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1.
J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol ; 29(11): 1508-1514, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080278

RESUMO

AIM: It is commonly conceived that coronary sinus (CS) participates in atrial flutter (AFL) circuit but limited to the fibers surrounding its ostium. We evaluated the involvement of proximal CS in typical AFL. METHODS: Twenty AFL patients underwent entrainment mapping using postpacing interval minus AFL cycle length (PPI-AFL CL) including CS where a decapolar catheter was positioned with proximal bipole 1 cm from the ostium. RESULTS: We compared patients with proximal CS within the circuit (group 1, PPI-AFL CL ≤ 20 ms + concealed entrainment) and those without (group 2, PPI-AFL CL > 20 ms). Group 1 patients were older, 77.5 ± 4 vs 71 ± 12 years (P < 0.05). No difference was found in AFL CL, PPI-AFL CL at cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) entry, plateau, and septal site. Group 1 patients had shorter PPI-AFL CL at proximal CS (9 ± 3 vs 40 ± 15 ms; P < 0.001) and fragmented mesodiastolic CS atrial potentials (APs) (106 ± 27 vs 58.5 ± 22 ms; P < 0.001). A mid-septal unexcitable scar was found in five of eight group 1 patients vs one of 12 group 2 patients (P < 0.05). All were ablated at CTI. A patient had AFL recurrence and underwent a second attempt: PPI-AFL CL was 60 ms at CTI entry and less than or equal to 20 ms at septal CTI and proximal CS; AFL was terminated 1 cm inside CS, applying RF at a fragmented AP. CONCLUSION: Proximal CS appears to be involved in a substantial subset of typical AFL patients, in whom advanced age, fragmented CS APs, and the presence of right atrial scar are prevalent. Proximal CS might be considered as an un-"innocent by-stander," but able, in rare cases, to generate a second AFL circuit.

3.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 37(3): 345-55, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24236932

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate time course and predictors of progression of paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) to permanent AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 460 patients referred for paroxysmal (n = 337) or persistent (n = 123) AF between 1994 and 2012. Mean follow-up was 13.2 ± 6.5 years. AF progression rate was 3.7% per year, 19.7% at 5 years, and 38.1% at 10 years. Lone AF was diagnosed in 217 patients (47%). Predictors of permanent AF were: age, persistent AF, left atrial (LA) size, left ventricular-fractional shortening (LV-FS), lack of antiarrhythmic (AA) drugs, VVI pacing (P < 0.001 for all), and valvular disease (P < 0.02). Independent predictors were age (P < 0.001), persistent AF (P < 0.001), LA diameter (P < 0.005), lack of AA drugs (P < 0.005), and VVI pacing (P < 0.01). When adjusted at means of covariates, persistent AF and age >75 years remained highly significant (P < 0.01). LA dimension >50 mm was highly significant at univariate model (P < 0.001) but to a lesser extent when adjusted (P < 0.05). In patients with paroxysmal AF-with age <75 years-on AA drugs, progression rate to permanent AF was 6.5% at 5 years and 23.7% at 10 years. Among four predictors (age, LA size, LV-FS, and VVI pacing), only age (P < 0.01) and LA size (P < 0.005) remained independently significant, but LA size was not significant when adjusted. CONCLUSIONS: Progression to permanent AF is a slow process. Aging, LA size, VVI pacing, lack of AA therapy, and a persistent form of AF independently increased the progression to permanent AF.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Doença Aguda , Fibrilação Atrial/classificação , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Doença Crônica , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/classificação , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia
4.
Int J Cardiol ; 168(4): 3728-35, 2013 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23856445

