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1.
Bone ; 130: 115088, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study examined the association of body size (weight and length) at birth and gain in height and weight during childhood and adolescence with areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in adulthood for women and men. METHODS: 756 members (335 men and 421 women) of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth cohort were studied. Data on weight and length/height were obtained at birth and subsequent follow-ups at 1, 4, 11, 15, 18, and 22 years of age and specific z scores were calculated by sex. The outcome was whole body aBMD (g/cm²) measured at 22 years of age using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The effects of exposures, weight and length/height gain, were analyzed using conditional relative weight (CWh) and conditional length/height (CH). Linear regression models were adjusted for multiple confounders, including mother's educational level, family income, maternal smoking during pregnancy, gestational age, breastfeeding and skin color. RESULTS: In the adjusted models, among men greater height gain at 4, 11, and 18 years of age was associated with higher whole body aBMD, and the result with greatest magnitude was at 11 years of age (ß 0.018 g/cm²; 95%CI 0.006; 0.030). Among women, aBMD was associated with height gain at all assessments from 1-15 years, with greatest effect size at 4 years of age (ß 0.017 g/cm²; 95%CI 0.007; 0.027). Regarding to body weight, among men, greater weight at 4 and 15 years were associated with higher aBMD, with the highest coefficients for 15 years of age (ß 0.015 g/cm²; 95%CI 0.003; 0.027); for women, except at birth, all weight gain variables were associated with aBMD and the highest coefficients were observed at 4 years (ß 0.025 g/cm²; 95%CI 0.015; 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: In this birth cohort, height and weight gain, especially from 4 to 15 years have important positive implications for aBMD to early adulthood.

2.
J Community Health ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559518

RESUMO

Falls are the fifth leading cause of death and are one of the main causes of hospitalization. The literature about falls prevalence among older adults living in rural/remote communities in South America is scarce. To compare falls prevalence among the elderly in the Andes, Peru, and in the rural area of the municipality of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Two separate cross-sectional studies were conducted in Peru, Andes (N = 413), and Brazil, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul state (N = 1029). We stratified all data analysis according to location (Andes/Rio Grande). Characteristics of the samples were compared and the chi square test for proportions was used. Falls prevalence was then calculated for each independent variable and crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated using Poisson Regression with robust variance. Falls prevalence in the last year was much higher in the Andes (64.1%) than in Rio Grande (25.3%). For most characteristics assessed, falls prevalence in Peru was at least double that found in Rio Grande. According to the adjusted analysis for the Andes, age (80 or more), being married, divorced and alcohol intake were significantly associated with falls. In Rio Grande, female gender and being in the 70-79 and 80 or more age ranges were associated with falls as well as those who self-rated their health as poor. This paper contributes to knowledge about falls prevalence among the elderly from rural and remote communities in two South American countries. Longitudinal multicentre studies with standardized methodologies are recommended.

3.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 322, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288773

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the association of body composition components and obesity with bone density. METHODS: Prospective study with data on 2968 members of the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort from follow-ups at 18 and 22 years of age. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD, g/cm2) was evaluated for whole body, lumbar spine, and femoral neck at 22 years using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Simple and multiple linear regression, stratified by sex, were used to assess the effect of BMI, fat mass (FMI) and lean mass index (LMI), evaluated at 18 and 22 years, and obesity trajectories classified by FMI and categorized as "never", "only at 18 years", "only at 22 years" or "always" on aBMD. RESULTS: Among men, the largest coefficients were observed for BMI, followed by lean mass and fat mass. Compared to fat mass, lean mass presented the largest coefficients for all sites, with the strongest associations observed for the femoral neck (ß: 0.035 g/cm2; 95% CI: 0.031; 0.039 for both follow-ups), while the largest effect for FMI was observed for whole-body aBMD at 18 years (ß: 0.019 g/cm2; 95% CI: 0.014; 0.024). Among women, the strongest associations were observed for LMI. The largest coefficients for LMI and FMI were observed for femoral neck at age 18, presented ß: 0.030 g/cm2, 95% CI: 0.026, 0.034 for LMI and ß: 0.012 g/cm2; 95% CI: 0.009; 0.015) for FMI. Men who were "always obese" according to FMI had smallest aBMD for spine (ß: -0.014; 95%CI: - 0.029; - 0.001). Women who were obese "only at 18 years" had smallest aBMD for the whole-body (ß: -0.013; 95%CI: - 0.023; - 0.002), whereas those who were obese "only at 22 years" had larger whole-body and femoral neck aBMD (ß: 0.013; 95%CI: 0.009; 0.017 and ß: 0.027; 95%CI: 0.016; 0.038, respectively) and those "always obese" for whole-body aBMD (ß: 0.005; 95%CI: 0.001; 0.011) compared to the reference category. CONCLUSIONS: The indexes were positively associated with aBMD in this sample. Fat mass had smaller positive influence on these outcomes than lean mass, suggesting the most important body composition component for bone density is the lean mass.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Affect Disord ; 256: 441-447, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined the association between disrespect and abuse of women during facility-based childbirth and postpartum depression (PD) occurrence. METHODS: We used data from the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort, a population-based cohort of all live births in the city. We assessed 3065 mothers at pregnancy and 3-months after birth. Self-reported disrespect and abuse experiences included physical abuse, verbal abuse, denial of care, and undesired procedures. We estimate the occurrence of each disrespect and abuse type, one or more types and disrespect and abuse score. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to assess PD. EPDS scores ≥13 and ≥15 indicated at least moderate PD and marked/severe. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated by logistic regression. RESULTS: The prevalence of at least moderate PD and marked/severe PD was 9.4% and 5.7%, respectively. 18% of the women experienced at least one type of disrespect and abuse. Verbal abuse increased the odds of having at least moderate PD (OR = 1.58; 95%CI 1.06-2.33) and marked/severe PD (OR = 1.69; 95%CI 1.06-2.70) and the effect among women who did not experience antenatal depressive symptoms was greater in comparison to those who did (OR = 2.51; 95%CI 1.26-5.04 and OR = 4.27; 95%CI 1.80-10.12). Physical abuse increased the odds of having marked/severe PD (OR = 2.28; 95%CI 1.26-4.12). Having experienced three or more mistreatment types increased the odds of at least moderate PD (OR = 2.90; 95%CI 1.30 - 35.74) and marked/severe PD (OR=3.86; 95%CI 1.58-9.42). LIMITATIONS: Disrespect and abuse experiences during childbirth were self-reported. CONCLUSIONS: Disrespect and abuse during childbirth increased the odds of PD three months after birth. Strategies to promote high quality and respectful maternal health care are needed to prevent mother-child adverse outcomes.

