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1.
Alzheimers Dement ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753701

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We estimated the prevalence and correlates of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among middle-aged and older diverse Hispanics/Latinos. METHODS: Middle-aged and older diverse Hispanics/Latinos enrolled (n = 6377; 50-86 years) in this multisite prospective cohort study were evaluated for MCI using the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: The overall MCI prevalence was 9.8%, which varied between Hispanic/Latino groups. Older age, high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and elevated depressive symptoms were significant correlates of MCI prevalence. Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE) and APOE2 were not significantly associated with MCI. DISCUSSION: MCI prevalence varied among Hispanic/Latino backgrounds, but not as widely as reported in the previous studies. CVD risk and depressive symptoms were associated with increased MCI, whereas APOE4 was not, suggesting alternative etiologies for MCI among diverse Hispanics/Latinos. Our findings suggest that mitigating CVD risk factors may offer important pathways to understanding and reducing MCI and possibly dementia among diverse Hispanics/Latinos.

2.
Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord ; 33(4): 327-330, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A rare variant in TREM2 (p.R47H, rs75932628) has been consistently reported to increase the risk for Alzheimer disease (AD), while mixed evidence has been reported for association of the variant with other neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we investigated the frequency of the R47H variant in a diverse and well-characterized multicenter neurodegenerative disease cohort. METHODS: We examined the frequency of the R47H variant in a diverse neurodegenerative disease cohort, including a total of 3058 patients clinically diagnosed with AD, frontotemporal dementia spectrum syndromes, mild cognitive impairment, progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome, corticobasal syndrome, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 5089 control subjects. RESULTS: We observed a significant association between the R47H variant and AD, while no association was observed with any other neurodegenerative disease included in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the consensus that the R47H variant is significantly associated with AD. However, we did not find evidence for association of the R47H variant with other neurodegenerative diseases.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471715

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To apply an AT (Aß/tau) classification system to subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI) patients following recently developed biomarker-based criteria of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and to investigate its clinical significance. METHODS: We recruited 60 SVCI patients who underwent the neuropsychological tests, brain MRI, and 18F-florbetaben and 18F-AV1451 PET at baseline. As a control group, we further recruited 27 patients with AD cognitive impairment (ADCI; eight Aß PET-positive AD dementia and 19 amnestic mild cognitive impairment). ADCI and SVCI patients were classified as having normal or abnormal Aß (A-/A+) and tau (T-/T+) based on PET results. Across the three SVCI groups (A-, A+T-, and A+T+SVCI), we compared longitudinal changes in cognition, hippocampal volume (HV), and cortical thickness using linear mixed models. RESULTS: Among SVCI patients, 33 (55%), 20 (33.3%), and seven (11.7%) patients were A-, A+T-, and A+T+, respectively. The frequency of T+ was lower in A+SVCI (7/27, 25.9%) than in A+ADCI (14/20, 70.0%, p = 0.003) which suggested that cerebral small vessel disease affected cognitive impairments independently of A+. A+T-SVCI had steeper cognitive decline than A-SVCI. A+T+SVCI also showed steeper cognitive decline than A+T-SVCI. Also, A+T-SVCI had steeper decrease in HV than A-SVCI, while cortical thinning did not differ between the two groups. A+T+SVCI had greater global cortical thinning compared with A+T-SVCI, while declines in HV did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSION: This study showed that the AT system successfully characterized SVCI patients, suggesting that the AT system may be usefully applied in a research framework for clinically diagnosed SVCI.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(8): e199826, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433485

RESUMO

Importance: Preclinical studies suggest that amylin has a U-shaped dose-response association with risk of Alzheimer disease (AD). The association of plasma amylin with AD in humans is unknown. Objectives: To measure amylin concentration in plasma by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and to study the association between plasma amylin, incidence of AD, and brain structure in humans. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort from 1998 to 2015. Using a Monte Carlo approach, participants were divided into 3 plasma amylin concentration groups: (1) low (<75 pmol/L), (2) high (75-2800 pmol/L), and (3) extremely high (≥2800 pmol/L). Data analyses were conducted October 5, 2017, to December 18, 2018. Exposures: Baseline plasma amylin concentrations at examination 7. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of dementia or AD and brain volumetric measures from structural magnetic resonance imaging data. Results: From the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort, 3061 participants (mean [SD] age at baseline, 61.0 [9.5] years; 1653 [54.0%] women) who had plasma amylin measurements, dementia incidence, and brain volume measurements on record were included in this study. The distribution of plasma amylin concentrations was highly skewed (median [interquartile range], 7.5 [4.6-18.9] pmol/L; mean [SD], 302.3 [1941.0] pmol/L; range, 0.03-44 623.7 pmol/L). Compared with the low plasma amylin concentration group, the high plasma amylin concentration group had a lower rate of AD incidence (2.3% vs 5.6%; P = .04), but the extremely high plasma amylin concentration group had a higher rate of AD incidence (14.3%; P < .001). After adjusting for age, sex, education, body mass index, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, high-density lipoprotein level, and APOE4, high plasma amylin was not associated with decreased AD risk (hazard ratio, 0.42 [95% CI, 0.16-1.14]; P = .09) but was positively associated with volume of gray matter in the temporal lobe (ß = 0.17 [SE, 0.05]; P < .001). In contrast, extremely high plasma amylin concentration was associated with a higher AD risk (hazard ratio, 2.51 [95% CI, 1.38-4.57]; P = .003) but not associated with temporal lobe volume (ß = 0.02 [SE, 0.07]; P = .82). Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that plasma amylin concentration was associated with AD incidence and brain structure with a U-shaped pattern. These findings are consistent with preclinical findings that suggest amylin is a neuropeptide that is physiological; however, at extremely high concentrations, it may lead to amylin aggregation and therefore may be a risk factor for AD.

