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1.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392822

RESUMO

To date, just over a hundred phenanthrenoid dimers have been isolated. Of these, forty-two are completely phenanthrenic in nature. They are isolated from fourteen genera of different plants belonging to only five families, of which Orchidaceae is the most abundant source. Other nine completely acetylated and five methylated dimers were also defined, which were effective in establishing the position of the free hydroxyls of the corresponding natural products, from which they were obtained by semi-synthesis. Structurally, they could be useful chemotaxonomic markers considering that some substituents are typical of a single-family, such as the vinyl group for Juncaceae. From a biogenetic point of view, it is thought that these compounds derive from the radical coupling of the corresponding phenanthrenes or by dehydrogenation of the dihydrophenanthrenoid analogs. Phenanthrenes or dihydroderivatives possess different biological activities, e.g., antiproliferative, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, spasmolytic, anxiolytic, and antialgal effects. The aim of this review is to summarize the occurrence of phenanthrene dimers in the different natural sources and give a comprehensive overview their structural characteristics and biological activities.

2.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 358, 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The South America pinworm, Tuta absoluta, is a destructive pest of tomato that causes important losses worldwide. Breeding of resistant/tolerant tomato cultivars could be an effective strategy for T. absoluta management but, despite the economic importance of tomato, very limited information is available about its response to this treat. To elucidate the defense mechanisms to herbivore feeding a comparative analysis was performed between a tolerant and susceptible cultivated tomato at both morphological and transcriptome level to highlight constitutive leaf barriers, molecular and biochemical mechanisms to counter the effect of T. absoluta attack. RESULTS: The tolerant genotype showed an enhanced constitutive barrier possibly as result of the higher density of trichomes and increased inducible reactions upon mild infestation thanks to the activation/repression of key transcription factors regulating genes involved in cuticle formation and cell wall strength as well as of antinutritive enzymes, and genes involved in the production of chemical toxins and bioactive secondary metabolites. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our findings suggest that tomato resilience to the South America pinworm is achieved by a combined strategy between constitutive and induced defense system. A well-orchestrated modulation of plant transcription regulation could ensure a trade-off between defense needs and fitness costs. Our finding can be further exploited for developing T. absoluta tolerant cultivars, acting as important component of integrated pest management strategy for more sustainable production.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Ontologia Genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Larva/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/parasitologia , Mariposas/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Tricomas/genética , Tricomas/metabolismo , Tricomas/parasitologia
3.
Biomolecules ; 11(2)2021 02 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669378

RESUMO

Fungi are among the biotic agents that can cause deterioration of building stones and cultural heritage. The most common methods used to control fungal spread and growth are based on chemical pesticides. However, the massive use of these synthetic chemicals produces heavy environmental pollution and risk to human and animal health. Furthermore, their use is time dependent and relies on the repetition of treatments, which increases the possibility of altering building stones and culture heritage through environmental contamination. One alternative is the use of natural products with high antifungal activity, which can result in reduced toxicity and deterioration of archeological remains. Recently, three fungal strains, namely Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum, were isolated as damaging agents from the external tuff wall of the Roman remains "Villa of Poppea" in Oplontis, Naples, Italy. In this manuscript, three selected fungal metabolites, namely cyclopaldic acid, cavoxin and epi-epoformin, produced by fungi pathogenic for forest plants, were evaluated as potential antifungal compounds against the above fungi. Cavoxin and epi-epoformin showed antifungal activity against Asperigillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum, while cyclopaldic acid showed no activity when tested on the three fungi. The same antifungal activity was observed in vitro experiments on infected stones of the Neapolitan yellow tuff (NYT), a volcanic lithotype widely diffused in the archeological sites of Campania, Italy. This study represents a first step in the use of these two fungal metabolites to allow better preservation of artworks and to guarantee the conditions suitable for their conservation.


Assuntos
Alternaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos , Benzoatos/farmacologia , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Alternaria/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Aspergillus niger/metabolismo , Benzoatos/isolamento & purificação , Benzoatos/metabolismo , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Produtos Biológicos/química , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Difusão , Fusarium/metabolismo , Itália , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
4.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232512, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365130

