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1.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 71: 102984, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840747

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis is a connective tissue disease with cutaneous involvement. Clinical manifestations result from the balance of inflammations/autoimmunity process and fibrogenesis. Patients suffer from skin ulcers, non-ulcerative lesions including digital pitting scars, telangiectasias, subungual hyperkeratosis, abrasions, fissures, and subcutaneous calcinosis. A review about the pathophysiology of the disease, the physical examination of the patients, the instrumental assessment, and possible treatments is performed.

3.
Wound Repair Regen ; 29(6): 961-972, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473875

RESUMO

Pressure injuries (PI) are infrequent in paediatric patients, prevalence estimates ranging from 1.4% to 8.2%, and reaching values as high as 43.1% in critical care areas. They can be associated with congenital neurological or metabolic disorders that cause reduced mobility or require the need for medical devices. In children, most pressure injuries heal spontaneously. However, a small percentage of ulcers that is refractory to conservative management or is too severe at presentation (Stage 3 or 4) will be candidates for surgery. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical history of paediatric patients affected by pressure injuries from four European Plastic Surgery Centres. Information was collected from clinical and radiology records, and laboratory reports. An accurate search of the literature revealed only two articles reporting on the surgical treatment of pressure injuries in children. After debridement, we performed surgical coverage of the pressure injuries. We report here our experience with 18 children aged 1-17 years, affected by pressure injury Stages 3 and 4. They were successfully treated with pedicled (17 patients) or free flaps (1 patient). The injuries involved the sacrum (6/18 patients), lower limb (3/18 patients), thoracic spine (2/18 patients), ischium (3/18 patients, bilateral in one patient), temporal area (3/18 patients), hypogastrium (1/18 patients) and were associated to medical devices in three cases. Flaps were followed for a minimum of 19 months and up to 13 years. Only two patients developed true recurrences that were treated again surgically. Pressure injuries are infrequent in children and rarely need surgical treatment. Pedicled flaps have a high success rate. Recurrences, contrary to what is reported in the literature, were rare.

4.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 481, 2021 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454577

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adipose tissue (AT) has become a source of mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) for regenerative medicine applications, in particular skeletal disorders. Several enzymatic or mechanical procedures have been proposed to process AT with the aim to isolate cells that can be locally implanted. How AT is processed may impact its properties. Thus, we compared AT processed by centrifugation (C-AT) to microfragmentation (MF-AT). Focusing on MF-AT, we subsequently assessed the impact of synovial fluid (SF) alone on both MF-AT and isolated AT-MSC to better understand their cartilage repair mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MF-AT and C-AT from the same donors were compared by histology and qRT-PCR immediately after isolation or as ex vivo cultures using a micro-tissue pellet system. The in vitro impact of SF on MF-AT and AT-MSC was assessed by histological staining and molecular analysis. RESULTS: The main AT histological features (i.e., increased extracellular matrix and cellularity) of the freshly isolated or ex vivo-cultured MF-AT persisted compared to C-AT, which rapidly deteriorated during culture. Based on our previous studies of HOX genes in MSC, we investigated the involvement of Homeobox Protein HOX-B7 (HOXB7) and its target basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) in the molecular mechanism underlying the improved performance of MF-AT. Indeed, both these biomarkers were more prominent in freshly isolated MF-AT compared to C-AT. SF alone preserved the AT histological features of MF-AT, together with HOXB7 and bFGF expression. Increased cell performance was also observed in isolated AT-MSC after SF treatment concomitant with enhanced HOXB7 expression, although there was no apparent association with bFGF. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that MF has a positive effect on the maintenance of AT histology and may trigger the expression of trophic factors that improve tissue repair by processed AT.


Assuntos
Genes Homeobox , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Tecido Adiposo , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Líquido Sinovial
5.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S3): e2021001, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We present the case of a 22 y.o. male patient suffering from scaphoid non-union with avascular necrosis of the proximal pole and initial degenerative arthritis. CASE REPORT: He referred to our institution with functional impairment and persistent pain (VAS 8\10). The patient underwent the positioning of the small size Adaptive Proximal Scaphoid Implant (APSI), without fixation, through an open dorsal approach and radial styloidectomy. The post-operative course was uneventful, and the patient could resume his daily routine without limitations. 5 years later the patient returned to our department referring a dorsal perilunate dislocation on the same hand. Unexpectedly no implant dislocation occurred and we were able to reduce the perilunate dislocation maintaining the same implant. At 30-month follow-up the patient was pain free (VAS 0\10) with almost completely recovered function of the hand and wrist. CONCLUSION: In order to minimize implant dislocation, both an adequate scaphoid resection and the choice of the right implant size (which should be lightly downsized compared to the scaphoid resection) are of paramount importance. At the same time, the capsuloplasty should be carefully performed at the right tension, providing adequate stability to the implant. This technique provided satisfactory functional results in a long-term follow-up, even in a young and active patient. Moreover, it does not preclude or complicate the possibility of resorting to different surgical procedures in case of necessity, whilst maintaining the same implant.


