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1.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1177: 338760, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482897

RESUMO

Beta-lactam antibiotics are of vital importance for the treatment of infections in a broad range of patients. Although most systemically administered antibiotics will be excreted renally, a fraction will reach the gastro-intestinal tract, affecting the intestinal microbiome by eradicating a wide range of bacterial species while facilitating the growth of antimicrobial-resistant species. A better understanding of the kinetics of beta-lactam antibiotics in the gastro-intestinal tract is essential to study their role in the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and to help develop future therapies to prevent damage to, or restore, the intestinal microbiome. Analysis of beta-lactam antibiotics in faeces is particularly challenging due to the heterogeneous nature of the matrix, rapid degradation of some beta-lactam antibiotics in faeces and very strong ion suppression when using mass spectrometry. Sample preparation was optimized using a sequential strategy of experimental designs. It resulted in lyophilization, a MOPS buffer system and the addition of the beta-lactamase inhibitor avibactam to minimize degradation of antibiotics allowing sensitive quantification. The developed liquid chromatography method with high-resolution mass spectrometric detection was successfully validated according to bioanalytical EMA guidelines and had a linear range of 1-200 µg g-1 lyophilized faeces for amoxicillin, piperacillin and meropenem; and 0.5-100 µg g-1 lyophilized faeces for tazobactam. Despite the highly complex and heterogeneous composition of faeces, the accuracy (0.1-15%) and precision (1.7-12.1%) were in line with those obtained for quantification methods of beta-lactam antibiotics in plasma, the golden standard matrix for therapeutic drug monitoring. The applicability of the method was illustrated by successful quantification of piperacillin and tazobactam in faeces from an intensive care unit patient receiving piperacillin/tazobactam in a continuous intravenous infusion. Both piperacillin and tazobactam were still present six days after discontinuation of the therapy.


Assuntos
Amoxicilina , Piperacilina , Antibacterianos , Cromatografia Líquida , Fezes , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas , Meropeném , Projetos de Pesquisa , Tazobactam
2.
Clin Chim Acta ; 523: 72-76, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of ß-lactam antibiotics may be used to optimize dosing for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). A noninvasive matrix such as oral fluid may be interesting in selected patient groups. We compared the oral fluid concentrations of piperacillin and meropenem with the respective unbound and total concentrations in plasma. A secondary objective was to evaluate feasibility of the collection of oral fluid samples in this specific patient population. METHODS: The study included 20 non-intubated ICU patients, age 22 to 77 y, receiving piperacillin or meropenem via continuous intravenous infusion. The standard protocol consisted of collecting a paired plasma-oral fluid sample for 3 consecutive days. Oral fluid was obtained from the patients using a standardized procedure by spitting in a plastic container after 2 min of gathering oral fluid in the mouth. RESULTS: Antibiotic concentrations of piperacillin and meropenem are measurable, albeit very low, in unstimulated oral fluid of ICU patients. For piperacillin, a poor correlation was found between oral fluid and both total and unbound plasma concentrations (Spearman's correlation coefficients (Rs) 0.46 and 0.48 respectively). For meropenem this correlation was better (Rs for oral fluid versus total and unbound plasma meropenem concentration 0.92 and 0.93 respectively). Dispersion of antibiotic concentrations was greater in oral fluid than in blood. Collecting oral fluid samples was difficult in non-intubated ICU patients. CONCLUSIONS: Oral fluid from non-intubated ICU patients, obtained through a standardized procedure, cannot be recommended as an alternative matrix for quantitative meropenem or piperacillin TDM.

