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1.
Small ; : e1907693, 2020 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643290

RESUMO

Current investigations into hazardous nanoparticles (i.e., nanotoxicology) aim to understand the working mechanisms that drive toxicity. This understanding has been used to predict the biological impact of the nanocarriers as a function of their synthesis, material composition, and physicochemical characteristics. It is particularly critical to characterize the events that immediately follow cell stress resulting from nanoparticle internalization. While reactive oxygen species and activation of autophagy are universally recognized as mechanisms of nanotoxicity, the progression of these phenomena during cell recovery has yet to be comprehensively evaluated. Herein, primary human endothelial cells are exposed to controlled concentrations of polymer-functionalized silica nanoparticles to induce lysosomal damage and achieve cytosolic delivery. In this model, the recovery of cell functions lost following endosomal escape is primarily represented by changes in cell distribution and the subsequent partitioning of particles into dividing cells. Furthermore, multilamellar bodies are found to accumulate around the particles, demonstrating progressive endosomal escape. This work provides a set of biological parameters that can be used to assess cell stress related to nanoparticle exposure and the subsequent recovery of cell processes as a function of endosomal escape.

3.
J Org Chem ; 85(5): 3454-3464, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027511

RESUMO

The replacement of carbon atoms at the zigzag periphery of a benzo[fg]tetracenyl derivative with an NBN atomic triad allows the formation of heteroatom-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) isosteres, which expose BN mimics of the amidic NH functions. Their ability to form H-bonded complexes has never been touched so far. Herein, we report the first solution recognition studies of peripherally NBN-doped PAHs to form H-bonded DD·AA- and ADDA·DAAD-type complexes with suitable complementary H-bonding acceptor partners. The first determination of Ka in solution showed that the 1:1 association strength is around 27 ± 1 M-1 for the DD·AA complexes in C6D6, whereas it rises to 1820 ± 130 M-1 for the ADDA·DAAD array in CDCl3. Given the interest of BN-doped polyaromatic hydrocarbons in supramolecular and materials chemistry, it is expected that these findings will open new possibilities to design novel materials, where the H-bonding properties of peripheral NH hydrogens could serve as anchors to tailor the organizational properties of PAHs.

4.
Biomater Sci ; 8(1): 333-341, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714542

RESUMO

In the last decades, several approaches were developed to design drug delivery systems to address the multiple biological barriers encountered after administration while safely delivering a payload. In this scenario, bio-inspired and bio-mimetic approaches have emerged as promising solutions to evade the mononuclear phagocytic system while simultaneously negotiating the sequential transport across the various biological barriers. Leukocytes freely circulate in the bloodstream and selectively target the inflamed vasculature in response to injury, infection, and cancer. Recently we have shown the use of biomimetic nanovesicles, called leukosomes, which combine both the physical and biological properties of liposomes and leukocytes, respectively, to selectively deliver drugs to the inflamed vasculature. Here we report the use of leukosomes to target and deliver doxorubicin, a model chemotherapeutic, to tumors in syngeneic murine models of breast cancer and melanoma. Exploiting the inflammatory pathway responsible for recruiting immune cells to the site of injury, leukosomes exhibited increased targeting of cancer vasculature and stroma. Furthermore, delivery of doxorubicin with leukosomes enabled significant tumor growth inhibition compared with free doxorubicin in both breast and melanoma tumors. This study demonstrates the promise of using biomimetic nanovesicles for effective cancer management in solid tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Nanopartículas/química , Animais , Materiais Biomiméticos/química , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Doxorrubicina/química , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Feminino , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Leucócitos/química , Lipossomos/química , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Camundongos , Transplante Homólogo
5.
J Clin Med ; 8(11)2019 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We assessed the real-life clinical impact of bone health management in patients with breast cancer (BC) receiving adjuvant endocrine therapy at an Italian Osteoncology Center. METHODS: Pre- and post-menopausal women undergoing adjuvant endocrine therapy for early-stage BC who came to our institute for their first bone health evaluation from January 2011 to June 2016 were considered in this retrospective observational study. RESULTS: 1125 pre- and post-menopausal early-stage BC patients (209 and 916, respectively) were evaluated. Median age was 61 years (range 26-88). In the pre-menopausal group, spinal x-ray revealed that 10 patients (4.7%) had a morphometric vertebral fracture. Higher age (OR: 1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.29) and bone mineral density (BMD) ≤ -2.5 (OR: 14.45; 95% CI: 1.70-122.67) were associated with a higher risk of bone fracture. The overall frequency of bone fracture was 17.6% (n = 161) in post-menopausal patients and a lower risk for bone fractures was associated with tamoxifen or other treatments (OR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.12-0.53), presence of back pain (OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.16-2.36), lower BMD (OR: 2.09 in patients with T-score ≤ 2.5; 95% CI: 1.21-3.59) and lower vitamin D levels (OR: 1.57 in patients with ≤ 10 ng/mL; 95% CI: 1.05-2.34) in univariate analysis. CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that bone health management should be an integral part of long-term cancer care.