Assuntos
Luxações Articulares , Osteonecrose , Osso Escafoide , Artrodese , Humanos , Luxações Articulares/diagnóstico por imagem , Luxações Articulares/cirurgia , Masculino , Osso Escafoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso Escafoide/cirurgia , Articulação do Punho , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Pers Med ; 11(5)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065795

RESUMO

Breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) represents a global healthcare issue affecting the emotional and life quality of breast cancer survivors significantly. The clinical presentation is characterized by swelling of the affected upper limb, that may be accompanied by atrophic skin findings, pain and recurrent cellulitis. Cardinal principles of lymphedema management are the use of complex decongestive therapy and patient education. Recently, new microsurgery procedures have been reported with interesting results, bringing in a new opportunity to care postmastectomy lymphedema. However, many aspects of the disease are still debated in the medical community, including clinical examination, imaging techniques, patient selection and proper treatment. Here we will review these aspects and the current literature.

7.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 66: 102418, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34141410

RESUMO

Different options for upper limb reconstruction are described in literature: advancement or rotation flaps, regional flaps and free flaps are the most common. Local and regional flaps can represent the reconstructive options for small defects while large wounds require the use of free flaps or distant pedicled flaps. In case of large wound, the use of free flaps rather than distant pedicle flaps is usually preferred. To choose the best reconstructive option, it is essential for the surgeon to have a general overview about the different methods. In this review the Authors will refer to the most commonly used methods to cover soft tissues injuries affecting the dorsum and the palm of the hand and the forearm (excluding fingers). The aim is to show all flap reconstructive options so as to support the inexperienced surgeon during the management of traumatic injuries of the upper limb.

8.
Microsurgery ; 41(6): 584-593, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960527

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prelamination is a reconstructive technique providing fasciomucosal or composite flaps with low donor-site morbidity. We conducted a systematic review of retrospective studies to assess the application of prelaminated flaps in reconstructive surgery of head and neck cancer patients, and to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of this technique. METHODS: This systematic review adhered to the recommendations of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis) 2009 guidelines. A computerized MEDLINE search was performed using the PubMed service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine (www.pubmed.org) and Scopus database (www.scopus.com), running the following search string: "prelamination OR prelaminated AND flap." Two authors screened the articles, then selected and extracted data on malignancies characteristics, reconstructive techniques, outcomes and complications. RESULTS: A total of 19 articles were selected and reviewed from 128 identified. Seven of 19 articles were case reports, 12 articles were case series. One-hundred-two patients underwent reconstructive treatment by prelamination technique using a wide variety of flaps (92 free, 10 pedicled). The sites of reconstruction were oral cavity (66 floor of the mouth, 3 retromolar trigone, 6 hard palate, 4 cheek, 4 tongue), 8 facial skin (5 of them sited on the nose), 4 oropharyngeal defects, 1 laryngotracheal region. No case of total flap loss was reported. Partial flap loss or shrinkage requiring minor surgical revisions was observed in 18 patients (17.6%). Primary closure of the donor site was achieved in 97 cases (97%) and 3 (3%) required revision surgery of the donor site. CONCLUSION: Prelamination is an effective and versatile technique, with low donor-site morbidity. Further studies would be needed to investigate the impact on the patient's oncologic outcome. More comparative studies with standard reconstructive techniques are essential to understand when it is worth performing this sophisticated procedure.


Assuntos
Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Bochecha/cirurgia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/cirurgia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Retalhos Cirúrgicos
9.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 9(3): e3472, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907656

RESUMO

Background: The aim of the present study was to show that the Infection Risk Index (IRI), based on only 3 factors (wound classification, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and duration of surgery), can be used to standardize selection of infection high-risk patients undergoing different surgical procedures in Plastic Surgery. Methods: In our Division of Plastic Surgery at Modena University Hospital, we studied 3 groups of patients: Group A (122 post-bariatric abdominoplasties), Group B (223 bilateral reduction mammoplasties), and Group C (201 tissue losses with first intention healing). For each group, we compared surgical site infection (SSI) rate and ratio between patients with 0 or 1 risk factors (IRI score 0 or 1) and patients with 2 or 3 risk factors (IRI score 2 or 3). Results: In group A, patients with IRI score 0-1 showed an SSI Ratio of 2.97%, whereas patients with IRI score 2-3 developed an SSI ratio of 27.27%. In group B, patients with IRI score 0-1 showed an SSI ratio of 2.99%, whereas patients with IRI score 2-3 developed an SSI ratio of 18.18%. In group C, patients with IRI score 0-1 showed an SSI ratio of 7.62%, whereas patients with IRI score 2-3 developed an SSI ratio of 30.77%. Conclusions: Existing infection risk calculators are procedure-specific and time-consuming. IRI score is simple, fast, and unspecific but is able to identify patients at high or low risk of postoperative infections. Our results suggest the utility of IRI score in refining the infection risk stratification profile in Plastic Surgery.