3.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 131, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34436688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe infections and multidrug-resistant pathogens are common in critically ill patients. Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) and therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) are contemporary tools to optimize the use of antimicrobials. The A-TEAMICU survey was initiated to gain contemporary insights into dissemination and structure of AMS programs and TDM practices in intensive care units. METHODS: This study involved online survey of members of ESICM and six national professional intensive care societies. RESULTS: Data of 812 respondents from mostly European high- and middle-income countries were available for analysis. 63% had AMS rounds available in their ICU, where 78% performed rounds weekly or more often. While 82% had local guidelines for treatment of infections, only 70% had cumulative antimicrobial susceptibility reports and 56% monitored the quantity of antimicrobials administered. A restriction of antimicrobials was reported by 62%. TDM of antimicrobial agents was used in 61% of ICUs, mostly glycopeptides (89%), aminoglycosides (77%), carbapenems (32%), penicillins (30%), azole antifungals (27%), cephalosporins (17%), and linezolid (16%). 76% of respondents used prolonged/continuous infusion of antimicrobials. The availability of an AMS had a significant association with the use of TDM. CONCLUSIONS: Many respondents of the survey have AMS in their ICUs. TDM of antimicrobials and optimized administration of antibiotics are broadly used among respondents. The availability of antimicrobial susceptibility reports and a surveillance of antimicrobial use should be actively sought by intensivists where unavailable. Results of this survey may inform further research and educational activities.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(8): 1369-1378, 2021 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal dosing of antibiotics in critically ill patients receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) remains unclear. In this study, we describe the variability in RRT techniques and antibiotic dosing in critically ill patients receiving RRT and relate observed trough antibiotic concentrations to optimal targets. METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational, multinational, pharmacokinetic study in 29 intensive care units from 14 countries. We collected demographic, clinical, and RRT data. We measured trough antibiotic concentrations of meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, and vancomycin and related them to high- and low-target trough concentrations. RESULTS: We studied 381 patients and obtained 508 trough antibiotic concentrations. There was wide variability (4-8-fold) in antibiotic dosing regimens, RRT prescription, and estimated endogenous renal function. The overall median estimated total renal clearance (eTRCL) was 50 mL/minute (interquartile range [IQR], 35-65) and higher eTRCL was associated with lower trough concentrations for all antibiotics (P < .05). The median (IQR) trough concentration for meropenem was 12.1 mg/L (7.9-18.8), piperacillin was 78.6 mg/L (49.5-127.3), tazobactam was 9.5 mg/L (6.3-14.2), and vancomycin was 14.3 mg/L (11.6-21.8). Trough concentrations failed to meet optimal higher limits in 26%, 36%, and 72% and optimal lower limits in 4%, 4%, and 55% of patients for meropenem, piperacillin, and vancomycin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill patients treated with RRT, antibiotic dosing regimens, RRT prescription, and eTRCL varied markedly and resulted in highly variable antibiotic concentrations that failed to meet therapeutic targets in many patients.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Estado Terminal , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Meropeném , Piperacilina , Estudos Prospectivos , Terapia de Substituição Renal
8.
Clin Pharmacokinet ; 59(10): 1237-1250, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Administering ß-lactam antibiotics via prolonged infusions for critically ill patients is mainly based on preclinical evidence. Preclinical data on this topic have not been systematically reviewed before. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) indices and targets reported in preclinical models and to compare the bactericidal efficacy of intermittent and prolonged infusions of ß-lactam antibiotics. METHODS: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched. To compare the bactericidal action of ß-lactam antibiotics across different modes of infusion, the reported PK/PD outcomes, expressed as the percentage of time (T) that free (f) ß-lactam antibiotic concentrations remain above the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) (%fT>MIC) or trough concentration (Cmin)/MIC of individual studies, were recomputed relative to the area under the curve of free drug to MIC ratio (fAUC24/MIC). A linear mixed-effects meta-regression was performed to evaluate the impact of the ß-lactam class, initial inoculum, Gram stain, in vivo or in vitro experiment and mode of infusion on the reduction of bacterial cells (in colony-forming units/mL). RESULTS: Overall, 33 articles were included for review, 11 of which were eligible for meta-regression. For maximal bactericidal activity, intermittent experiments reported a PK/PD target of 40-70% fT>MIC, while continuous experiments reported a steady-state concentration to MIC ratio of 4-8. The adjusted effect of a prolonged as opposed to intermittent infusion on bacterial killing was small (coefficient 0.66, 95% confidence interval - 0.78 to 2.11). CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent and prolonged infusions of ß-lactam antibiotics require different PK/PD targets to obtain the same level of bacterial cell kill. The additional effect of a prolonged infusion for enhancing bacterial killing could not be demonstrated.