6.
Int J Clin Pract ; 73(11): e13404, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing chemotherapy are at risk of toxicity, especially of haematological origin. Granulocyte depletion, although often underestimated, can lead to the occurrence of an event defined as febrile neutropenia (FN). Neutropenic fever syndromes are dangerous because they cause major complications in around 25%-30% of patients and have a mortality rate of up to 11%. Treatment for FN was limited to antibiotics and supportive therapies until filgrastim was approved for use in the 1990s. OBJECTIVES: The present systematic review focuses on the efficacy and safety of this haematopoietic growth factor. DATA SOURCES AND METHODS: For this review, a systematic literature search of electronic databases and references from recent reviews up to December 2018 was carried out to identify clinical trials, observational studies and case reports evaluating filgrastim efficacy and safety. English language was defined as a restriction. Published randomised controlled trials (RCTs), case reports and reviews analysing the effects of filgrastim on severe neutropenia and its limits were considered. Four review authors independently selected the studies, assessed the risk of bias and extracted study data. RESULTS: As reported in ASCO guidelines, the efficacy of filgrastim with respect to placebo or no treatment in RCTs is based on its prevention of FN. A recent meta-analysis analysed nine RCTs with 2197 patients, revealing a reduction in the incidence of FN with filgrastim (risk ratio [RR] 0.63, 95% CI 0.53-0.75). These findings were further confirmed in two observational studies. Bone pain is the most commonly reported adverse event with filgrastim, while other toxicities are associated with filgrastim efficacy and with an increased neutrophil count. KEY FINDINGS: In conclusion, our findings attest to the previous results on the efficacy and safety of filgrastim.


Assuntos
Filgrastim/uso terapêutico , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Hematológicos/uso terapêutico , Neutropenia/prevenção & controle , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12263, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439905

RESUMO

The fate of tumors depends both on the cancer cells' intrinsic characteristics and on the environmental conditions where the tumors reside and grow. Engineered in vitro models have led to significant advances in cancer research, allowing the investigation of cells in physiological environments and the study of disease mechanisms and processes with enhanced relevance. Here we present a biomimetic cancer model based on a collagen matrix synthesized through a biologically inspired process. We compared in this environment the responses of two breast tumor lineages characterized by different molecular patterns and opposite clinical behaviors: MCF-7 that belong to the luminal A subtype connected to an indolent course, and basal-like MDA-MB-231 connected to high-grade and aggressive disease. Cancer cells in the biomimetic matrix recreate a hypoxic environment that affects their growth dynamics and phenotypic features. Hypoxia induces apoptosis and the selection of aggressive cells that acquire expression signatures associated with glycolysis, angiogenesis, cell-matrix interaction, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and metastatic ability. In response to hypoxia MDA-MB-231 migrate on the collagen fibrils and undergo cellular senescence, while MCF-7 do not exhibit these behaviors. Our biomimetic model mimics the evolution of tumors with different grade of aggressiveness fostered by a hypoxic niche and provides a relevant technology to dissect the events involved in cancer progression.