RESUMO

AIM: Reentry circuits of a rare typical atrial flutter (AFL) involving the cavo-tricuspid isthmus (CTI) and proximal coronary sinus (CS) are described based on electrophysiological data and effects of radiofrequency (RF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Twelve patients with ECG-typical AFL in whom entrainment demonstrated that CTI and proximal CS were both part of the circuit were included. Initial RF target was CTI in 8 patients and proximal CS in 4. Success was defined as AFL termination/noninducibility. After CTI ablation, AFL cycle length (CL) increased in all: AFL persisted in 3, while in the other 5 AFL was interrupted but subsequently induced with the same morphology; before induction CTI bi-directional block was validated; success was obtained at the CS, targeting fragmented atrial potentials (APs). In those with first ablation at CS, AFL was interrupted in 3 with no AFL inducibility; in 1 AFL persisted with CL prolongation and was terminated at CTI. Two reentry patterns were identified: in 5 patients the inter-atrial septum as well as the mid-distal CS were outside of the circuit, while the CTI, proximal CS and Bachmann's bundle zone were inside, suggesting a left atrial component; in 1 patient electrophysiological mapping suggested an intra-CS circuit component. RF was successful in all without recurrence. CONCLUSION: Electrophysiological mapping and RF effects suggest a continuum between the CTI and proximal CS in rare cases with ECG-typical AFL. RF inside the proximal CS, targeting fragmented APs, should be considered in any patient in whom CTI ablation failed to interrupt a typical AFL.


Assuntos
Flutter Atrial/fisiopatologia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Seio Coronário/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Valva Tricúspide/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Flutter Atrial/cirurgia , Seio Coronário/cirurgia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valva Tricúspide/cirurgia
5.
World J Cardiol ; 4(10): 296-301, 2012 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23110246

RESUMO

We report three cases of sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the setting of coronary artery disease, resistant to beta-blockers in two patients and to amiodarone in all, successfully terminated by low doses of intravenous (IV) epinephrine. VT was the first manifestation of coronary artery disease in one patient, whereas the other two patients had a previous history of myocardial infarction and were recipients of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). One of these two patients experienced an arrhythmic storm. All had hemodynamic instability at the time of epinephrine administration. A single slow administration of IV epinephrine (0.5 to 1 mg administered over 30 to 60 s) restored sinus rhythm after 30-90 s with only minor side effects. In the ICD patient with recurrent VT and several cardioversions due to transformation of VT to ventricular fibrillation, epinephrine injection led to the avoidance of further shocks. Although potentially harmful, low doses of IV epinephrine used alone or in combination with beta-blocker treatment and electrical cardioversion may be an alternative effective therapy for sustained monomorphic VT refractory to amiodarone. The role of epinephrine in the termination of VT should be studied further, especially in patients pre-treated with amiodarone in combination with beta-blockers.

6.
Heart Rhythm ; 9(12): 1995-2000, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23059185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To prevent the recurrence of ventricular arrhythmias (VA) in Brugada syndrome (BrS), only quinidine has been consistently reported to have a beneficial effect. Recommended doses are ≥ 1 g/d. The efficacy of lower doses of quinidine has been suggested on the basis of a few isolated experiences. OBJECTIVES: To describe the efficacy and safety of doses ≤ 600 mg/d of quinidine after cardioverter-defibrillator implantation in BrS at 2 referral centers and to compare those results with a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS: In a retrospective analysis of medical records from the 2 centers, 6 men with BrS who received ≤ 600 mg/d of quinidine sulfate or hydroquinidine after cardioverter-defibrillator implantation were identified. Quinidine was initiated after arrhythmic syncope or appropriate shocks, including arrhythmic storm in 4. A literature search was performed to find previous cases with symptomatic BrS reported as having received ≤ 600 mg/d of quinidine. RESULTS: Quinidine prevented recurrence of VA in all patients from our series without side effects during a median follow-up of 4 years (from 2 to 8 years). In the literature review, 14 additional adults were found. With the exception of 3, quinidine effectively suppressed arrhythmic events in all of them. Four subjects who discontinued the medication experienced VA recurrence, successfully treated by restarting quinidine. CONCLUSIONS: Low doses of quinidine were well tolerated and effective to prevent the recurrence of VA, including arrhythmic storm, in subjects with BrS with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Effectiveness of quinidine or hydroquinidine in doses ≤ 600 mg/d is 85%.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Brugada/terapia , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Eletrocardiografia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Quinidina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Brugada/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 35(1): 63-9, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22562357