9.
J Crit Care ; 59: 70-75, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32570052

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To survey healthcare workers (HCW) on availability and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) caring for COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHOD: A web-based survey distributed worldwide in April 2020. RESULTS: We received 2711 responses from 1797 (67%) physicians, 744 (27%) nurses, and 170 (6%) Allied HCW. For routine care, most (1557, 58%) reportedly used FFP2/N95 masks, waterproof long sleeve gowns (1623; 67%), and face shields/visors (1574; 62%). Powered Air-Purifying Respirators were used routinely and for intubation only by 184 (7%) and 254 (13%) respondents, respectively. Surgical masks were used for routine care by 289 (15%) and 47 (2%) for intubations. At least one piece of standard PPE was unavailable for 1402 (52%), and 817 (30%) reported reusing single-use PPE. PPE was worn for a median of 4 h (IQR 2, 5). Adverse effects of PPE were associated with longer shift durations and included heat (1266, 51%), thirst (1174, 47%), pressure areas (1088, 44%), headaches (696, 28%), Inability to use the bathroom (661, 27%) and extreme exhaustion (492, 20%). CONCLUSIONS: HCWs reported widespread shortages, frequent reuse of, and adverse effects related to PPE. Urgent action by healthcare administrators, policymakers, governments and industry is warranted.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribuição , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , África , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde , Ásia , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Europa (Continente) , Dispositivos de Proteção dos Olhos , Feminino , Luvas Protetoras , Cefaleia/etiologia , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Máscaras/efeitos adversos , Máscaras/provisão & distribuição , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , América do Norte , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Oceania , Pandemias , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Médicos , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/efeitos adversos , Dispositivos de Proteção Respiratória/provisão & distribuição , SARS-CoV-2 , América do Sul , Vestimenta Cirúrgica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sede
10.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(7): 1404-1417, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519003

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The DIANA study aimed to evaluate how often antimicrobial de-escalation (ADE) of empirical treatment is performed in the intensive care unit (ICU) and to estimate the effect of ADE on clinical cure on day 7 following treatment initiation. METHODS: Adult ICU patients receiving empirical antimicrobial therapy for bacterial infection were studied in a prospective observational study from October 2016 until May 2018. ADE was defined as (1) discontinuation of an antimicrobial in case of empirical combination therapy or (2) replacement of an antimicrobial with the intention to narrow the antimicrobial spectrum, within the first 3 days of therapy. Inverse probability (IP) weighting was used to account for time-varying confounding when estimating the effect of ADE on clinical cure. RESULTS: Overall, 1495 patients from 152 ICUs in 28 countries were studied. Combination therapy was prescribed in 50%, and carbapenems were prescribed in 26% of patients. Empirical therapy underwent ADE, no change and change other than ADE within the first 3 days in 16%, 63% and 22%, respectively. Unadjusted mortality at day 28 was 15.8% in the ADE cohort and 19.4% in patients with no change [p = 0.27; RR 0.83 (95% CI 0.60-1.14)]. The IP-weighted relative risk estimate for clinical cure comparing ADE with no-ADE patients (no change or change other than ADE) was 1.37 (95% CI 1.14-1.64). CONCLUSION: ADE was infrequently applied in critically ill-infected patients. The observational effect estimate on clinical cure suggested no deleterious impact of ADE compared to no-ADE. However, residual confounding is likely.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Estado Terminal , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Carbapenêmicos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
11.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(6): 1127-1153, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383061

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This Position Paper aims to review and discuss the available data on therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antibacterials, antifungals and antivirals in critically ill adult patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). This Position Paper also provides a practical guide on how TDM can be applied in routine clinical practice to improve therapeutic outcomes in critically ill adult patients. METHODS: Literature review and analysis were performed by Panel Members nominated by the endorsing organisations, European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM), Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic and Critically Ill Patient Study Groups of European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID), International Association for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Clinical Toxicology (IATDMCT) and International Society of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (ISAC). Panel members made recommendations for whether TDM should be applied clinically for different antimicrobials/classes. RESULTS: TDM-guided dosing has been shown to be clinically beneficial for aminoglycosides, voriconazole and ribavirin. For most common antibiotics and antifungals in the ICU, a clear therapeutic range has been established, and for these agents, routine TDM in critically ill patients appears meritorious. For the antivirals, research is needed to identify therapeutic targets and determine whether antiviral TDM is indeed meritorious in this patient population. The Panel Members recommend routine TDM to be performed for aminoglycosides, beta-lactam antibiotics, linezolid, teicoplanin, vancomycin and voriconazole in critically ill patients. CONCLUSION: Although TDM should be the standard of care for most antimicrobials in every ICU, important barriers need to be addressed before routine TDM can be widely employed worldwide.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Estado Terminal , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Humanos , beta-Lactamas
12.
Adv Ther ; 37(7): 3083-3096, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32462606