8.
J Bone Oncol ; 16: 100227, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911462

RESUMO

The skeleton is one of the most common sites of metastatic spread from advanced clear-cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC). Most of the bone lesions observed in RCC patients are classified as osteolytic, causing severe pain and morbidity due to pathological bone destruction. Nowadays, it is well known that cancer induced bone loss in lytic metastasis is caused by the triggering of a vicious cycle between cancer and bone resident cells that leads to an imbalance between bone formation and degradation. Targeting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an efficient treatment option for metastatic renal carcinoma patients. Moreover, bone targeted therapy could benefit bone metastatic cancer patients caused by advanced RCC. However, more data is needed to support the hypothesis of the beneficial effect of a combined therapy. The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of targeting mTOR and the sequential combination with bone targeted therapy as a strategy to break the vicious cycle between ccRCC cells and osteoclasts. A previously optimized fully human co-culture model is used to mimic the crosstalk between Caki-2 cells (ccRCC) and osteoclasts. Cells are treated at fixed timing with everolimus, zoledronic acid and denosumab as single or sequential combined treatment. We show that Caki-2 cells can induce osteoclast cells differentiation from isolated human monocytes, as demonstrated by specific tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and f-actin ring formation, in a statistically significant manner. Moreover, differentiated osteoclasts proved to be functionally active by pit formation assay. Caki-2 cells co-cultured with osteoclasts acquire a more aggressive phenotype based on gene expression analysis. Interestingly, the sequential combined treatment of everolimus and zoledronic acid is the most effective in the inhibition of both Caki-2 cells survival and osteoclastogenic potential, making it an effective strategy to inhibit the vicious cycle of bone metastasis. At preclinical level, this observation confirms the value of our co-culture model as a useful tool to mimic the bone microenvironment and to assess drug sensitivity in vitro. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in tumor-bone cells crosstalk will be investigated next.

9.
Endocr Connect ; 7(12): 1535-1541, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530877

RESUMO

The incidence of neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) is higher in individuals ≥70 years of age (elderly) who are underrepresented in clinical trials because of comorbidities and low performance status. We retrospectively analyzed the outcome of elderly patients with metastatic NEN (mNEN). Comorbidities were summarized by Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), Kaplan-Meier method was applied to estimate overall survival (OS) and Cox's proportional hazard model was used to assess the impact of known prognostic factors. We retrieved data on 145 mNEN patients aged ≥70 years seen at our center from June 2007 to March 2016. Fifty-six (38.6%) were aged ≥75 years. ECOG PS was 0 in 45.7% of cases and CCI was 0 in 41.0% and 1 in 37.4%. A total of 75.4% of patients had grade (G)1/G2 NEN and 24.6%, G3. Octreoscan/Gallium PET/CT and FDG-PET/CT were positive in 94.2% and 70.3% of cases, respectively. Median follow-up was 72.3 (53.2-85.1) months. Seventy-nine patients received first-line somatostatin analogs (SSA), 23 peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) and 36 chemotherapy (CHT). Seven did not undergo first-line therapy and 102 received more than one line. Median overall survival (mOS) was 5.1 years (95% CI: 3.4-6.6). No differences in mOS were seen according to CCI. First-line PRRT patients had a mOS of 6.5 years (95% CI: 3.3-not reached (NR)), SSA 5.7 years (95% CI: 4.2-7) and CHT 5.9 years (95% CI: 0.4-NR). mOS in CHT-treated G3 patients was 1.5 years (1.0-2.5). ECOG PS and FDG PET/CT were identified as independent prognostic factors. Results suggest that the above treatments positively impacted OS in elderly mNEN patients, including those aged ≥75 years.

10.
Cells ; 7(11)2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30366467

RESUMO

Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) belongs to the group of sarcoma tumors, which represent only 1% of the totality of adult tumors worldwide. Thus, given the rare nature of this cancer, this makes the availability of MFS cell lines difficult. In an attempt to partially fill this gap, we immortalized a primary culture of MFS (IM-MFS-1) and compared the cell morphology with patient's tumor tissue. IM-MFS-1 was genetically characterized through a Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) array and the mesenchymal phenotype was evaluated using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescence staining. Drug sensitivity for MFS therapies was monitored over time in cultures. We confirmed the conservation of the patient's tumor cell morphology and of the mesenchymal phenotype. Conversely, the synthesis and expression of CD109, a TGFß co-receptor used to facilitate the diagnosis of high-grade MFS diagnosis, was maintained constant until high cancer cell line passages. The CGH array revealed a complex karyotype with cytogenetic alterations that include chromosome regions associated with genes involved in tumor processes. Cytotoxicity assays show drug sensitivity constantly increased during the culture passages until a plateau was reached. In conclusion, we established and characterized a new MFS cell line that can be used for future preclinical and molecular studies on soft tissue sarcomas.