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A residual slow pathway after successful cryoablation for atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is correlated with a higher recurrence rate. We described determinants of recurrence in subjects with a residual jump. METHODS: We analyzed the data of subjects with acute successful slow pathway cryoablation for AVNRT using a 6-mm-tip cryocatheter. Success was defined as AVNRT non-inducibility. Patients with no baseline elicitable jump, no inducible AVNRT, and transient first atrioventricular (AV) block at the last site were excluded. RESULTS: From 371 patients who underwent cryoablation from May 2002 to March 2011, 303 fulfilled the entry criteria (mean age, 41 ± 16; 222 women). Baseline AV nodal effective refractory period (ERP) was 272 ± 57 ms, postprocedural 331 ± 64 (P < 0.001), and the mean of the difference (Δ ERP) 60 ± 41. At the end of the procedure, 64 patients (21 %) had a residual jump, of whom 22 with a single echo. At 12 months follow-up, the actuarial recurrence-free rate was 70.3 % in patients with a residual jump and 86 % in those without (P = 0.01). In patients with a jump, only Δ AV nodal ERP was correlated with recurrence (37 ± 41 vs. 68 ± 47 ms; P < 0.04) while a single echo was not. The actuarial rate of recurrence was 60.8 % in patients with a Δ AV nodal ERP ≤ 30 ms and 18.8 % in those with a Δ AV nodal ERP >30 ms (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Suppression of slow pathway conduction is the optimal endpoint for AVNRT cryoablation. A residual jump can be tolerated if AV nodal ERP postcryoablation is prolonged >30 ms.


Assuntos
Criocirurgia/métodos , Taquicardia por Reentrada no Nó Atrioventricular/fisiopatologia , Taquicardia por Reentrada no Nó Atrioventricular/cirurgia , Adulto , Eletrocardiografia , Técnicas Eletrofisiológicas Cardíacas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 35(8): 1035-43, 2012 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22452247

RESUMO

In patients needing a pacemaker (PM) for bradycardia indications, the amount of right ventricular (RV) apical pacing has been correlated with atrial fibrillation (AFib) and heart failure (HF) in both DDD and VVI mode. RV pacing was linked with left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony in almost 50% of patients with PM implantation and atrioventricular (AV) node ablation for AFib. In patients with normal systolic function needing a PM, apical RV pacing resulted in LV ejection fraction (LVEF) reduction. These negative effects were prevented by cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Algorithms favoring physiological AV conduction are possible useful tools able to maintain both atrial and ventricular support and limit RV pacing. However, when chronic RV pacing cannot be avoided, it appears necessary to reconsider the cut-off value of basic LVEF for CRT. In HF patients, RV pacing can induce greater LV dyssynchrony, enhanced by underlying conduction diseases. In this context, a more deleterious effect of RV pacing in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients with low LVEF can be expected. In some major ICD trials, DDD mode was correlated with increased mortality/HF. This negative impact was attributed to unnecessary RV pacing >40-50%, virtually absent in VVI-40 mode. However, some data suggest that avoiding RV pacing may also not be the best option for patients requiring an ICD. In patients with impaired LV function, AV synchrony should therefore be ensured. The best pacing mode in ICD patients with HF should be defined on an individual basis.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Marca-Passo Artificial/efeitos adversos , Seleção de Pacientes , Algoritmos , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco
9.
Europace ; 14(2): 261-6, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21920912