RESUMO

Antimicrobial de-escalation (ADE) is a component of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) aimed to reduce exposure to broad-spectrum antimicrobials. In the intensive care unit, ADE is a strong recommendation that is moderately applied in clinical practice. Following a systematic review of the literature, we assessed the studies identified on the topic which included one randomized controlled trial and 20 observational studies. The literature shows a low level of evidence, although observational studies suggested that this procedure is safe. The effects of ADE on the level of resistance of ecological systems and especially on the microbiota are unclear. The reviewers recommend de-escalating antimicrobial treatment in patients requiring long-term antibiotic therapy and considering de-escalation in short-term treatments.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/normas , Anti-Infecciosos/normas , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/normas , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Humanos
14.
JAMA ; 323(15): 1478-1487, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207816

RESUMO

Importance: Infection is frequent among patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Contemporary information about the types of infections, causative pathogens, and outcomes can aid the development of policies for prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and resource allocation and may assist in the design of interventional studies. Objective: To provide information about the prevalence and outcomes of infection and the available resources in ICUs worldwide. Design, Setting, and Participants: Observational 24-hour point prevalence study with longitudinal follow-up at 1150 centers in 88 countries. All adult patients (aged ≥18 years) treated at a participating ICU during a 24-hour period commencing at 08:00 on September 13, 2017, were included. The final follow-up date was November 13, 2017. Exposures: Infection diagnosis and receipt of antibiotics. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalence of infection and antibiotic exposure (cross-sectional design) and all-cause in-hospital mortality (longitudinal design). Results: Among 15 202 included patients (mean age, 61.1 years [SD, 17.3 years]; 9181 were men [60.4%]), infection data were available for 15 165 (99.8%); 8135 (54%) had suspected or proven infection, including 1760 (22%) with ICU-acquired infection. A total of 10 640 patients (70%) received at least 1 antibiotic. The proportion of patients with suspected or proven infection ranged from 43% (141/328) in Australasia to 60% (1892/3150) in Asia and the Middle East. Among the 8135 patients with suspected or proven infection, 5259 (65%) had at least 1 positive microbiological culture; gram-negative microorganisms were identified in 67% of these patients (n = 3540), gram-positive microorganisms in 37% (n = 1946), and fungal microorganisms in 16% (n = 864). The in-hospital mortality rate was 30% (2404/7936) in patients with suspected or proven infection. In a multilevel analysis, ICU-acquired infection was independently associated with higher risk of mortality compared with community-acquired infection (odds ratio [OR], 1.32 [95% CI, 1.10-1.60]; P = .003). Among antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, infection with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (OR, 2.41 [95% CI, 1.43-4.06]; P = .001), Klebsiella resistant to ß-lactam antibiotics, including third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems (OR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.02-1.63]; P = .03), or carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter species (OR, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.08-1.81]; P = .01) was independently associated with a higher risk of death vs infection with another microorganism. Conclusions and Relevance: In a worldwide sample of patients admitted to ICUs in September 2017, the prevalence of suspected or proven infection was high, with a substantial risk of in-hospital mortality.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Adulto , Antibacterianos , Ásia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio , Prevalência
15.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(6): 1546-1553, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211756