RESUMO

In this work, we want to investigate the impact of different substrates and different environmental condition on the biofilm communities growing on plaster, marble, and mortar substrates inside the Herculaneum Suburban Baths. To do so, we measured environmental conditions and sampled biofilm communities along the walls of the baths and used culture-dependent and -independent molecular techniques (DGGE) to identify the species at each sampling sites. We used the species pool to infer structure and richness of communities within each site in each substrate, and confocal light scanning microscopy to assess the three-dimensional structure of the sampled biofilms. To gather further insights, we built a meta-community network and used its local realizations to analyze co-occurrence patterns of species. We found that light is a limiting factor in the baths environment, that moving along sites equals moving along an irradiation gradient, and that such gradient shapes the community structure, de facto separating a dark community, rich in Bacteria, Fungi and cyanobacteria, from two dim communities, rich in Chlorophyta. Almost all sites are dominated by photoautotrophs, with Fungi and Bacteria relegated to the role of rare species., and structural properties of biofilms are not consistent within the same substrate. We conclude that the Herculaneum suburban baths are an environment-shaped community, where one dark community (plaster) and one dim community (mortar) provides species to a "midway" community (marble).


Assuntos
Banhos/história , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiota , Materiais de Construção/história , Materiais de Construção/microbiologia , Microbiologia Ambiental , História Antiga , Humanos , Itália , Microbiota/genética , Microscopia Confocal
5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 5780, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238858

RESUMO

Biofilm formation poses an important clinical trouble due to resistance to antimicrobial agents; therefore, there is an urgent demand for new antibiofilm strategies that focus on the use of alternative compounds also in combination with conventional drugs. Drug-tolerant persisters are present in Candida albicans biofilms and are detected following treatment with high doses of amphotericin B. In this study, persisters were found in biofilms treated with amphotericin B of two clinical isolate strains, and were capable to form a new biofilm in situ. We investigated the possibility of eradicating persister-derived biofilms from these two Candida albicans strains, using the peptide gH625 analogue (gH625-M). Confocal microscopy studies allowed us to characterize the persister-derived biofilm and understand the mechanism of interaction of gH625-M with the biofilm. These findings confirm that persisters may be responsible for Candida biofilm survival, and prove that gH625-M was very effective in eradicating persister-derived biofilms both alone and in combination with conventional antifungals, mainly strengthening the antibiofilm activity of fluconazole and 5-flucytosine. Our strategy advances our insights into the development of effective antibiofilm therapeutic approaches.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/química , Candida albicans/fisiologia , Candidíase/tratamento farmacológico , Candidíase/microbiologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
6.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(12): 3466-3477, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730154

RESUMO

Plant innate immunity mostly relies on nucleotide-binding (NB) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) intracellular receptors to detect pathogen-derived molecules and to induce defense responses. A multitaxa reconstruction of NB-domain associations allowed us to identify the first NB-LRR arrangement in the Chlorophyta division of the Viridiplantae. Our analysis points out that the basic NOD-like receptor (NLR) unit emerged in Chlorophytes by horizontal transfer and its diversification started from Toll/interleukin receptor-NB-LRR members. The operon-based genomic structure of Chromochloris zofingiensis NLR copies suggests a functional origin of NLR clusters. Moreover, the transmembrane signatures of NLR proteins in the unicellular alga C. zofingiensis support the hypothesis that the NLR-based immunity system of plants derives from a cell-surface surveillance system. Taken together, our findings suggest that NLRs originated in unicellular algae and may have a common origin with cell-surface LRR receptors.


Assuntos
Transferência Genética Horizontal , Proteínas NLR/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Clorófitas/classificação , Clorófitas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genômica , Proteínas NLR/metabolismo , Motivos de Nucleotídeos , Óperon , Filogenia , Imunidade Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/classificação , Plantas/genética
7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 143: 50-60, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479882

RESUMO

The huge amounts of biomass residues, remaining in the field after tomato fruits harvesting, can be utilized to produce bioenergy. A multiple level approach aimed to characterize two Solanum pennellii introgression lines (ILs), with contrasting phenotypes for plant architecture and biomass was carried out. The study of gene expression dynamics, microscopy cell traits and qualitative and quantitative cell wall chemical compounds variation enabled the discovery of key genes and cell processes involved biomass accumulation and composition. Enhanced biomass production observed in IL2-6 line is due to a more effective coordination of chloroplasts and mitochondria energy fluxes. Microscopy analysis revealed a higher number of cells and chloroplasts in leaf epidermis in the high biomass line whilst chemical measurements on the two lines pointed out striking differences in the cell wall composition and organization. Taken together, our findings shed light on the mechanisms underlying the tomato biomass production and processability.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Biomassa , Parede Celular/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
8.
Phytochem Anal ; 30(5): 564-571, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238388