RESUMO

AIMS: While in radiofrequency ablation for atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) a residual jump and a single echo do not seem to substantially modify long-term results, in cryoablation procedures their effects are still under evaluation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if a residual jump associated or not with an isolated echo is correlated with outcome. INCLUSION CRITERIA: acute successful slow pathway cryoablation for slow-fast AVNRT. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: use of a 4 mm tip cryocatheter, no baseline elicitable jump or inducible AVNRT, and unwanted persistent first degree atrioventricular (AV) block at the end of the procedure. Cryoablation (-80°C × 4 min) was applied after successful cryomapping. Atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia inducibility was checked 30 min later on and off isoproterenol. Acute success was defined as AVNRT non-inducibility. Among 332 patients (pts) who had undergone cryoablation from May 2002 to March 2010 in our institutions, 245 of them fulfilled the entry criteria (173 women, mean age 41 ± 16 years, ineffective drugs 1.3 ± 1.1). A 7-Fr 6-mm tip cryocatheter (CryoCath®) was used in all cases. Baseline AV nodal effective refractory period (ERP) was 271 ± 55 ms, post-procedural ERP 331 ± 60 ms (P< 0.001), and the mean of the difference between baseline and post-procedural ERP 63 ± 38 ms. A/V ratio at successful site was 1 ± 0.4. Forty-four pts (18%) had a residual jump at the end of the procedure, and 14 of them had an associated single echo. Global cryoapplication time was 993 ± 797 s. During a follow-up of 40 ± 10 months, 43 pts (17.5%) had recurrences. At 12 months follow-up, actuarial rate of recurrence-free pts was 85% in the group without residual jump (201 pts), 63.3% with residual jump and no echo (30 pts), and 60.6% with residual jump associated with a single echo (P< 0.003 among groups). Univariate predictors of recurrences were persistence of a residual jump (P< 0.001) and total cryoapplication time (P< 0.02). In a multivariate model, only residual jump was independently correlated with recurrences (P< 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing AVNRT cryoablation, slow-pathway suppression is correlated with a better outcome. A single echo is associated with a recurrence risk similar to residual jump without echo. It may be suggested that pursuing a procedural endpoint up to slow pathway complete suppression may improve long-term success.


Assuntos
Criocirurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Eletrocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Taquicardia por Reentrada no Nó Atrioventricular/epidemiologia , Taquicardia por Reentrada no Nó Atrioventricular/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 35(2): 233-40, 2012 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22017562

RESUMO

Slow-pathway ablation is the treatment of choice for atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT). Cryoablation is effective and safe, but its widespread use seems to be limited by a slightly lower long-term clinical efficacy when compared to radiofrequency (RF) ablation. However, the occurrence of atrioventricular block requiring permanent pacing with RF remains clinically relevant (about 1%). This review summarizes current experiences accumulated during the last decade with cryotechnology in terms of acute and long-term results for AVNRT and compares it with those of RF ablation. We describe the advantages of cryo compared to RF ablation. Our data suggest that pursuing procedural endpoint up to slow pathway complete ablation may improve long-term clinical success of cryoablation. We also focus on potential benefit that can be expected by using cryocatheters leading to larger and deeper freeze. For high-risk ablations, cryoenergy should be used systematically.


Assuntos
Criocirurgia/mortalidade , Criocirurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Taquicardia por Reentrada no Nó Atrioventricular/mortalidade , Taquicardia por Reentrada no Nó Atrioventricular/cirurgia , Humanos , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Cardiol Res Pract ; 2011: 341521, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22203916

RESUMO

Background. Inflammation in the Brugada syndrome (BrS) and its clinical implication have been little studied. Aims. To assess the level of inflammation in BrS patients. Methods. All studied BrS patients underwent blood samples drawn for C-reactive protein (CRP) levels at admission, prior to any invasive intervention. Patients with a previous ICD placement were controlled to exclude those with a recent (<14 days) shock. We divided subjects into symptomatic (syncope or aborted sudden death) and asymptomatic groups. In a multivariable analysis, we adjusted for significant variables (age, CRP ≥ 2 mg/L). Results. Fifty-four subjects were studied (mean age 45 ± 13 years, 49 (91%) male). Twenty (37%) were symptomatic. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean CRP level was 1,4 ± 0,9 mg/L in asymptomatic and 2,4 ± 1,4 mg/L in symptomatic groups (P = .003). In the multivariate model, CRP concentrations ≥ 2 mg/L remained an independent marker for being symptomatic (P = .018; 95% CI: 1.3 to 19.3). Conclusion. Inflammation seems to be more active in symptomatic BrS. C-reactive protein concentrations ≥ 2 mg/L might be associated with the previous symptoms in BrS. The value of inflammation as a risk factor of arrhythmic events in BrS needs to be studied.

