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1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32453904

RESUMO

Bacteriophage therapy is acknowledged as a potential tool to prevent or treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. In this study, our major focus was on the bacteriolytic activity of phage EcSw (ΦEcSw) against the emergence of the clinically important Escherichia coli Sw1 and E. coli O157:H7. The amount of the antibiotics was changed in a concentration-dependent manner, and the ΦEcSw susceptibility to antibiotics was determined. The kanamycin and chloramphenicol inhibited the titre of phage, but ampicillin did not show phage inhibition. Though the kanamycin and chloramphenicol controlled the growth of Sw1 in a concentration-dependent manner, the ampicillin did not due to the resistance. The combined activity of the ΦEcSw with antibiotics (kanamycin and chloramphenicol) compared with the antibiotics alone showed significant lytic activity p < .001). In addition, phage-based therapy was evaluated for controlling the multidrug-resistant E. coli Sw1 and E. coli O157:H7 in zebrafish and BALB/c mice, respectively. Our results provide novel advantages of phage therapy and phage-antibiotic therapy to control antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

2.
Mar Drugs ; 18(3)2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245246

RESUMO

This study evaluated the modulation of gut microbiota, immune responses, and gut morphometry in C57BL/6 mice, upon oral administration of S. maxima-derived modified pectin (SmP, 7.5 mg/mL) and pectin nanoparticles (SmPNPs; 7.5 mg/mL). Metagenomics analysis was conducted using fecal samples, and mice duodenum and jejunum were used for analyzing the immune response and gut morphometry, respectively. The results of metagenomics analysis revealed that the abundance of Bacteroidetes in the gut increased in response to both modified SmP and SmPNPs (75%) as compared with that in the control group (66%), while that of Firmicutes decreased in (20%) as compared with that in the control group (30%). The mRNA levels of mucin, antimicrobial peptide, and antiviral and gut permeability-related genes in the duodenum were significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated (> 2-fold) upon modified SmP and SmPNPs feeding. Protein level of intestinal alkaline phosphatase was increased (1.9-fold) in the duodenum of modified SmPNPs feeding, evidenced by significantly increased goblet cell density (0.5 ± 0.03 cells/1000 µm2) and villi height (352 ± 10 µm). Our results suggest that both modified SmP and SmPNPs have the potential to modulate gut microbial community, enhance the expression of immune related genes, and improve gut morphology.

3.
Curr Microbiol ; 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300925

RESUMO

Antimicrobial and heavy-metal resistance of 29 Aeromonas spp. (Aeromonas hydrophila n = 9, Aeromonas enteropelogenes n = 14, Aeromonas veronii n = 3, Aeromonas salmonicida n = 2, and Aeromonas sobria n = 1) isolated from Pacific abalone marketed in Korea were analyzed. All isolates were found to be resistant against ampicillin. High level of resistant to cephalothin (86%), rifampicin (73%), imipenem (42%), and oxytetracycline (35%) were also detected. Thirteen (45%) of the isolates showed multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) index ≥ 0.2. The PCR assays implied the presence of qnrS, qnrB, qnrA, tetB, tetA, aac (3')- IIa, aac(6')-Ib, aphAI-IAB, blaCTX, blaTEM, and intI1 genes among 76%, 28%, 14%, 17%, 3%, 3%, 41%, 10%, 41%, 28%, and 66% of the isolates, respectively. Class 1 integron gene cassette profiles aadA1(3%) and aadA2 (3%) were also identified. Lead (Pb) resistance was the highest (69%) among 5 heavy metals tested, whereas 38%, 27%, and 20% of the isolates were resistant to Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), and Copper (Cu), respectively. Heavy-metal resistance genes, CopA, CzcA, and merA were positive in 83%, 75%, and 41% of the isolates, respectively. In conclusion, observed genotypic and phenotypic resistance profiles of Aeromonas spp. against antimicrobials and heavy metals reveal the ability of serving as a source of antimicrobials and heavy-metal-resistant traits.