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Artemisia annua is a small herbaceous plant belonging to the Asteraceae family declared therapeutic by the World Health Organisation, in particular for its artemisinin content, an active ingredient at the base of most antimalarial treatments, used every year by over 300 million people. In the last years, owing to low artemisinin content, research of new ways to increase the yield of the plant matrix has led to the use of the total extract taking advantage from the synergic and stabilising effects of the other components. OBJECTIVE: In this work we evaluated and compared the content of artemisinin and scopoletin in extracts of A. annua collected in the Campania Region (southern Italy), by two different extraction processes. METHODOLOGY: Artemisia annua plants were extracted by traditional maceration (TM) in hydroalcoholic solution as a mother tincture prepared according to the European Pharmacopeia and by pressurised cyclic solid-liquid (PCSL) extraction, a new generation method using the Naviglio extractor. RESULTS: The results showed that the PCSL extraction technique is more effective than traditional methods in extracting both phytochemicals, up to 15 times more, reducing the extraction times, without using solvents or having risks for the operators, the environment and the users of the extracts. CONCLUSION: The Naviglio extractor provides extracts with an artemisinin and scopoletin content eight times higher than the daily therapeutic dose, which should be evaluated for its stability over time and biological properties for possible direct use for therapeutic purposes.


Assuntos
Artemisia annua/química , Artemisininas/isolamento & purificação , Extração Líquido-Líquido/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Escopoletina/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Pressão
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(26): 26079-26089, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971739

RESUMO

The Cyanobacterium Oculatella subterranea Zammit, Billi, Albertano inhabits hypogea and stone caves and is a pioneer of different stone substrata. In this study, a strain isolated from the House of Marco Castricio (Archaeological Park of Pompeii, Italy) was identified by a polyphasic approach and used for an in vitro colonization test to verify the influence of the substrate on the biofilm architecture. Fine structure of O. subterranea microbial mats was revealed as well as filaments orientation toward light source. This aim has been achieved through confocal laser scanner microscope microscopy and computer image analysis. Moreover, bioreceptivity of five different substrates, commonly retrieved in archaeological sites of Campania, was assessed for O. subterranea. Our results show that the three-dimensional structure of O. subterranea microbial mats is poorly affected by physical and geochemical features of substrates: in fact, the porous architecture of its biofilm was preserved, independently of the materials. On the other hand, the area/perimeter ratio relative to the O. subterranea growth on tuff, brick, and porphyry showed significant differences, indicating dissimilar levels of bioreceptivity of the three substrates.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cianobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Itália , Luz , Microscopia Confocal
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24302963

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the activity of Italian vulnerary plants against the most important oral pathogenic bacteria. This estimate was accomplished through a fivefold process: (a) a review of ethnobotanical and microbiological data concerning the Italian vulnerary plants; (b) the development of a scoring system to rank the plants; (c) the comparative assessment of microbiological properties; (d) the assessment of potential cytotoxic effects on keratinocyte-like cells and gingival fibroblasts in culture by XTT cell viability assay; (e) clinical evaluation of the most suitable plant extract as antibacterial agent in a home-made mouthwash. The study assays hexane (H), ethanol (E), and water (W) extracts from 72 plants. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces viscosus. Twenty-two plants showed appreciable activity. The extracts showing the strongest antibacterial power were those from Cotinus coggygria Scop., Equisetum hyemale L., Helichrysum litoreum Guss, Juniperus communis L., and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman subsp. scolopendrium. The potential cytotoxic effect of these extracts was assessed. On the basis of these observations, a mouth-rinse containing the ethanolic extract of H. litoreum has been tested in vivo, resulting in reduction of the salivary concentration of S. mutans.