12.
Arch Cardiol Mex ; 80(4): 283-8, 2010 Oct-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21169093

RESUMO

Cryoablation is a new method in interventional cardiac electrophysiology for percutaneous catheter ablation of cardiac arrhythmias. Cryothermal mapping enables the functional assessment of a particular site before permanent ablation. In this way, the targeted tissue may be confirmed as safe for ablation. This is useful in high risk ablation, for example, nex to the His bundle or the compact AV node. In the last decade, several studies have been addressed to AV-nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) cryoablation. Current experiences indicate that cryoablation for AV-nodal reentry tachycardia is effective and safe. However, its wide use seems to be somewhat limited by a slightly lower efficacy when compared to radiofrequency. Further studies evaluating long-term success of cryothermal ablation versus radiofrequency are warranted. However, for high-risk ablations, cryoenergy is very helpful and should be systematically used. This article is a review of acute and long-term effects of cryoablation in patients suffering of AV-nodal reentry tachycardia episodes.


Assuntos
Ablação por Cateter , Criocirurgia/métodos , Taquicardia por Reentrada no Nó Atrioventricular/cirurgia , Humanos
13.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 80(4): 283-288, oct.-dic. 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-632002

RESUMO

Cryoablation is a new method in interventional cardiac electrophysiology for percutaneous catheter ablation of cardiac arrhythmias. Cryothermal mapping enables the functional assessment of a particular site before permanent ablation. In this way, the targeted tissue may be confirmed as safe for ablation. This is useful in high-risk ablation, for example, next to the His bundle or the compact AV node. In the last decade, several studies have been addressed to AV-nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) cryoablation. Current experiences indicate that cryoablation for AV-nodal reentry tachycardia is effective and safe. However, its wide use seems to be somewhat limited by a slightly lower efficacy when compared to radiofrequency. Further studies evaluating long-term success of cryothermal ablation versus radiofrequency are warranted. However, for high-risk ablations, cryoenergy is very helpful and should be systematically used. This article is a review of acute and long-term effects of cryoablation in patients suffering of AV-nodal reentry tachycardia episodes.


La crioablación es un nuevo método en la electrofisiología cardiaca intervensionista para la ablación percutánea de las arritmias cardiacas. El mapeo criotérmico permite la evaluación funcional de un sitio en particular antes de la ablación permanente; de esta manera, el tejido blanco puede confirmarse como seguro para el procedimiento. Esto es útil en la ablación de alto riesgo, por ejemplo, cerca del haz de His o del nodo AV compacto. En la última década, varios estudios se han orientado a la crioablación para la taquicardia de reentrada del nodo AV (TRNAV). Las experiencias actuales indican que la crioablación de la taquicardia de reentrada del nodo AV es efectiva y segura. Sin embargo, la apertura para ampliar su uso está parcialmente limitada por su eficacia ligeramente menor al compararla con el empleo de la radiofrecuencia. Se justifican ensayos clínicos futuros con objeto de evaluar el éxito a largo plazo de la ablación criotérmica en comparación con la radiofrecuencia. Para las ablaciones de alto riesgo, la crioenergía es muy útil y debería ser usada sistemáticamente. Este artículo consiste en una revisión sobre los efectos inmediatos y a largo plazo de la crioablación en pacientes que presentan episodios de taquicardia por reentrada del nodo AV.