4.
Biomolecules ; 10(4)2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230927

RESUMO

Inflammation is a well-organized innate immune response that plays an important role during the pathogen attacks and mechanical injuries. The Toll-like receptors (TLR)/nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) is a major signal transduction pathway observed in RAW 264.7 macrophages during the inflammatory responses. Here, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Octominin; a bio-active peptide developed from Octopus minor in RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro. Octominin was found to inhibit lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-stimulated transcriptional activation of NF-κB in RAW 264.7 cells and dose-dependently decreased the mRNA expression levels of TLR4. Specifically, in silico docking results demonstrated that Octominin has a potential to inhibit TLR4 mediated inflammatory responses via blocking formation of TLR4/MD-2/LPS complex. We also demonstrated that Octominin could significantly inhibit LPS-induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-ß; IL-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) and chemokines (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, and CXCL10) from RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, Octominin repressed the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2, inducible NO synthase, and cyclooxygenase 2 in macrophages. These results suggest that Octominin is a potential inhibitor of TLRs/NF-κB signal transduction pathway and is a potential candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

5.
Braz J Microbiol ; 2020 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32067211

RESUMO

This study was aimed to understand the expression of miR-146a in zebrafish (Danio rerio) and its role in regulating immune responses during Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella piscicida infections. The miR-146a expression was observed from the 1-h post fertilization (hpf) stage and gradually increased up to the early larval stage of zebrafish. The ubiquitous expression of miR-146a was detected in all tested tissues, with the highest level in gills. The expression of miR-146a was significantly increased in larvae when exposed to E. piscicida infection at 24 and 48 h post exposure (hpe). Intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected A. hydrophila and E. piscicida into adult zebrafish showed significant upregulation of miR-146a in gills. Furthermore, immune-related genes, toll-like receptor, tlr-4, transducing signaling pathway molecules, traf-6 and myd88 (bacteria-infected larvae and adults), transcription factor relA and mcp-1b (bacteria-infected adults), pro-inflammatory, il-6 (A. hydrophila-exposed larvae) and mmp-9 (bacteria-exposed larvae) were significantly repressed. In contrast, il-1ß, tnf-α, cxcl-18b, and ccl-34a.4 were induced in both bacteria-challenged larvae and adults. Based on the results, it is suggested that endogenous miR-146a could act as an infection inducible miRNA in zebrafish upon A. hydrophila and E. piscicida infections; also, it could potentially regulate the immune responses in zebrafish.

6.
Biologicals ; 63: 14-23, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889622

RESUMO

Edwardsiella tarda phage (ETP-1) was isolated from marine fish farm water to characterize its effect against pathogenic multidrug-resistant E. tarda. According to transmission electron microscopy results, ETP-1 is classified as a member of the family Podoviridae. ETP-1 showed MOI dependent E. tarda growth inhibition, a latent period of 60 min, and burst size of 100 PFU per infected cells. In host range tests, five out of eight E. tarda strains were sensitive to ETP-1 which had efficiency of plating index in the range 1-1.28. ETP-1 was stable over a broad range of pH and temperature. The size of the ETP-1 genome was predicted to be approximately 40 kb. Zebrafish exposed to ETP-1 showed no adverse gene responses to the inflammatory mediator cytokines, il1-ß, tnf-α, il-6, and il-10, the chemokine, cxcl-8a, and reactive oxygen species, sod-1. When zebrafish were bath exposed to ETP-1 for 12 days and simultaneously challenged with E. tarda (1.08 × 105 CFU fish-1), the survival rate was higher in phage exposed fish (68%) compared to that of the control (18%) until 4 days post challenge. Our results suggest that ETP-1 can be used as a potential bio-therapeutic candidate to control multi-drug resistant E. tarda infection in aquaculture.