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Ceftolozane/tazobactam is approved for hospital-acquired/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia at double the dose (i.e. 2 g/1 g) recommended for other indications. We evaluated the bronchopulmonary pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of this 3 g ceftolozane/tazobactam regimen in ventilated pneumonia patients. METHODS: This was an open-label, multicentre, Phase 1 trial (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02387372). Mechanically ventilated patients with proven/suspected pneumonia received four to six doses of 3 g of ceftolozane/tazobactam (adjusted for renal function) q8h. Serial plasma samples were collected after the first and last doses. One bronchoalveolar lavage sample per patient was collected at 1, 2, 4, 6 or 8 h after the last dose and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) drug concentrations were determined. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by non-compartmental analysis and pharmacodynamic analyses were conducted to graphically evaluate achievement of target exposures (plasma and ELF ceftolozane concentrations >4 mg/L and tazobactam concentrations >1 mg/L; target in plasma: ≥30% and ≥20% of the dosing interval, respectively). RESULTS: Twenty-six patients received four to six doses of study drug; 22 were included in the ELF analyses. Ceftolozane and tazobactam Tmax (6 and 2 h, respectively) were delayed in ELF compared with plasma (1 h). Lung penetration, expressed as the ratio of mean drug exposure (AUC) in ELF to plasma, was 50% (ceftolozane) and 62% (tazobactam). Mean ceftolozane and tazobactam ELF concentrations remained >4 mg/L and >1 mg/L, respectively, for 100% of the dosing interval. There were no deaths or adverse event-related study discontinuations. CONCLUSIONS: In ventilated pneumonia patients, 3 g of ceftolozane/tazobactam q8h yielded ELF exposures considered adequate to cover ceftolozane/tazobactam-susceptible respiratory pathogens.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Pneumonia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Cefalosporinas , Humanos , Pulmão , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Tazobactam
16.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 97, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32204721

RESUMO

This article is one of ten reviews selected from the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 2020. Other selected articles can be found online at https://www.biomedcentral.com/collections/annualupdate2020. Further information about the Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine is available from http://www.springer.com/series/8901.


Assuntos
Cavidade Abdominal/anormalidades , Síndromes Compartimentais/terapia , Hipertensão Intra-Abdominal/complicações , Cavidade Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Síndromes Compartimentais/fisiopatologia , Estado Terminal/terapia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Hipertensão Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia
17.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(2): 236-244, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025778

RESUMO

Antimicrobial de-escalation (ADE) is defined as the discontinuation of one or more components of combination empirical therapy, and/or the change from a broad-spectrum to a narrower spectrum antimicrobial. It is most commonly recommended in the intensive care unit (ICU) patient who is treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics as a strategy to reduce antimicrobial pressure of empirical broad-spectrum therapy and prevent antimicrobial resistance, yet this has not been convincingly demonstrated in a clinical setting. Even if it appears beneficial, ADE may have some unwanted side effects: it has been associated with prolongation of antimicrobial therapy and could inappropriately be used as a justification for unrestricted broadness of empirical therapy. Also, exposing a patient to multiple, sequential antimicrobials could have unwanted effects on the microbiome. For these reasons, ADE has important shortcomings to be promoted as a quality indicator for appropriate antimicrobial use in the ICU. Despite this, ADE clearly has a role in the management of infections in the ICU. The most appropriate use of ADE is in patients with microbiologically confirmed infections requiring longer antimicrobial therapy. ADE should be used as an integral part of an ICU antimicrobial stewardship approach in which it is guided by optimal specimen quality and relevance. Rapid diagnostics may further assist in avoiding unnecessary initiation of broad-spectrum therapy, which in turn will decrease the need for subsequent ADE.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/normas , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Gestão de Antimicrobianos/tendências , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Prova Pericial , Humanos
19.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 33(2): 156-161, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904697

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is increasing in ICUs around the world, but the prevalence is variable. We will review recent literature and try to answer the question whether this is a myth or a new reality, as well as discuss challenges and potential solutions. RECENT FINDINGS: AMR is diverse, and currently Gram-negative multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are the main challenge in ICUs worldwide. Geographical variation in prevalence of MDROs is substantial, and local epidemiology should be considered to assess the current threat of AMR. ICU patients are at a high risk of infection with MDRO because often multiple risk factors are present. Solutions should focus on reducing the risk of cross-transmission in the ICU through strict infection prevention and control practices and reducing exposure to antimicrobials as the major contributor to the development of AMR. SUMMARY: AMR is a reality in most ICUs around the world, but the extent of the problem is clearly highly variable. Infection prevention and control as well as appropriate antimicrobial use are the cornerstones to turn the tide.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Humanos
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