11.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 8: 4, 2012 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22264313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Ethnobotanical Collection from the Libyan territories of the botanist Alessandro Trotter is included in the Oratio Comes Botanical Museum at the Faculty of Agraria at the University Federico II in Naples. Trotter explored different territories of Libya, mainly Tripolitania, between 1912-1924, collecting plant specimens and the drugs most frequently sold in the markets. The Libyan herbarium currently includes over 2300 sheets of mounted and accessioned plants. The drugs, mostly acquired by Trotter from Tripolitanian markets, were identified and packed in 87 paper sheets or boxes. Trotter added ethnobotanical information for each species when available. METHODS: A database of the herbarium species and the drugs has been carried out, after a taxonomic update. Nomenclature has been revised according to the African flowering plants database and the World Checklist of selected plant families, and a comparison with currently available ethnopharmacological data from North African has been attempted. RESULTS: In this study, ethnopharmacological data related to about 80 species of flowering plants and to 4 lichens are presented. The plants are mainly from Mediterranean or Sub-Saharan habitats and belong to 37 different families; Lamiaceae was the most cited family, with 10 accessions. Generally, the aerial parts of the plants are the most frequently used (28 species), followed by leaves (15 species), flowers and seeds (9 species), fruits (7 species) and hypogean organs (roots, rhizomes, tubers: 5 species). Plants were generally processed in very simple ways: infusion or decoction of the plants were prepared and orally administered or used for topical applications. A wide range of conditions was treated, ranging from mental disorders to skin affections. All the organs of human body are considered, but the pathologies of gastro-intestinal tract, respiratory system and those related to traumatic accidents were the most frequently mentioned. The comparison with the recent ethnopharmacological research in Maghreb and its neighboring countries reveals a high correspondence; almost all the plants cited by Trotter are still used in the folk medicine of at least one of the North African countries, and the therapeutic uses of each plant appear consistent over time. CONCLUSIONS: The information collected by Trotter is an important contribution to tracing plant utilization in Libyan folk medicine over the last century.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Etnobotânica , Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional Africana , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Plantas Medicinais , África ao Sul do Saara , África do Norte , Etnobotânica/história , Etnofarmacologia/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Itália , Líbia , Museus , Universidades
12.
Fitoterapia ; 80(5): 255-62, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19397954

RESUMO

Polyphenols occurring in cocoa, coffee and tea can have a role in the prevention of cariogenic processes, due to their antibacterial action. Cocoa polyphenol pentamers significantly reduce biofilm formation and acid production by Streptococcus mutans and S. sanguinis. In the same way, trigonelline, caffeine and chlorogenic acid occurring in green and roasted coffee interfere with S. mutans adsorption to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads. Studies carried out on green, oolong and black tea indicate that tea polyphenols exert an anti-caries effect via an anti-microbial mode-of-action, and galloyl esters of (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin and (-)-gallocatechin show increasing antibacterial activities. The anti-cariogenic effects against alpha-haemolytic streptococci showed by polyphenols from cocoa, coffee, and tea suggest further studies to a possible application of these beverages in the prevention of pathogenesis of dental caries.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cacau , Camellia sinensis , Coffea , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Streptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Bebidas , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Cacau/química , Camellia sinensis/química , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Coffea/química , Magnoliopsida/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis
13.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 5: 7, 2009 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19228384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethnobotanical studies generally describe the traditional knowledge of a territory according to a "hic et nunc" principle. The need of approaching this field also embedding historical data has been frequently acknowledged. With their long history of civilization some regions of the Mediterranean basin seem to be particularly suited for an historical approach to be adopted. Campania, a region of southern Italy, has been selected for a database implementation containing present and past information on plant uses. METHODS: A relational database has been built on the basis of information gathered from different historical sources, including diaries, travel accounts, and treatises on medicinal plants, written by explorers, botanists, physicians, who travelled in Campania during the last three centuries. Moreover, ethnobotanical uses described in historical herbal collections and in Ancient and Medieval texts from the Mediterranean Region have been included in the database. RESULTS: 1672 different uses, ranging from medicinal, to alimentary, ceremonial, veterinary, have been recorded for 474 species listed in the data base. Information is not uniformly spread over the Campanian territory; Sannio being the most studied geographical area and Cilento the least one. About 50 plants have been continuously used in the last three centuries in the cure of the same affections. A comparison with the uses reported for the same species in Ancient treatises shows that the origin of present ethnomedicine from old learned medical doctrines needs a case-by-case confirmation. CONCLUSION: The database is flexible enough to represent a useful tool for researchers who need to store and compare present and previous ethnobotanical uses from Mediterranean Countries.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Etnobotânica , Medicina Tradicional/história , Fitoterapia/história , Plantas Medicinais , Etnobotânica/métodos , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Itália
14.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 109(2): 295-303, 2007 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16987626

RESUMO

An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the territory of Montecorvino Rovella (MR), inland Campania, Italy. Information on traditional uses of 95 botanical taxa was collected; more than half of which are used to treat a wide range of diseases, ranging from pains of different origins, to skin problems, and diseases of the respiratory system. For each medicinal species, data were collected including the vernacular names, preparation, plant part, and therapeutic use. Twenty-four out of the 57 medicinal plants listed have a therapeutic use not previously reported in Campania and neighbouring regions. Plant uses by Montecorvino inhabitants are compared with those described in medical and botanical literature by Campanian authors from the last three centuries.


Assuntos
Etnobotânica , Plantas Medicinais , Coleta de Dados , Etnofarmacologia , Itália , Medicina Tradicional
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