6.
J Affect Disord ; 243: 201-208, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal and postnatal depression have been well studied in recent decades, but few studies address their relationship with hospitalization and mortality in one-year-old children. OBJECTIVE: Review the literature about the effects of maternal depression on hospitalization and mortality of the child from birth to one year of age and conduct a meta-analysis. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in the PubMed and LILACS databases. We included original studies that evaluated the effect of prenatal and/or postnatal depressive symptoms on child hospitalization or mortality up to one year of age. Meta-analyses were conducted according to the outcome and stratified by prenatal and postnatal depression, using random effects models. RESULTS: Six studies were included in this review (170,371). Children of mothers with prenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms or depression had 1.44 (CI95% 1.10 - 1.89) greater risk of hospitalization, and children of mothers with postnatal depressive symptoms or depression had 1.93 (CI95% 1.02-3.64) greater risk of death before one year of age than those whose mothers did not have the disorder. LIMITATIONS: Small number of studies (n < 10), different instrument and cut points were used to evaluate maternal depressive symptoms or diagnose depression. CONCLUSION: Maternal depressive symptoms or depression have an unfavorable effect on hospitalization and mortality in children up to one year of age. This finding is relevant to public health and should stimulate the systematic screening of prenatal and postnatal depressive symptoms, so that adequate care can be provided for women and their children.


Assuntos
Depressão Pós-Parto/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Mortalidade Infantil , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez
7.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 12579, 2017 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28974730