5.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(9): 1659-1670, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between plasma insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) and cognitive outcomes. METHODS: We measured plasma IGFBP-2 levels in 1596 (53% women, mean age 68.7 [SD 5.7] years) dementia-free Framingham Offspring cohort participants between 1998 and 2001. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models related plasma IGFBP-2 to subsequent risk of incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease. MRI brain measures and cognitive performance were included as secondary outcomes. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 11.8 (Q1, Q3: 7.1, 13.3) years, 131 participants developed incident dementia, of whom 98 were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. The highest tertile of IGFBP-2, compared to the lowest tertile, was associated with an increased risk of incident all-cause dementia (hazard ratio [HR] 2.89, 95% CI 1.63-5.13) and Alzheimer's disease (HR 3.63, 95% CI 1.76-7.50) in multivariable analysis. Higher circulating IGFBP2 levels were also cross-sectionally associated with poorer performance on tests of abstract reasoning but not with MRI-based outcomes. After adding plasma IGFBP-2 levels to a conventional dementia prediction model, 32% of individuals with dementia were correctly assigned a higher predicted risk, while 8% of individuals without dementia were correctly assigned a lower predicted risk (overall net reclassification improvement index, 0.40, 95% CI 0.22-0.59). INTERPRETATION: Elevated circulating IGFBP-2 levels were associated with an increased risk of both all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Addition of IGFBP2 plasma levels to a model of traditional risk factors significantly improved dementia risk classification. Manipulation of insulin-like growth factor signaling via IGFBP-2 may be a promising therapeutic target for dementia.

6.
Ann Neurol ; 86(3): 463-467, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271449

RESUMO

Higher plasma total-tau level is associated with incident dementia, but its relationship with stroke risk is unknown. In this prospective community-based study, we evaluated plasma total-tau level as a biomarker of stroke risk in 2,794 Framingham Heart Study participants. Persons with plasma total-tau levels in the top quintile, versus the bottom 4, had an increased risk of incident stroke over a mean follow-up of 8.3 years (hazard ratio = 2.01; 95% confidence interval = 1.32-3.08) following adjustments for age, sex, and stroke risk factors. Our findings demonstrate that plasma total-tau relates to the risk of stroke in a community sample. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:463-467.

7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(14): e012141, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303106

RESUMO

Background Excess transmission of pressure pulsatility caused by increased arterial stiffness may incur microcirculatory damage in end organs (target organ damage [TOD] ) and, in turn, elevate risk for cardiovascular disease ( CVD ) events. Methods and Results We related arterial stiffness measures (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, mean arterial pressure, central pulse pressure) to the prevalence and incidence of TOD (defined as albuminuria and/or echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy) in up to 6203 Framingham Study participants (mean age 50±15 years, 54% women). We then related presence of TOD to incident CVD in multivariable Cox regression models without and with adjustment for arterial stiffness measures. Cross-sectionally, greater arterial stiffness was associated with a higher prevalence of TOD (adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.23 to 1.54 per SD increment in arterial stiffness measure, P<0.01). Prospectively, increased carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was associated with incident albuminuria (odds ratio per SD 1.28, 95% CI, 1.02-1.61; P<0.05), whereas higher mean arterial pressure and central pulse pressure were associated with incident left ventricular hypertrophy (odds ratio per SD 1.37 and 1.45, respectively; P<0.01). On follow-up, 297 of 5803 participants experienced a first CVD event. Presence of TOD was associated with a 33% greater hazard of incident CVD (95% CI , 0-77%; P<0.05), which was attenuated upon adjustment for baseline arterial stiffness measures by 5-21%. Conclusions Elevated arterial stiffness is associated with presence of TOD and may partially mediate the relations of TOD with incident CVD . Our observations in a large community-based sample suggest that mitigating arterial stiffness may lower the burden of TOD and, in turn, clinical CVD .

