic disease. Its genome has been sequenced entirely and its gene content has been analyzed. To date, 19 full genomes and 64 draft genomes are available. The geographical origin of these genomes is predominantly from the US. In the present study, 10 Italian genomes of C. botulinum group I were analyzed and compared with previously sequenced group I genomes, in order to genetically characterize the Italian population of C. botulinum group I and to investigate the phylogenetic relationships among different lineages. Using the suites of software ClonalFrame and ClonalOrigin to perform genomic analysis, we demonstrated that Italian C. botulinum group I population is phylogenetically heterogeneous encompassing different and distant lineages including overseas strains, too. Moreover, a high recombination rate was demonstrated in the evolution of C. botulinum group I species. Finally, genome sequencing of the strain 357 led us to identify a novel botulinum neurotoxin subtype, F8.


Assuntos
Botulismo/microbiologia , Clostridium botulinum/classificação , Clostridium botulinum/genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Genômica , Botulismo/epidemiologia , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Recombinação Genética , Sorogrupo
11.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 51(1): 60-1, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25857385

RESUMO

In Italy, foodborne botulism is a rare disease mainly due to home-preserved food. In the case reported here, clinical diagnosis was performed on the basis of clinical signs and referred consumption of home-preserved turnip tops in oil. Definitive diagnosis was performed by detection of botulinum toxin in sera and neuro-toxigenic organisms in stools and leftover food. This case report highlights the need of a high medical awareness, prompt clinical diagnosis, and synergic collaboration among the health authorities for a correct management of botulism as well as disease containment.


Assuntos
Botulismo/etiologia , Brassica napus , Conservação de Alimentos , Antitoxinas/uso terapêutico , Toxinas Botulínicas/sangue , Botulismo/diagnóstico , Botulismo/terapia , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Óleos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Genome Announc ; 3(2)2015 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25838491

RESUMO

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium botulinum B2 450, responsible for the first reported case of wound botulism in a drug user in Italy.

13.
Genome Announc ; 3(2)2015 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25814616

RESUMO

Here, we report the genome sequence of a rare bivalent strain of Clostridium botulinum, A2B3 87. The strain was isolated from a foodborne botulism case that occurred in Italy in 1995. The case was characterized by rapid evolution of the illness and failure of conventional treatments.

14.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 81(7): 2495-505, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25636839

RESUMO

We report the development of real-time PCR assays for genotyping Clostridium botulinum group III targeting the newly defined C. novyi sensu lato group; the nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNH)-encoding gene ntnh; the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)-encoding genes bont/C, bont/C/D, bont/D, and bont/D/C; and the flagellin (fliC) gene. The genetic diversity of fliC among C. botulinum group III strains resulted in the definition of five major subgroups named fliC-I to fliC-V. Investigation of fliC subtypes in 560 samples, with various European origins, showed that fliC-I was predominant and found exclusively in samples contaminated by C. botulinum type C/D, fliC-II was rarely detected, no sample was recorded as fliC-III or fliC-V, and only C. botulinum type D/C samples tested positive for fliC-IV. The lack of genetic diversity of the flagellin gene of C. botulinum type C/D would support a clonal spread of type C/D strains in different geographical areas. fliC-I to fliC-III are genetically related (87% to 92% sequence identity), whereas fliC-IV from C. botulinum type D/C is more genetically distant from the other fliC types (with only 50% sequence identity). These findings suggest fliC-I to fliC-III have evolved in a common environment and support a different genetic evolution for fliC-IV. A combination of the C. novyi sensu lato, ntnh, bont, and fliC PCR assays developed in this study allowed better characterization of C. botulinum group III and showed the group to be less genetically diverse than C. botulinum groups I and II, supporting a slow genetic evolution of the strains belonging to C. botulinum group III.


Assuntos
Clostridium botulinum/genética , Clostridium botulinum/isolamento & purificação , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Animais , Animais Domésticos , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genes Bacterianos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA
15.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 12(9): 1075-86, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25089560

RESUMO

Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease resulting from exposure to one of the most poisonous toxins to humans. Because of this high potency and the use of toxins as biological weapons, botulism is a public health concern and each case represents an emergency. Current therapy involves respiratory supportive care and anti-toxins administration. As a preventive measure, vaccination against toxins represents an effective strategy but is undesirable due the rarity of botulism and the effectiveness of toxins in treating several neuromuscular disorders. This paper summarizes the current issues in botulism treatment and prevention, highlighting the challenge for future researches.


Assuntos
Vacinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Antitoxina Botulínica/uso terapêutico , Botulismo/tratamento farmacológico , Botulismo/prevenção & controle , Descoberta de Drogas , Antitoxina Botulínica/administração & dosagem , Toxinas Botulínicas/antagonistas & inibidores , Toxinas Botulínicas/imunologia , Botulismo/imunologia , Botulismo/microbiologia , Clostridium botulinum/efeitos dos fármacos , Clostridium botulinum/imunologia , Humanos , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 94(15): 3079-89, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24816992