11.
J Chem Phys ; 148(24): 241739, 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960375

RESUMO

We assess Gaussian process (GP) regression as a technique to model interatomic forces in metal nanoclusters by analyzing the performance of 2-body, 3-body, and many-body kernel functions on a set of 19-atom Ni cluster structures. We find that 2-body GP kernels fail to provide faithful force estimates, despite succeeding in bulk Ni systems. However, both 3- and many-body kernels predict forces within an ∼0.1 eV/Šaverage error even for small training datasets and achieve high accuracy even on out-of-sample, high temperature structures. While training and testing on the same structure always provide satisfactory accuracy, cross-testing on dissimilar structures leads to higher prediction errors, posing an extrapolation problem. This can be cured using heterogeneous training on databases that contain more than one structure, which results in a good trade-off between versatility and overall accuracy. Starting from a 3-body kernel trained this way, we build an efficient non-parametric 3-body force field that allows accurate prediction of structural properties at finite temperatures, following a newly developed scheme [A. Glielmo et al., Phys. Rev. B 95, 214302 (2017)]. We use this to assess the thermal stability of Ni19 nanoclusters at a fractional cost of full ab initio calculations.

12.
J Vis Exp ; (136)2018 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29939179

RESUMO

Blood sample quality is crucial to ensure accurate downstream analyses such as real-time PCR or ELISA. Correct storage of biological materials is the starting point to achieve reproducible and reliable results. All samples should be treated in the same way from blood collection to storage. Depending on the analyses to be performed, whole blood and serum samples should be stored at -20 °C or -80 °C until use. Blood/serum samples should also be aliquoted to avoid multiple freeze-thawing. Another important issue is the sample conditions during shipment from one laboratory to another. If dry ice is not available or the shipment takes longer than a few days, alternative approaches are needed. One option is to use filter paper for blood collection. Here, we propose a method for blood and serum sample collection that takes advantage of dried blood spots (DBS) and dried serum spots (DSS). We developed the procedure to extract DNA from DBS for the downstream evaluation of some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by real time PCR. We also optimized an ELISA assay starting from proteins eluted from DSS. This method can be used with other ELISA assays or procedures evaluating proteins.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Soro/química , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Humanos
13.
J Vis Exp ; (134)2018 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29708525

RESUMO

Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) represent a spectrum of heterogeneous malignancies with a difficult diagnosis, classification, and management. To date, more than 50 histological subtypes of these rare solid tumors have been identified. Thus, due to their extraordinary diversity and low incidence, our understanding of the biology of these tumors is still limited. Patient-derived cultures represent the ideal platform to study STS pathophysiology and pharmacology. We thus developed a human preclinical model of STS starting from tumor specimens harvested from patients undergoing surgical resection. Patient-derived STS cell cultures were obtained from the surgical specimens by collagenase digestion and isolated by filtration. Cells were counted, seeded, and left for 14 days in standard monolayer cultures and then processed by downstream analysis. Before performing molecular or pharmaceutical analyses, the establishment of STS primary cultures was confirmed through the evaluation of cytomorphologic features and, when available, immunohistochemical markers. This method represents a useful tool 1) to study the natural history of these poorly explored malignancies and 2) to test the effects of different drugs in an effort to learn more about their mechanisms of action.


Assuntos
Sarcoma/patologia , Idoso , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Humanos
14.
Dis Markers ; 2018: 6878409, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30627226