7.
Mar Drugs ; 18(1)2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952292

RESUMO

: The rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens makes an urgent need for discovering novel antimicrobial agents as alternatives to conventional antibiotics. Towards this end, we designed and synthesized a synthetic peptide of 23 amino acids (AAs) (1GWLIRGAIHAGKAIHGLIHRRRH23) from a defense protein 3 cDNA sequence of Octopus minor. The sequence of the peptide, which was named Octominin, had characteristic features of known antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as a positive charge (+5), high hydrophobic residue ratio (43%), and 1.86 kcal/mol of Boman index. Octominin was predicted to have an alpha-helix secondary structure. The synthesized Octominin was 2625.2 Da with 92.5% purity. The peptide showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 50 and 200 µg/mL, respectively, against Candida albicans. Field emission scanning electron microscopy observation confirmed that Octominin caused ultrastructural cell wall deformities in C. albicans. In addition, propidium iodide penetrated the Octominin-treated C. albicans cells, further demonstrating loss of cell membrane integrity that caused cell death at both MIC and MFC. Octominin treatment increased the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and decreased cell viability in a concentration dependent manner. Cytotoxicity assays revealed no significant influence of Octominin on the viability of human embryonic kidney 293T cell line, with over 95% live cells in the Octominin-treated group observed up to 100 µg/mL. Moreover, we confirmed the antifungal action of Octominin in vivo using a zebrafish experimental infection model. Overall, our results demonstrate the Octominin is a lead compound for further studies, which exerts its effects by inducing cell wall damage, causing loss of cell membrane integrity, and elevating oxidative stress.

8.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(3): 501-509, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707424

RESUMO

Aeromonas spp. are opportunistic pathogenic bacteria related to an assembly of infectious diseases in ornamental fish. In the present study, virulence properties and antibiotic susceptibility of 52 guppy-borne Aeromonas spp. were investigated. The isolates were identified as A. veronii (n = 34), A. dhakensis (n = 10), A. hydrophila (n = 3), A. caviae (n = 3) and A. enteropelogenes (n = 2) by gyrB gene sequencing. The gyrB sequence deviation within and among the species ranged from 0 to 2.6% and 2.7-9.2%. Each species formed a distinct group in the unrooted neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree. The phenotypic virulence factors such as ß-hemolysis, slime, caseinase, DNase, gelatinase and lipase production were observed in 28 (53.9%), 33 (63.5%), 28 (53.9%), 42 (80.8%), 37 (71.2%) and 42 (80.8%) isolates, respectively. The virulence genes were detected by PCR assay in the following proportions- act (84.6%), hly (80.8%), aer (73.1%), lip (73.1%), gcaT (73.1%), ascV (53.8%), ahyB (53.8%) fla (51.9%), alt (48.1%), ast (36.5%) and ser (34.6%), respectively. The amoxicillin, ampicillin, imipenem, nalidixic acid, oxytetracycline and rifampicin were resistant to more than 70.0% of the isolates in antibiotic susceptibility test. Our study suggests that the ornamental guppy can be a potential reservoir of virulent and multi-drug resistant Aeromonas spp.

9.
Braz J Microbiol ; 51(1): 409-416, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691176

RESUMO

To develop an alternative bio-control measure for multi-drug resistant pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila, which causes motile Aeromonas septicemia in fish, novel virulent phage (AHP-1) was isolated from carp tissues. Morphological analysis by transmission electron microscopy revealed that AHP-1 belongs to Myoviridae family. AHP-1 displayed 81% of moderate adsorption by 25 min, and latent period of 40 min with burst size of 97 PFU mL-1 at an optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI) 0.1. AHP-1 was stable over a broad range of pH (4-11), temperature (4-50 °C), and salinity (0.1-3.5%). Both time and MOI dependent in vitro A. hydrophila growth inhibition was observed with AHP-1. AHP-1 (10 MOI) showed higher growth inhibition against A. hydrophila than chloramphenicol (5 µg mL-1), and combined treatment was more promising than individuals. Immune gene expression analysis of zebrafish upon continuous bath exposure to AHP-1 resulted significantly higher (il-6 and sod-1) or slight induction (tnf-α, il1-ß, il-10, and cxcl-8a) than controls at beginning of the phage exposure, but those lowered to basal level by day 12 post-phage exposure. It suggests no adverse immune responses have occurred for the AHP-1 dose that used, and have potential for the phage therapy. Further detailed in vivo studies are needed to confirm the protective efficacy of newly isolated AHP-1 against A. hydrophila infection.