11.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 147(3): 585-591, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nonresorbable substances are still injected to enhance soft-tissue volumes and fill subcutaneous defects. The minimally invasive intralesional laser treatment can remove foreign substances and the inflammatory reaction, eventually leaving depression and scar tissue in the treated area. Fat grafting can restore volume loss and improve scar tissue. METHODS: From March of 2010 to February of 2017, 33 patients were studied. All of them had suffered from inflammatory reactions to permanent facial fillers and had been treated with the 808-nm diode laser at the authors' institution. The evacuation of material had left facial asymmetry and visible depression. To restore facial aesthetic units, fat grafting was performed. The minimum follow-up was 6 months. RESULTS: Volume restoration was recognized (according to the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale) as significantly improved in 22 patients, moderately improved in eight patients, and slightly improved in three patients. Improvement in atrophic and scarred tissues (with an apparent thickening of the skin or even elimination of scars) was also assessed with the following results: 25 patients were very much improved and eight were moderately improved. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study on filler-induced complications of the face treated by intralesional laser treatment followed by lipofilling. A systematic approach to volume restoration is proposed to patients who had filler removal of the face. There was a high degree of patient satisfaction with this technique. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.


Assuntos
Preenchedores Dérmicos/efeitos adversos , Face/cirurgia , Assimetria Facial/cirurgia , Reação a Corpo Estranho/cirurgia , Lasers Semicondutores/uso terapêutico , Gordura Subcutânea/transplante , Adulto , Cicatriz/etiologia , Cicatriz/cirurgia , Estética , Assimetria Facial/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Reação a Corpo Estranho/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Case Reports Plast Surg Hand Surg ; 8(1): 18-22, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628864

RESUMO

Here we describe the case of a 60-year-old-woman with systemic sclerosis sent to our Scleroderma Unit to treat digital stumps. The stumps were successfully treated with autologous fat grafting (crown-shape infiltration). Our technique of autologous lipotransfer improved wound healing in a scleroderma patient with stump-digital ulcers where all other options failed.

13.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 62: 37-42, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33489114

RESUMO

Since the introduction of fibula flap as a reconstructive technique, an evolution of indications has been observed. Our first report of a traumatic mandibular reconstruction using fibula flap was in 1992. The vast majority of indications for surgery, are: malignant tumors, benign neoplasms, osteoradionecrosis and traumas. Nevertheless, extended indications have been described such as the treatment of dentoalveolar defect without bone discontinuity or reconstruction of maxilla defect up to type III (A and B), according to Cordeiro's classification. Unusual indications include cleft palate malformations with bone discontinuity less than 6 cm. Moreover, a particular attention should be focus on fibula flap harvest with more innovative technologies than traditional use of monopolar or bipolar and their advantages in pre and postoperative management.

14.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 74(4): 755-767, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Upper limb preservation after soft tissue sarcoma (STS) surgical excision is now the accepted gold standard and it often requires reconstruction with free flaps. The purpose of this review is to summarize current literature on upper limb reconstruction with free flaps after STS resection. METHODS: A systematic review was performed in July 2019 in PubMed and MedLine Ovid databases according to the PRISMA guidelines. RESULTS: A total of 17 studies were included in the final analysis, with 132 patients. The most common diagnosis was Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma. The most frequent timing of flap coverage was immediate. The success rate was almost always 100%. The length of follow-up was reported in 11 studies with a range of 2-187 months. The most commonly reported patient-centered outcome was the MSTS Score. Based on the evidence of the literature collected, we divided the upper limb into four parts (shoulder, elbow and arm, forearm and wrist, and hand) and described the most common and functional free flaps used for reconstruction after STS resection. CONCLUSIONS: Free flaps in the treatment of STS of the upper extremity have a good overall outcome, with a low postoperative complication rate. A wide array of free flaps is available for reconstruction, and the choice of flap is based on defect size, types of tissue required, postoperative functional goal, and surgeon preference. A greater degree of standardization is needed in the reporting of patient-centered outcomes to facilitate future comparative studies.