RESUMO

There is a growing need for more accurate biomarkers to facilitate the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with grade (G) 3 neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs). In particular, the discrimination between well-differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (WD-NECs) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (PD-NECs) is still an unmet need. We previously showed that 68Gallium-(68Ga-) PET/CT positivity is a prognostic factor in patients with gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) G3 NECs, correlating with a better outcome in terms of overall survival. Here, we hypothesize that 68Ga-PET/CT could help to discriminate between WD-NECs and PD-NECs, adding complementary information to that obtained from morphologic and biologic factors. A retrospective, single-institution study was performed on 11 patients with histologically confirmed, measurable G3 large- or small-cell GEP-NECs according to the 2017 WHO classification. The staging procedures included a 68Ga-PET/CT scan. Results of 68Ga-PET/CT were correlated in univariate analysis with loss of tissue immunohistochemical expression of DAXX/ATRX or RB1 frequently associated with WD-NECs or PD-NECs, respectively. None of the patients with positive 68Ga-PET/CT showed loss of RB1 expression, whereas among those (n = 6) with negative 68Ga-PET/CT, 4 showed loss of expression. A trend towards a correlation between loss of RB1 expression and negative 68Ga-PET/CT was observed. Our preliminary data support the hypothesis that PD-NECs carrying RB1 mutation and loss of its expression may be associated with negative 68Ga-PET/CT. If confirmed in a larger clinical trial, 68Ga-PET/CT would help in the stratification of G3 NECs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Neuroendócrino/patologia , Radioisótopos de Gálio/administração & dosagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Gradação de Tumores , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Proteína Nuclear Ligada ao X/genética , Proteína Nuclear Ligada ao X/metabolismo
15.
J Chem Phys ; 147(21): 214706, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29221400

RESUMO

We report on the assembly of a highly ordered array of copper tetrameric clusters, coordinated into a metal-organic network. The ordered cluster array has been achieved by the deposition of tetrahydroxyquinone molecules on the Cu(111) surface at room temperature, and subsequent thermally activated dehydrogenation with the formation of tetraoxyquinone tetra-anions with a 4 × 4 periodicity. The supramolecular organic network acts as a spacer for the highly ordered two-dimensional network of copper tetramers at the very surface.

16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(46): e8567, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29145267

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Choline (CH) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with fluorine 18 (F) CH is increasingly used not only to evaluate patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer but also to assess metastatic lesions that are difficult or impossible to identify using more conventional modalities. Our experience with CH PET/CT has shown that it can also be used for many other malignancies. PRESENTING CONCERNS: A 71-year-old male with a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of unknown origin showed osteoblastic bone metastases positive to F-CH PET. INTERVENTIONS: Diffuse bone and liver metastases were gallium-DOTATOC PET-positive with only mild uptake on FDG PET/CT. An increased prostate specific antigen (8 µg/L) gave rise to a suspicion of concurrent prostate cancer and the patient underwent F-CH PET/CT which showed diffuse uptake in the bone. A CT-guided bone biopsy confirmed osteoblastic bone metastases from NET. OUTCOMES: Given the aggressiveness of the tumor, the patient underwent treatment with temozolomide from July 2015 to December 2015, maintaining stable disease. However, progression was documented in January 2016 and the patient was enrolled onto a phase II peptide receptor radionuclide therapy retreatment trial, which is currently ongoing. MAIN LESSON: Our study highlights that NETs should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of osteoblastic bone metastases showing F-CH uptake. A prognostic role for this imaging technique can also be hypothesized.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Idoso , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Colina/análogos & derivados , Colina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ílio/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(45): e8545, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29137065

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a malignant sarcoma that can occur in different anatomic sites, including the bone, showing similar histological characteristics but heterogeneous clinical behavior and prognosis. Primary bone LMS was first described in 1965. It is a very rare sarcoma, accounting for <0.7% of all primary malignant bone tumors. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the case of a 52-year-old male with primary bone LMS who presented with a solitary osteolytic lesion with focal cortical destruction in the left clavicle, seen on an x-ray and subsequent computed tomography (CT) scan. DIAGNOSIS: The multidisciplinary Osteoncology team of our institute planned a biopsy that revealed the presence of spindle and pleomorphic cells with a positive reaction for smooth muscle actin and desmin at immunohistochemical analysis, without the presence of cartilage or bone matrix. These results were consistent with a high-grade malignant LMS arising from the bone. INTERVENTIONS: Complete surgical resection of the tumor was performed and a decision was made with the patient not to proceed with adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy. OUTCOMES: After more than 1 year of surgery, the patient is well, with no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease. Follow-up is ongoing. LESSONS: Little is known about the biology and clinical behavior of bone LMS due to its extreme rarity. A multidisciplinary team in a specialized center is needed for the optimal management of the disease. Surgery with a curative intent is the cornerstone of treatment of localized disease. No data are available about chemotherapy in neoadjuvant, adjuvant, or advanced settings. Further research is needed to identify more effective therapies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Clavícula/patologia , Leiomiossarcoma/patologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Clavícula/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Leiomiossarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
18.
J Transl Med ; 15(1): 229, 2017 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29116016