RESUMO

Previous reports suggest that offspring of mothers who smoke during pregnancy have greater risk of developing depression. However, it is unclear whether this is due to intrauterine effects. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) from the UK (N = 2,869), the Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT) from Norway (N = 15,493), the Pelotas 1982 Birth Cohort Study from Brazil (N = 2,626), and the Swedish Sibling Health Cohort (N = 258 sibling pairs), we compared associations of maternal smoking during pregnancy and mother's partner's smoking during pregnancy with offspring depression and performed a discordant sibling analysis. In meta-analysis, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with higher odds of offspring depression (OR 1.20, 95% CI:1.08,1.34), but mother's partner's smoking during pregnancy was not (OR 1.05, 95% CI:0.94,1.17). However, there was only weak statistical evidence that the odds ratios for maternal and mother's partner's smoking differed from each other (p = 0.08). There was no clear evidence for an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring depression in the sibling analysis. Findings do not provide strong support for a causal role of maternal smoking during pregnancy in offspring depression, rather observed associations may reflect residual confounding relating to characteristics of parents who smoke.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Noruega/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Irmãos , Cônjuges , Suécia/epidemiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
8.
J Affect Disord ; 217: 218-224, 2017 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28431382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment is linked with increased risk for mental illness in adolescence and adulthood. However, little evidence is available on whether different forms of maltreatment have specific effects, and no prospective studies in low- or middle-income countries have addressed this issue. METHODS: Participants in a population-based, birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (N=3715) self-reported exposure to maltreatment (emotional abuse, physical neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, domestic violence) in confidential questionnaires at age 15 years, and were assessed for major depression in interviews at age 18 years, using the MINI. Confounding variables concerning family characteristics were measured in interviews with mothers in the perinatal period and at age 11 years. RESULTS: Females exposed to emotional abuse (OR=2.7; 95%CI=1.9, 3.8) and domestic violence (OR=1.9; 95%CI=1.2, 2.9) were at increased risk for depression after adjustment for confounders and other types of maltreatment. Females exposed to two or more forms of maltreatment were at particularly high risk for depression (OR=4.1; 95%Cl=2.8, 6.1) compared with females not exposed to maltreatment. In adjusted analyses, maltreatment was not associated with depression for males. LIMITATIONS: Detailed information about maltreatment such as timing and frequency was not available, and 1534 individuals were not included in the analyses, who had poorer and less educated mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Emotional abuse and domestic violence are strong risk factors for major depression for females. Early intervention to prevent maltreatment and its consequences is critical, especially for girls exposed to poly-maltreatment.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Adolescente , Brasil , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
J Pediatr ; 182: 85-91.e3, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28063689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations of birthweight, nutritional status and growth in childhood with IQ, years of schooling, and monthly income at 30 years of age. STUDY DESIGN: In 1982, the 5 maternity hospitals in Pelotas, Brazil, were visited daily and 5914 live births were identified. At 30 years of age, 3701 subjects were interviewed. IQ, years of schooling, and income were measured. RESULTS: On average, their IQ was 98 points, they had 11.4 years of schooling, and the mean income was 1593 reais. After controlling for several confounders, birthweight and attained weight and length/height for age at 2 and 4 years of age were associated positively with IQ, years of years of schooling, and income, except for the association between length at 2 years of age and income. Conditional growth analyses were used to disentangle linear growth from relative weight gain. Conditional length at 2 years of age ≥1 SD score above the expected value, compared with ≥1 SD below the expected, was associated with an increase in IQ (4.28 points; 95% CI, 2.66-5.90), years of schooling (1.58 years; 95% CI, 1.08-2.08), and monthly income (303 Brazilian reais; 95% CI, 44-563). Relative weight gain, above what would be expected from linear growth, was not associated with the outcomes. CONCLUSION: In a middle-income setting, promotion of linear growth in the first 1000 days of life is likely to increase adult IQ, years of schooling, and income. Weight gain in excess of what is expected from linear growth does not seem to improve human capital.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Inteligência/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Brasil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Classe Social
10.
J Psychiatr Res ; 86: 34-38, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27894002

RESUMO

Approximately one million people commit suicide every year, being suicide attempts and ideation even more common. Changes in stress response and activation of the immune system have been associated with suicide risk. Here we investigated the interaction between immune system and HPA axis alterations in the suicide risk, looking for the influence of rs110402 CRHR1 SNP in the IL-1ß levels according to suicide ideation and attempt. This study evaluated 171 subjects of which 15 had suicidal ideation, 20 had suicide attempt and 136 were controls. Genotyping was performed by real-time PCR and IL-1ß levels were measured by ELISA. Our data showed that for each point increase in IL-1ß levels the risk of suicide attempt increased 5% [relative risk = 1.05 (95% CI: 1.0-1.10)]. After sample stratification by rs110402 SNP genotypes, we observed that in subjects carrying the A allele the risk raised to 15% [relative risk = 1.15 (95% CI: 1.03-1.28)], suggesting an apparent effect modification. Thus, this study showed that alterations in CRHR1 gene were associated with higher levels of IL-1ß, and increased risk for suicide, reinforcing the importance of multifactorial interactions of biological markers for psychiatric disorders.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/genética , Tentativa de Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Ideação Suicida , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Epidemiol ; 45(5): 1573-1587, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27170764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Milk intake has been associated with lower blood pressure (BP) in observational studies, and randomized controlled trials suggested that milk-derived tripeptides have BP-lowering effects. Milk intake has also been associated with body mass index (BMI). Nevertheless, it is unclear whether increasing milk consumption would reduce BP in the general population. METHODS: We investigated the association of milk intake with obesity and BP using genetically-defined lactase persistence (LP) based on the rs4988235 polymorphism in a Mendelian randomization design in the 1982 Pelotas (Southern Brazil) Birth Cohort. These results were combined with published reports identified through a systematic review using meta-analysis. RESULTS: In the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort, milk intake was 42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 18; 67) ml/day higher in LP individuals. In conventional observational analysis, each 1-dl/day increase in milk intake was associated with -0.26 (95% CI: -0.33; -0.19) kg/m2 in BMI and -0.31 (95% CI: -0.46; -0.16) and -0.35 (95% CI: -0.46; -0.23) mmHg in systolic and diastolic BP, respectively. These results were not corroborated when analysing LP status, but confidence intervals were large. In random effects meta-analysis, LP individuals presented higher BMI [0.17 (95% CI: 0.07; 0.27) kg/m2] and higher odds of overweight-obesity [1.09 (95% CI: 1.02; 1.17)]. There were no reliable associations for BP. CONCLUSIONS: Our study supports that LP is positively associated with obesity, suggesting that the negative association of milk intake with obesity is likely due to limitations of conventional observational studies. Our findings also do not support that increased milk intake leads to lower BP.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Dieta , Lactase/genética , Leite , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Animais , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Índice de Massa Corporal , Brasil , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactase/metabolismo , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
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