10.
Mycopathologia ; 184(5): 559-572, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473909

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen which causes systemic infections in human. In this study, C. albicans infection model was developed in zebrafish to understand the host-pathogen interactions for straightforward anticandidal drug screening. METHODS: To develop the infection, 1 × 106 cells of C. albicans suspended in phosphate-buffered saline were deposited in zebrafish dorsal muscle by manually operated syringe. The infection progression was externally assessed by a scale of wound-healing events, based on visible changes of yeast deposited in the muscle tissues. Chemotherapy was carried out with known antifungal drugs (fluconazole, nystatin, and amphotericin B) and a potential antifungal agent, chitosan silver nanocomposites (CAgNC), after the infection as direct exposure in the water. Histopathological analysis was performed to identify the pathogen virulence and the host-pathogen interaction during the infection. RESULTS: The light microscopic observations and histopathological analysis revealed the yeast-hyphae transition at the site of infection (at 72 hpi) and progression of the infection in the host tissues. The larval survival rate under fluconazole (up to 80 µg mL-1) and nystatin (up to 20 µg mL-1) was > 90% and for CAgNC it was 40% at 36 h post-exposure (hpe). The infection progression was suppressed with the fungicidal treatments. Among inflammatory genes, il-1ß has been highly upregulated (14.68-fold) at 24 h post infection (hpi). Both il-1ß and tnf-α were moderately upregulated in infected fish gills at 72 hpi. Among the C. albicans antioxidant genes, cat1 and sod2 have been upregulated during the infection, and relative expression folds were increased from low to moderate levels with the time. DISCUSSION: We demonstrate the approach for the development of artificial infection model of zebrafish with C. albicans. By this mini vertebrate zebrafish model, researchers will be able to study novel anticandidal compounds in vivo with respect to the host, pathogen, and their interactions.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Candidíase/microbiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Animais , Candida albicans/patogenicidade , Candidíase/patologia , Histocitoquímica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Microscopia , Peixe-Zebra
11.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 558-565, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31546036

RESUMO

In this study, we demonstrate the enhanced disease resistance and positive immunomodulation of novel pectin isolated from Spirulina maxima (SmP) in zebrafish model. Zebrafish larvae exposed to SmP had significantly (p < 0.05) higher cumulative percent survival (CPS) at 25 (44.0%) and 50 µg/mL (67.0%) against Edwardsiella piscicida compared to the control. However, upon Aeromonas hydrophila challenge, SmP exposed larvae at 50 µg/mL had slightly higher CPS (33.3%) compared to control group (26.7%). SmP supplemented zebrafish exhibited the higher CPS against E. piscicida (93.3%) and A. hydrophila (60.0%) during the early stage of post-infection (<18 hpi). qRT-PCR results demonstrated that exposing (larvae) and feeding (adults) of SmP, drive the modulation of a wide array of immune response genes. In SmP exposed larvae, up-regulation of the antimicrobial enzyme (lyz: 3.5-fold), mucin (muc5.1: 2.84, muc5.2: 2.11 and muc5.3: 2.40-fold), pro-inflammatory cytokines (il1ß: 1.79-fold) and anti-oxidants (cat: 2.87 and sod1: 1.82-fold) were identified. In SmP fed adult zebrafish (gut) showed >2-fold induced pro-inflammatory cytokine (il1ß) and chemokines (cxcl18b, ccl34a.4 and ccl34b.4). Overall results confirmed the positive modulation of innate immune responses in larval stage and it could be the main reason for developing disease resistance against E. piscicida and A. hydrophila. Thus, non-toxic, natural and biodegradable SmP could be considered as the potential immunomodulatory agent for sustainable aquaculture.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/química , Resistência à Doença/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Pectinas/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Proteínas na Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Edwardsiella/fisiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Pectinas/administração & dosagem
12.
Microb Cell Fact ; 18(1): 122, 2019 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286972

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acetyl xylan esterase plays an important role in the complete enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials. It hydrolyzes the ester linkages of acetic acid in xylan and supports and enhances the activity of xylanase. This study was conducted to identify and overexpress the acetyl xylan esterase (AXE) gene revealed by the genomic sequencing of the marine bacterium Ochrovirga pacifica. RESULTS: The AXE gene has an 864-bp open reading frame that encodes 287 aa and consists of an AXE domain from aa 60 to 274. Gene was cloned to pET-16b vector and expressed the recombinant AXE (rAXE) in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The predicted molecular mass was 31.75 kDa. The maximum specific activity (40.08 U/mg) was recorded at the optimal temperature and pH which were 50 °C and pH 8.0, respectively. The thermal stability assay showed that AXE maintains its residual activity almost constantly throughout and after incubation at 45 °C for 120 min. The synergism of AXE with xylanase on beechwood xylan, increased the relative activity 1.41-fold. CONCLUSION: Resulted higher relative activity of rAXE with commercially available xylanase on beechwood xylan showed its potential for the use of rAXE in industrial purposes as a de-esterification enzyme to hydrolyze xylan and hemicellulose-like complex substrates.