RESUMO

The use of patient-derived primary cell cultures in cancer preclinical assays has increased in recent years. The management of resected tumor tissue remains complex and a number of parameters must be respected to obtain complete sample digestion and optimal vitality yield. We provide an overview of the benefits of correct primary cell culture management using different preclinical methodologies, and describe the pros and cons of this model with respect to other kinds of samples. One important advantage is that the heterogeneity of the cell populations composing a primary culture partially reproduces the tumor microenvironment and crosstalk between malignant and healthy cells, neither of which is possible with cell lines. Moreover, the use of patient-derived specimens in innovative preclinical technologies, such as 3D systems or bioreactors, represents an important opportunity to improve the translational value of the results obtained. In vivo models could further our understanding of the crosstalk between tumor and other tissues as they enable us to observe the systemic and biological interactions of a complete organism. Although engineered mice are the most common model used in this setting, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) species has recently been recognized as an innovative experimental system. In fact, the transparent body and incomplete immune system of zebrafish embryos are especially useful for evaluating patient-derived tumor tissue interactions in healthy hosts. In conclusion, ex vivo systems represent an important tool for cancer research, but samples require correct manipulation to maximize their translational value.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Neoplasias/patologia , Animais , Reatores Biológicos , Humanos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Células Tumorais Cultivadas , Microambiente Tumoral
19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 139(50): 18271-18280, 2017 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29064236

RESUMO

The E/Z isomerization process of a uracil-azobenzene derivative in which the nucleobase is conjugated to a phenyldiazene tail is studied in view of its ability to form triply H-bonded complexes with a suitably complementary 2,6-diacetylamino-4-pyridine ligand. UV-vis and 1H NMR investigations of the photochemical and thermal isomerization kinetics show that the thermal Z → E interconversion is 4-fold accelerated upon formation of the H-bonded complex. DFT calculations show that the formation of triple H-bonds triggers a significant elongation of the N═N double bond, caused by an increase of its πg* antibonding character. This results in a reduction of the N═N torsional barrier and thus in accelerated thermal Z → E isomerization. Combined with light-controlled E → Z isomerization, this enables controllable fractional tuning of the two configurational isomers.

20.
J Vis Exp ; (127)2017 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28930982

RESUMO

The crosstalk between tumor cells and bone cells in the bone microenvironment is crucial to understanding the mechanism of bone metastasis formation. We developed an in vitro fully human preclinical model of a co-culture of breast cancer cells and monocytes undergoing differentiation towards osteoclasts. We optimized a model of osteoclastogenesis starting from a sample of peripheral blood collected from healthy donors. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were first separated by density gradient centrifugation, seeded at a high density and induced to differentiate by adding two growth factors (GFs): receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF). The cells were left in culture for 14 days and then fixed and analyzed by downstream analysis. In osteolytic bone metastases, one of the effects of cancer cell arrival in bone is the induction of osteoclastogenesis. We thus challenged our model with co-cultures of breast cancer cells to study the differentiation power of cancer cells with respect to GFs. A straightforward way of studying cancer cell-osteoclast interaction is to perform indirect co-cultures based on the use of conditioned medium collected from breast cancer cell cultures and mixed with fresh medium. This mixture is then used to induce osteoclast differentiation. We also optimized a method of direct co-culture in which cancer cells and monocytes undergoing differentiation share the medium and exchange secreted factors. This is a significant improvement over the original indirect co-culture method as researchers can observe the reciprocal interactions of the two cell types and perform downstream analyses for both cancer cells and osteoclasts. This method enables us to study the effect of drugs on the metastatic bone microenvironment and to seed cell lines other than those derived from breast cancer. The model can also be used to study other diseases such as osteoporosis or other bone conditions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Comunicação Celular/fisiologia , Monócitos/patologia , Osteoclastos/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Técnicas de Cocultura/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Monócitos/citologia , Osteoclastos/citologia , Osteogênese
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