Assuntos
Retalhos de Tecido Biológico , Histiocitoma Fibroso Maligno/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos , Sarcoma/cirurgia , Extremidade Superior/cirurgia , Humanos
15.
Microsurgery ; 41(2): 186-195, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170970

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Venous congestion is the most common vascular complication of the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flaps. Adding a second venous drainage by anastomosing a flap vein and a recipient vein (super-drainage) is considered the solution of choice. Evidence to support this procedure, had not yet been confirmed by an analysis of the literature. We aimed to provide this evidence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched the literature (MedLine, Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar), for studies discussing venous congestion and venous super-drainage in DIEP flap for breast reconstruction. Thirteen of the 35 articles compared results between one or two venous anastomoses. Meta-analysis was performed following PRISMA guidelines. Pooled risk ratio (RRs) for congestion, fat necrosis, partial necrosis, and total necrosis with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a fixed-effect model with the Mantel-Haenszel method. The need to return to surgery (95% CI) was estimated with a random effect model using the DerSimonian and Liard method. RESULTS: We showed a statistically significant advantage of super-drainage to reduce the venous congestion of the flap (RR: 0.12, 95% CI: 0.04-0.34, p-value <.001), partial flap necrosis (RR: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.30-0.84, p-value .008), total flap necrosis (RR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11-0.85, p-value .023), and the need to take the patient back to surgery for perfusion-related complications (RR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.21-0.99, p value .048). CONCLUSIONS: Performing a second venous anastomosis between the SIEV and a recipient vein (venous superdrainage) reduces venous congestion and related complications in DIEP flaps for breast reconstruction.


Assuntos
Hiperemia , Mamoplastia , Retalho Perfurante , Drenagem , Artérias Epigástricas/cirurgia , Humanos , Hiperemia/etiologia , Hiperemia/cirurgia , Mamoplastia/efeitos adversos , Retalho Perfurante/cirurgia
17.
J Reconstr Microsurg ; 37(3): 234-241, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027830

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Injury or compression of a sensory nerve is an under-reported source of disabling pain in the lower limb. It is known that peripheral nerve microsurgeons can reconstruct and rewire injured nerves to relieve chronic pain but this option remains not completely understood and ignored by most orthopaedic surgeons, neurologists, and pain therapists. In this paper, we describe our experience with knee and ankle peripheral nerve surgery to improve the condition of patients suffering from chronic, posttraumatic lower limb pain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 2015 and 2018, a retrospective investigation was performed including patients who underwent ankle and knee nerve surgery for posttraumatic chronic pain with at least 1 year of follow-up. Previous surgeries or type of trauma, pain location and characteristics, type of operation (reconstruction, decompression, or denervation), and number of nerves operated were listed. Selective neuropathy was confirmed by ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. Outcome was assessed combining the visual analogue scale (VAS) score at rest and during movement, functional indexes, drug use, and ability to work. RESULTS: A total of 34 patients (14 knee and 20 ankle) were included in this study. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05%) in postoperative pain at rest and during activity was seen in both groups of patients. Good to excellent outcomes were recorded in 92 and 80% of patients treated, respectively, at the knee and the ankle levels. No major complications occurred, while a secondary procedure due to neuroma recurrence was necessary in seven patients (three knees and four ankles). CONCLUSION: Peripheral nerve microsurgery is a useful and minimally invasive tool to be added in the algorithm of treatment of chronic knee and ankle pain. Physicians should be trained to suspect a neuropathic origin of pain in absence of musculoskeletal signs of pathology, especially following trauma or surgeries.


Assuntos
Tornozelo , Articulação do Joelho , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Algoritmos , Tornozelo/cirurgia , Humanos , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Dor Pós-Operatória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Reconstr Microsurg ; 37(3): 216-226, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venous congestion is the most common perfusion-related complication of deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap. Several hydraulic constructs can be created for venous superdrainage in case of flap venous engorgement or as a preventive measure. These can be classified based on the choice of the draining vein of the flap, either a second deep inferior epigastric vein (DIEV) or a superficial inferior epigastric vein (SIEV), and of the recipient vein, either a vein of the chest or the DIEV. METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive systematic literature review in Medline, Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar to find publications that reported on venous congestion in DIEP flap. The keywords used were DIEP Flap, breast reconstruction, venous congestion, supercharging, superdrainage, SIEV, and DIEV. RESULTS: Based on the studies found in the literature, we developed an algorithm to guide the surgeon's decision when choosing the veins for the superdrainage anastomosis. CONCLUSION: Several alternatives for venous anastomosis in superdrainage are available. We propose an algorithm to simplify the choice. The use of the ipsilateral SIEV to be connected to a vein of the chest appears to be advantageous. The anatomical position that allows the easiest anastomosis dictates which chest vein to favor.


Assuntos
Mamoplastia , Algoritmos , Drenagem , Artérias Epigástricas/cirurgia , Humanos , Retalho Perfurante/cirurgia
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