Assuntos
Acetilesterase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Fagus/química , Flavobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Xilanos/metabolismo , Acetilesterase/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Sequência de Bases , Estabilidade Enzimática , Flavobacteriaceae/genética , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Microbiologia Industrial , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura
13.
Indian J Microbiol ; 59(2): 161-170, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031430

RESUMO

In this study, Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida was isolated, identified by 16S RNA sequencing and its potential lytic phage (ASP-1) was isolated and characterized. The bacterium was positive for virulence genes (ascV, fla, ahyB, gcaT, lip, alt and act) and phenotypic parameters (haemolysis, slime production, lipase activity, DNase test, gelatinase activity and protease activity) were tested. The bacterium was resistant to 27%, intermediate resistant to 14% and susceptible to 59% of tested common antibiotics. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that lytic ASP-1 belongs to the Myoviridae family. The isolated phage was more specific against A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida (efficiency of plating index = 1), but also had infectivity to A. hydrophila lab strain 1. The bacteriolytic effect of ASP-1 was tested at early exponential phase culture of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and bacteria growth was apparently decreased with time and MOI dependent manner. One-step growth of ASP-1 showed approximately 30 min of latent period, 16 PFU/infected cells of burst size and 40 min of rise period. The adsorption rate was determined as 3.61 × 108 PFU mL-1 min-1 for 3 min, and rate decreased with time. The ASP-1 genome size was estimated to be approximately 55-60 kD. The phage was stable over wide-range of temperatures, pH and salinity, thus could withstand at severe environmental conditions, indicating that ASP-1 has a potential to develop as an alternative antibiotic to use in ornamental and aquaculture industry.

14.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 84: 1030-1040, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359749

RESUMO

Proteins with dithiol-disulfide oxidoreductase catalytic domain are well known for their capacity in the cellular redox homeostasis. In this study, we characterized the zebrafish thioredoxin domain containing 12 (Zftxndc12) gene, analyzed the transcriptional responses and studied the functional properties of its recombinant protein. Full-length cDNA of Zftxndc12 consists 519 bp coding region encoding 172 amino acids (AA) including the signal peptide. Highly consensus active motif (65WCGAC69) and probable ER retrieval motif (169GDEL172) were identified. Ubiquitous expression of Zftxndc12 mRNA was observed from one cell to juvenile stage as well as different organs of adult zebrafish. Moreover, whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) results showed a higher expression of Zftxndc12 in primordial gills, central nerves system and eye. The tissue specific expression analysis (by qRT-PCR) also showed the highest expression in gills followed by brain in adult zebrafish. In larvae, up-regulated Zftxndc12 mRNA expression upon exposure to H2O2,Edwardsiella tarda and Saprolegnia parasitica suggests that it may involve in both stress and immune responses. Moreover, transcriptional expression of Zftxndc12 was up-regulated upon Streptococcus iniae challenge in gills of adult zebrafish. The recombinant ZfTxndc12 (rZfTxndc12) was overexpressed, purified and tested for its biological activities. Results revealed that rZfTxndc12 is able to reduce the DNA damage and detoxify the H2O2 toxicity in concentration dependent manner. Overall results suggest that Zftxndc12 is important antioxidant and immune functional member of the host defense system in zebrafish.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Edwardsiella tarda/fisiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/veterinária , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Infecções/imunologia , Infecções/veterinária , Filogenia , Saprolegnia/fisiologia , Alinhamento de Sequência/veterinária , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus iniae/fisiologia
15.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 80: 573-581, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29964197