Assuntos
Humanos , Ablação por Cateter , Criocirurgia/métodos , Taquicardia por Reentrada no Nó Atrioventricular/cirurgia
14.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 29(2): 97-107, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20814733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of radiofrequency (RF) ablation of an uncommon coronary sinus (CS)-dependent atrial flutter (AFL) was evaluated using conventional electrophysiological criteria in a highly selected subset of patients with typical and atypical AFL. METHODS: Fourteen patients with atrial flutter (11 males, mean age 69 ± 9 years) without previous right or left atrial RF ablation were included. Heart disease was present in eight patients. Baseline ECG suggested typical AFL in 12 patients and atypical AFL in two. Mean AFL cycle length was 324 ± 64 ms at the time of RF ablation in the CS. Lateral right atrium activation was counterclockwise (CCW) in 13 patients and clockwise in one. CS activation was CCW in all. Criteria for CS ablation included the presence of CS mid-diastolic fractionated atrial potentials (APs) associated with concealed entrainment with a postpacing interval within 20 ms. Success was defined as termination of AFL and subsequent noninducibility. RESULTS: The initial target for ablation was the cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI) in 11 patients and the CS with further CTI ablation in three. AP duration at the CS target site was 122 ± 33 ms, spanning 40 ± 12% of the AFL cycle length. CS ablation site was located 1-4 cm from the CS ostium. Ablation was successful in all patients. Mean time to AFL termination during CS ablation was 39 ± 52 s (<20 s in eight patients). No recurrence of ablated arrhythmia occurred during a follow-up of 18 ± 8 months. CONCLUSIONS: The CS musculature is a critical part of some AFL circuits in patients with typical and atypical AFL. AFL can be terminated in patients with CS or CTI/CS AFL reentrant circuits by targeting CS mid-diastolic fragmented APs.


Assuntos
Flutter Atrial/diagnóstico , Flutter Atrial/cirurgia , Mapeamento Potencial de Superfície Corporal/métodos , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Seio Coronário/cirurgia , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador/métodos , Idoso , Diástole , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Europace ; 12(7): 1029-31, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20219757

RESUMO

We illustrate a case of persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia after slow pathway atrio-ventricular (AV) nodal reentrant tachycardia cryoablation, and inadvertent fast pathway lesion with residual first-degree AV block in a 72-year-old man with a small Koch's triangle. At the end of the cryoprocedure, the patient presented with sinus tachycardia 100 b.p.m., while PR was 300 ms. An accelerated sinus rhythm and a PR prolongation persisted over time. The patient was successfully treated with ivabradine with no effect on atrioventricular node conduction.


Assuntos
Benzazepinas/administração & dosagem , Criocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Taquicardia por Reentrada no Nó Atrioventricular/complicações , Taquicardia por Reentrada no Nó Atrioventricular/cirurgia , Taquicardia Sinusal/etiologia , Taquicardia Sinusal/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Humanos , Ivabradina , Masculino , Taquicardia Sinusal/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Europace ; 10(12): 1421-7, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18984641

RESUMO

AIMS: The study aimed at evaluating the long-term effects of transient atrioventricular (AV) block on clinical outcomes during atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia (AVNRT) cryoablation. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 150 consecutive patients (39 +/- 14 years, ineffective anti-arrhythmic drugs 1.9 +/- 1.3), slow-pathway cryoablation for AVNRT was performed. A 7 Fr 6 mm-tip cryocatheter was used. After successful cryomapping (-30 degrees C), defined as jump abolition or AV nodal refractory period prolongation, cryoablation (-80 degrees C for 4 min) was applied if no AV block occurred. Atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia inducibility was checked after 30 min. Acute success (AVNRT non-inducibility) was achieved in 142 patients (95%). Overall, after a follow-up of 18 +/- 10 months, 118 of 150 patients (79%) were recurrence-free (including 2 patients for whom the procedure was unsuccessful). Among successful procedures, 116 of 142 (82%) patients were recurrence-free. During cryoablation, inadvertent transient AV block of varying degrees occurred in 34 patients (22.7%), namely, increased PR in 17 patients and a 2nd-3rd AV block in the remaining 17. In 24 patients, AV block occurred at the last effective site (increased PR in 13 patients and a 2nd-3rd AV block in 11). In the study population as a whole, univariate predictors of recurrence in the follow-up were AVNRT inducibility (P < 0.001), increased PR at the last effective site (P < 0.001), residual jump (P < 0.02), and small Koch's triangle (X-ray distance < 11 mm between the His and coronary sinus ostium catheters; P < 0.02). Atrioventricular nodal re-entrant tachycardia inducibility (P < 0.03), increased PR (P < 0.01), and small Koch's triangle (P< 0.04) were independently significant. For attempts at the last effective site, 3 groups of patients were compared: 13 patients with increased PR duration (Group A), 11 with a 2nd-3rd AV block (Group B), and 126 without AV block (Group C). Cryo-application time was 277 +/- 203 s in Group A, 75 +/- 87 s in Group B, and 253 +/- 135 s in Group C (A vs. B, P < 0.01; B vs. C, P < 0.001; and C vs. A, P= NS). There was no statistical difference among groups in the atriogram/ventriculogram amplitude ratio at the site of the last attempt, unsuccessful acute procedure, small Koch's triangle, and residual jump. Actuarial incidence of recurrence-free status at 12 months was 38% in A, 82% in B, and 82% in C (A vs. B, P < 0.05; B vs. C, P = NS; and C vs. A, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: All AV blocks occurring during cryoablation were transient, confirming the safety of this method. An increased PR duration at the last effective site is associated with a higher recurrence rate, whereas a 2nd-3rd degree AV block has a recurrence rate similar to that of patients without AV block despite a shorter cryo-application time at the last site.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Atrioventricular/epidemiologia , Criocirurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Taquicardia por Reentrada no Nó Atrioventricular/epidemiologia , Taquicardia por Reentrada no Nó Atrioventricular/cirurgia , Adulto , Bloqueio Atrioventricular/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
17.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 22(3): 189-93, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18548341