RESUMO

Foodborne illness continues as a considerable threat to public health. Despite improved hygiene management systems and increased regulation, pathogenic bacteria still contaminate food, causing sporadic cases of illness and disease outbreaks worldwide. For many centuries, microbial antagonism has been used in food processing to improve food safety. An understanding of the mode of action of this microbial antagonism has been gained in recent years and potential applications in food and feed safety are now being explored. This review focuses on the potential opportunities presented, and the limitations, of using microbial antagonism as a biocontrol mechanism to reduce contamination along the food chain; including animal feed as its first link. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Ração Animal , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Bacteriocinas , Bacteriófagos , Fermentação , Cadeia Alimentar , Manipulação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Abrigo para Animais , Humanos , Higiene , Probióticos
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 184: 106-8, 2014 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24835318

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to optimize a Real-Time PCR protocol for a rapid detection of Listeria monocytogenes in pork meat, using reduced volumes of primary selective enrichment broth and times of incubation to decrease the cost and time for analysis. Forty-five samples of pork meat were artificially contaminated with two different levels of L. monocytogenes (1-10 CFU per sample and 10-100 CFU per sample), homogenized in three different volumes of Half Fraser Broth (1:3; 1:5 and 1:10) and incubated at 30°C ± 1°C for 5h, 8h and 24h. The detection was conducted in parallel by Real-Time PCR and the ISO standard 11290-1 methods. L. monocytogenes was detected in all the samples after 24h by Real-Time PCR method, also using reduced volumes of Half Fraser Broth. This represents a clear advantage as the time to final detection and the inherent costs were significantly reduced compared to the ISO reference method. All samples artificially contaminated were correctly detected also after 8 of incubation at 30°C ± 1°C in Half Fraser Broth and 24h in Fraser Broth at 37°C ± 1°C using cultural method.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Listeria monocytogenes/isolamento & purificação , Carne/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/normas , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Listeria monocytogenes/genética , Suínos
18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 184: 113-20, 2014 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24713474

RESUMO

The microbiological standard for detection of Salmonella relies on several cultural steps and requires more than 5 days for final confirmation, and as consequence there is a need for an alternative rapid methodology for its detection. The aim of this study was to compare different detection strategies based on real-time PCR for a rapid and sensitive detection in an ample range of food products: raw pork and poultry meat, ready to eat lettuce salad and raw sheep milk cured cheese. Three main parameters were evaluated to reduce the time and cost for final results: the initial sample size (25 and 50 g), the incubation times (6, 10 and 18 h) and the bacterial DNA extraction (simple boiling of the culture after washing the bacterial pellet, the use of the Chelex resin, and a commercial silica column). The results obtained demonstrate that a combination of an incubation in buffered peptone water for 18 h of a 25 g-sample coupled to a DNA extraction by boiling and a real-time PCR assay detected down to 2-4 Salmonella spp.CFU per sample in less than 21 h in different types of food products. This RTi-PCR-based method is fully compatible with the ISO standard, providing results more rapidly and cost-effectively. The results were confirmed in a large number of naturally contaminated food samples with at least the same analytical performance as the reference method.


Assuntos
Queijo/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Alface/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Aves Domésticas , Salmonella/genética , Suínos
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 184: 64-8, 2014 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24726437

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to provide suitable microbiological criteria (MC) for Campylobacter in broiler carcasses and a sampling plan to verify compliance with such criteria. Data were gathered in the presence and concentration of Campylobacter in broiler carcasses collected in three different Italian slaughterhouses, labelled as A, B and C. The sampling plan to be validated in each slaughterhouse included the analysis of three different carcasses collected immediately after chilling from 30 different lots, for a total of 90 samples per slaughterhouse. The number of positive samples containing above 100 CFU/g and above 1,000 CFU/g throughout the 30 tested lots was determined to estimate between-lot variability. Based on this information, the performance of four MC was evaluated for lot compliance: i) n=3; c=0; m=100 CFU/g; ii) n=3; c=0; m=1,000 CFU/g; iii) n=3; c=1; m=1,000 CFU/g and iv) n=3; c=2; m=1,000 CFU/g. Positive Campylobacter samples were found in 60% of the lots tested in slaughterhouses A and C and in 73.3% of lots from slaughterhouse B. The differences among the three slaughterhouses in the mean Campylobacter levels found in positive samples were not significant and were used to evaluate the performance of the MC. The level of lot compliance to different MC was calculated and for the most stringent one (n=3; c=0; m=100 CFU/g) was 40% at slaughterhouses A and C but only 26.7% at slaughterhouse B. The results of this study show an alternative approach to establish MC for Campylobacter in broilers. According to (1) Campylobacter prevalence and concentration in Italy, (2) applied experimental plan and (3) selected slaughterhouses, the number of compliant lots to the suggested MC ranged between 26.7 and 100%. The selection of the fit for purpose MC is a risk manager decision, based on a reasonable balance between public health and cost for poultry industries.


Assuntos
Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Itália
20.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 50(1): 96-8, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24695259

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica serovar Napoli (S. Napoli) is an emerging serovar in Italy. It accounts for 2-4% of all serovars isolated from human infections. The zoonotic origin of this serovar is still unknown and this makes difficult to apply any control intervention. We report here the isolation of S. Napoli from a river nightingale (Cettia cetti, Temminck 1820) which represents the first description of this serovar from wild birds. This finding adds knowledge to the ecology of S. Napoli and addresses further studies aimed to assess the epidemiologic link between S. Napoli isolated from wild birds, food, environmental sources and human infections.


Assuntos
Aves/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Humanos , Itália , Projetos Piloto , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia
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