RESUMO

Fish can be potentially co-infected by two or more bacterial strains, which can make synergistic influence on the virulence of infection. In this study, two opportunistic and multidrug resistant Aeromonas strains were isolated from wounds of morbid zebrafish with typical deep skin lesions similar to Motile Aeromonas Septicemia. Isolates were genetically identified as A. hydrophila and A. veronii by 16 S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Both isolates were positive for virulent genes (aerA, lip, ser, exu gcaT) and selected phenotypic tests (DNase, protease, gelatinase, lipase, biofilm production and ß-haemolysis). A. hydrophila and A. veronii had strong antibiotic resistance against ampicillin, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, kanamycin, erythromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Histopathological studies revealed that co-infection causes severe necrosis and hypertrophy in the muscles, kidney and liver of zebrafish. Naturally co-infected zebrafish showed highly induced tnf-α, il-1ß, il-6, il-12, ifn, ifn-γ, cxcl18 b and ccl34a.4 at transcription level compared to healthy fish, suggesting virulence factors may activate immune and inflammatory responses of zebrafish. Experimentally infected zebrafish showed significantly higher mortality under co-infection with A. hydrohila and A. veronii (87%), followed by individual challenge of A. hydrophila (72%) or A. veronii (67%) suggesting that virulence of A. hydrophila have greater pathogenicity than A. veronii during co-infection.


Assuntos
Aeromonas , Coinfecção , Doenças dos Peixes , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Peixe-Zebra , Aeromonas/efeitos dos fármacos , Aeromonas/genética , Aeromonas/patogenicidade , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Coinfecção/genética , Coinfecção/imunologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Citocinas/genética , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/patologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/genética , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/patologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Rim/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Músculos/patologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Virulência/genética , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/imunologia , Peixe-Zebra/microbiologia
16.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 76: 240-246, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510255

RESUMO

Chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) were synthesized by ionic gelation method and its immunomodulatory properties were investigated in zebrafish larvae. Average particle size and zeta potential were 181.2 nm and +37.2 mv, respectively. Initially, toxicity profile was tested in zebrafish embryo at 96 h post fertilization (hpf) stage using medium molecular weight chitosan (MMW-C) and CNPs. At 5 µg/mL, the hatching rate was almost similar in both treatments, however, the survival rate was lower in MMW-C compared to CNPs exposure, suggesting that toxicity effect of CNPs in hatched larvae was minimal at 5 µg/mL compared to MMW-C. Quantitative real time PCR results showed that in CNPs exposed larvae at 5 days post fertilization (5 dpf) stage, immune related (il-1ß, tnf-α, il-6, il-10, cxcl-18b, ccl34a.4, cxcl-8a, lyz-c, defßl-1, irf-1a, irf-3, MxA) and stress response (hsp-70) genes were induced. In contrast, basal or down regulated expression of antioxidant genes (gstp-1, cat, sod-1, prdx-4, txndr-1) were observed. Moreover, zebrafish larvae (at 5 dpf stage) exposed to CNPs (5 µg/mL) showed higher survival rate at 72 h post infection stage against pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila challenge compared to controls. These results suggest that although CNPs can have toxic effects to the larvae at higher doses, CNPs exposure at 5 µg/mL could enhance the immune responses and develop the disease resistance against A. hydrophila, which could be attributed to its strong immune modulatory properties.


Assuntos
Quitosana/farmacologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas , Peixe-Zebra/imunologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Animais , Quitosana/administração & dosagem , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Longevidade , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Tamanho da Partícula
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 108: 1281-1288, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29129632

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the antifungal activity and cytotoxicity of ZnO-chitosan nanocomposites (ZnO-C NCs) against Candida albicans and human epithelial type 2 (HEp2) cells, respectively. The crystalline phase, morphology, composition, particle size and optical absorption properties of the synthesized ZnO-C NCs were systematically investigated by various contemporary methods. The X-ray diffraction analysis results showed characteristic diffraction peaks corresponding to both ZnO and chitosan, while field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) displayed clusters of spherical shaped particulate morphology. UV-vis absorption spectra showed a shift in the optical absorption towards lower wavelength for ZnO-C NCs when compared to ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). The antifungal activity results (against C. albicans) showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of ZnO NPs and ZnO-C NCs were 200µg/mL and 75µg/mL, respectively, suggesting the greater therapeutic potential of ZnO-C NCs. FESEM analysis results showed the substantial change in the external morphology of C. albicans after treatment with both ZnO NPs and ZnO-C NCs due to the fungal cell membrane damage. ZnO-C NCs displayed lower cytotoxicity with HEp2 cells indicating the good cytocompatibility of the synthesized ZnO-C NCs. It is expected that ZnO and chitosan complement each other and exhibit synergistic effects potential for antimicrobial and biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/síntese química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/química , Nanocompostos/química , Óxido de Zinco/química , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/toxicidade , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
18.
Indian J Microbiol ; 57(4): 427-437, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29151644