RESUMO

Limited information is available on the efficacy of cryoablation in the coronary venous system in humans. A patient with a lateral accessory pathway was referred to our center after several unsuccessful endocardial and epicardial (within the coronary sinus) attempts using standard radiofrequency energy. Ablation was subsequently performed successfully by applying cryoenergy distally into the coronary sinus, using a temperature of -50 degrees C and a freezing application time of 45 s. There were no complications. Angiography of the left coronary circumflex artery and coronary venous system was performed at 12 months follow-up using cardiac multislice computed tomography, and no coronary stenosis or anatomic anomaly was found. Neither pre-excitation or any arrhythmia recurred during follow-up. This experience suggests that ablating in the distal coronary sinus can be safely performed using cryoenergy.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Seio Coronário/anormalidades , Seio Coronário/cirurgia , Criocirurgia/métodos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/anormalidades , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/cirurgia , Adolescente , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 28(12): 1260-70, 2005 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16403157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients (pts) with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) for ventricular dyssynchrony, long-term predictors of mortality and morbidity remain poorly investigated. METHOD AND RESULTS: We reviewed data of 102 pts, 68 +/- 10 years, NYHA Class II-IV (14 Class II, 67 Class III, 21 Class IV), who benefited from CRT (69 CRT, 33 CRT-ICD). Fifty-two patients had an ischemic DCM, 36 a previously implanted conventional PM/ICD, 29 a permanent atrial fibrillation, and 19 needed dobutamine in the month preceding implant. QRS duration was 187 +/- 35 ms, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter 72 +/- 10 mm, mitral regurgitation severity 1.9 +/- 0.8, echographic aorto-pulmonary electromechanical delay 61.5 +/- 25 ms and septo-lateral left intraventricular delay 86 +/- 56 ms, pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) 43 +/- 11 mmHg, angioscintigraphic left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) 20 +/- 9%, and right ventricular EF 30.5 +/- 14%. Over a mean follow-up of 23 +/- 20 months, 26 pts died (18 heart failures (HFs), 1 arrhythmic storm, 7 noncardiac deaths). Positive univariate predictors of death from any cause were NYHA Class IV (P < 0.001), and need for dobutamine the month preceding CRT (P < 0.008), while use of beta-blocking agents (P < 0.08) and left ventricular EF (P < 0.09) were negative ones. NYHA Class IV was the only independent predictor at multivariate analysis (P < 0.01). Survival at 24 months was 85% in Class II, 80% in Class III, and 37% in Class IV (II vs III, P = ns; III vs IV, P < 0.001). When using a composite endpoint of death from any cause and unplanned rehospitalization for a major cardiovascular event, there were 48 events (14 HF deaths, 3 noncardiac deaths, 26 HF rehospitalizations, 2 paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, 2 sustained ventricular tachycardia, 1 nonfatal pulmonary embolism). Predictors of death from any cause/unplanned rehospitalization for a major cardiovascular event in the follow-up were NYHA Class IV (P < 0.001), need for dobutamine during the month preceding CRT (P < 0.002), and PAP (<0.02). NYHA Class IV was the only independent predictor at multivariate analysis (P < 0.05). Event-free proportion at 24 months was 70% in Class II, 64% in Class III, and 37% in Class IV (II vs III, P = ns; III vs IV, P < 0.01). When considering determinants of mortality only in NYHA Class IV patients, no variable was significantly correlated to mortality. Need for dobutamine during the last month preceding CRT did not add an adjunctive mortality risk. CONCLUSION: Baseline NYHA Class IV at implantation appears as the most important determinant of a poor clinical outcome in terms of both mortality and morbidity. No predictive criteria seem available for NYHA Class IV patients, in order to discriminate who will die after CRT and who will not. NYHA Class IV strongly influences the clinical outcome, suggesting that, in future studies planned on mortality and rehospitalization as major endpoints, baseline NYHA Class IV should be separately taken into account.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/mortalidade , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial/métodos , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/mortalidade , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/terapia , Desfibriladores Implantáveis , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Dilatada/diagnóstico por imagem , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Dobutamina/uso terapêutico , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Cintilografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 25(11): 1546-54, 2002 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12494610

RESUMO

P wave duration and morphology have never been systematically evaluated as markers of AF in patients with a conventional indication to pacing. This study correlated sinus P wave duration and morphology and the incidence of AF in patients with sinus node dysfunction (SND), previous history of AF before implant, and atrial-based pacemaker. Included were 140 patients (86 men, 54 women; mean age 71.8 +/- 10.4 years) with recurrent paroxysmal AF and who received a DDD (128 patients) or AAI (12 patients) pacemaker for SND. Forty-nine patients had structural heart disease. Sinus P wave duration and morphology was evaluated in leads II, III. Twenty-two patients had an abnormal P wave morphology, diphasic (+/-) in 5 and notched (+/+) in 17. The basic pacemaker rate was programmed between 60 and 70 beats/min. Rate responsive function was activated in 65 patients. During a follow-up of 27.6 +/- 17.8 months, AF was documented in 87 patients. Forty-four patients developed permanent AF, following at least one episode of paroxysmal AF in 26 cases. Statistical analysis used Cox model regression. Univariate predictors of AF (P < 0.10) were drugs (mean: 2 +/- 1.4) and DC shock before pacing (16/140 patients), P wave duration (mean 112.5 +/- 24.6 ms), basic pacemaker rate (mean 68 +/- 5 beats/min), and drugs in the follow-up (mean 1.2 +/- 0.94). Multivariate analysis showed that P wave duration (b = 0.013, s.e. = 0.004; P = 0.003), and drugs before pacing (b = 0.2; s.e. = 0.08; P < 0.01) resulted in a significant independent predictor of AF. Actuarial incidence of patients free of AF at 30 months was 35%: 56% in patients with a P wave < 120 ms, and 13% in those with P wave > or = 120 ms (P < 0.01 by Score test). Univariate predictors of permanent AF were drugs and DC shock before pacing, left atrial size (mean 39 +/- 6 mm), P wave duration, abnormal P wave morphology (22/140 patients), and drugs in the follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that P wave morphology was the most important predictor of permanent AF (b = -0.56, s.e. = 0.2; P = 0.008). Incidence of patients free of permanent AF at 30 months was 69%: 74% in patients with normal P wave, compared to 28% in the case of abnormal P wave morphology (P < 0.01). P wave duration and morphology are good markers of postpacing AF recurrence in patients with SND and an atrial-based pacemaker. This observation suggests that intra- and interatrial conduction disturbances be extensively evaluated before implantation, and the indication for atrial resynchronization procedures be reevaluated.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia , Marca-Passo Artificial , Nó Sinoatrial/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recidiva , Fatores de Tempo
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