RESUMO

Abstract: Development of nanostructured films using natural polymers and metals has become a considerable interest in various biomedical applications. Objective of the present study was to develop silver nano particles (AgNPs) embedded chitosan films with antimicrobial properties. Based on the Ag content, two types of chitosan silver nano films, named as CAgNfs-12 (12 mM) and CAgNfs-52 (52 mM) were prepared and characterized. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images of two CAgNfs showed the circular AgNPs, which were uniformly embedded and distributed in the matrix of chitosan films. Antimicrobial experiment results clearly indicated that CAgNfs can inhibit the growth of fish pathogenic bacteria Vibrio (Allivibrio) salmonicida, V. tapetis, Edwardsiella tarda and fungi Fusarium oxysporum. Moreover, CAgNfs significantly reduced the experimentally exposed V. salmonicida levels in artificial seawater, suggesting that these CAgNfs could be used to develop antimicrobial filters/membranes for water purifying units to eliminate the pathogenic microbes.

19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 68: 536-545, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757200

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully synthesized by a chemical reduction method, physico-chemically characterized and their effect on wound-healing activity in zebrafish was investigated. The prepared AgNPs were circular-shaped, water soluble with average diameter and zeta potential of 72.66 nm and -0.45 mv, respectively. Following the creation of a laser skin wound on zebrafish, the effect of AgNPs on wound-healing activity was tested by two methods, direct skin application (2 µg/wound) and immersion in a solution of AgNPs and water (50 µg/L). The zebrafish were followed for 20 days post-wounding (dpw) by visual observation of wound size, calculating wound healing percentage (WHP), and histological examination. Visually, both direct skin application and immersion AgNPs treatments displayed clear and faster wound closure at 5, 10 and 20 dpw compared to the controls, which was confirmed by 5 dpw histology data. At 5 dpw, WHP was highest in the AgNPs immersion group (36.6%) > AgNPs direct application group (23.7%) > controls (18.2%), showing that WHP was most effective in fish immersed in AgNPs solution. In general, exposure to AgNPs induced gene expression of selected wound-healing-related genes, namely, transforming growth factor (TGF-ß), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -9 and -13, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß and TNF-α) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase), which observed differentiation at 12 and 24 h against the control; but the results were not consistently significant, and many either reached basal levels or were down regulated at 5 dpw in the wounded muscle. These results suggest that AgNPs are effective in acceleration of wound healing and altered the expression of some wound-healing-related genes. However, the detailed mechanism of enhanced wound healing remains to be investigated in fish.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata/farmacologia , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/lesões
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 105(Pt 1): 478-488, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28709896

RESUMO

Though the metal nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown favorable results against fungal diseases, erratic environmental toxicity of NPs have raised serious concerns against their applications. Hence, it is vital to modify antifungal compounds into safe substitutes over synthetic chemicals. In this study, antifungal effects of chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) and chitosan silver nanocomposites (CAgNCs) were compared against Fusarium oxysporum species complex. CNPs and CAgNCs were synthesized, characterized and compared based on the transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis absorbance spectra, particle size distribution, zeta potential and thermal stability analysis. Ultra-structural analysis on mycelium membrane of treated F. oxysporum showed that CNPs and CAgNCs could induce a pronounced membrane damage and disruption of the mycelium surface, increase the membrane permeability, and even cell disintegration. CAgNCs showed a significantly higher radial growth inhibition than CNPs in all the tested concentrations. Both CNPs and CAgNCs were not only effective in reducing the fungal growth, but also caused morphological and ultrastructural changes in the pathogen, thereby suggesting its usage as an antifungal dispersion system to control F. oxysporum. Additionally, CNPs and CAgNCs therapy reduced the F. oxysporum infection in zebrafish. Data demonstrates biologically active CNPs and CAgNCs are promising antifungal agents against F. oxysporum.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Quitosana/farmacologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Animais , Antifúngicos/toxicidade , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quitosana/toxicidade , Fusarium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fusarium/metabolismo , Humanos , Micélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tamanho da Partícula , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/microbiologia
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