8.
Neurology ; 93(8): e791-e803, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341005

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between measures of obesity in middle to early-old age with later-life MRI markers of brain aging. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Northern Manhattan MRI Sub-Study (n = 1,289). Our exposures of interest were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio, and plasma adiponectin levels. Our outcomes of interest were total cerebral volume (TCV), cortical thickness, white matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV), and subclinical brain infarcts (SBI). Using multivariable linear and logistic regression models adjusted for sociodemographics, health behaviors, and vascular risk factors, we estimated ß coefficients (or odds ratios) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and tested interactions with age, sex, and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: On average at baseline, participants were aged 64 years and had 10 years of education; 60% were women and 66% were Caribbean Hispanic. The mean (SD) time lag between baseline and MRI was 6 (3) years. Greater BMI and WC were significantly associated with thinner cortices (BMI ß [95% CI] -0.089 [-0.153, -0.025], WC ß [95% CI] -0.103 [-0.169, -0.037]) in fully adjusted models. Similarly, compared to those with BMI <25, obese participants (BMI ≥30) exhibited smaller cortical thickness (ß [95% CI] -0.207 [-0.374, -0.041]). These associations were particularly evident for those aged <65 years. Similar but weaker associations were observed for TCV. Most associations with WMHV and SBI did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Adiposity in early-old age is related to reduced global gray matter later in life in this diverse sample. Future studies are warranted to elucidate causal relationships and explore region-specific associations.

9.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(9): 1827-1834, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the interactive effect of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and hippocampal atrophy on cognition in the oldest old. DESIGN: Ongoing longitudinal study. SETTING: In Southern California, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were conducted between May 2014 and December 2017. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals from The 90+ Study with a valid brain MRI scan (N = 141; 94 cognitively normal and 47 with cognitive impairment). MEASUREMENTS: Cognitive testing was performed every 6 months with a mean follow-up of 2 years and included these tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), modified MMSE (3MS), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) immediate recall over four trials and delayed recall, Digit Span Backward, Animal Fluency, and Trail Making Test (TMT) A, B, and C. We used one linear mixed model for each cognitive test to study the baseline and longitudinal association of WMH and hippocampal volume (HV) with cognition. Models were adjusted for age, sex, and education. RESULTS: Mean age was 94.3 years (standard deviation [SD] = 3.2 y). At baseline, higher WMH volumes were associated with worse scores on the 3MS, CVLT immediate and delayed recall, and TMT B. Lower HVs were associated with worse baseline scores on all cognitive tests, except for the Digit Span Backward. Longitudinally, higher WMH and lower HVs were associated with faster decline in the 3MS and MMSE, and lower HV was also associated with faster decline in the CVLT immediate recall. No association was observed between WMH and HV and no interaction between WMH and HV in their association with baseline cognition or cognitive decline. CONCLUSION: We show that WMH and hippocampal atrophy have an independent, negative effect on cognition that make these biomarkers relevant to evaluate in the diagnostic work-up of the oldest-old individuals with cognitive complaints. However, the predictive value of WMH for cognitive decline seems to be less evident in the oldest-old compared with a younger group of older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc 67:1827-1834, 2019.

10.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2173, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092819

RESUMO

Neuropathologists assess vast brain areas to identify diverse and subtly-differentiated morphologies. Standard semi-quantitative scoring approaches, however, are coarse-grained and lack precise neuroanatomic localization. We report a proof-of-concept deep learning pipeline that identifies specific neuropathologies-amyloid plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy-in immunohistochemically-stained archival slides. Using automated segmentation of stained objects and a cloud-based interface, we annotate > 70,000 plaque candidates from 43 whole slide images (WSIs) to train and evaluate convolutional neural networks. Networks achieve strong plaque classification on a 10-WSI hold-out set (0.993 and 0.743 areas under the receiver operating characteristic and precision recall curve, respectively). Prediction confidence maps visualize morphology distributions at high resolution. Resulting network-derived amyloid beta (Aß)-burden scores correlate well with established semi-quantitative scores on a 30-WSI blinded hold-out. Finally, saliency mapping demonstrates that networks learn patterns agreeing with accepted pathologic features. This scalable means to augment a neuropathologist's ability suggests a route to neuropathologic deep phenotyping.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Aprendizado Profundo , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Curva ROC
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(4): e192745, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002329

RESUMO

Importance: Dementia risk may be attenuated by physical activity (PA); however, the specific activity levels optimal for dementia prevention are unclear. Moreover, most older adults are unable to meet the nationally recommended PA guidelines, set at 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA per week. Objective: To assess the association of total steps walked per day and total dose (intensity × duration) of PA with brain volumes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among Framingham Heart Study participants. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional, community-based cohort study of the association of accelerometry-determined PA with brain MRI measures in Framingham, Massachusetts, included the Framingham Heart Study third-generation (examination 2, 2008-2011) and offspring (examination 9, 2011-2014) cohorts. Of 4021 participants who agreed to wear an accelerometer and had valid data (≥10 hours/day for ≥3 days), 1667 participants who did not undergo brain MRI (n = 1604) or had prevalent dementia or stroke (n = 63) were excluded. Data analysis began in 2016 and was completed in February 2019. Exposures: Physical activity achieved using accelerometry-derived total activity (steps per day) and 2 intensity levels (light intensity and moderate to vigorous intensity). Main Outcomes and Measures: Differences in total brain volume and other MRI markers of brain aging. Results: The study sample of 2354 participants had a mean (SD) age of 53 (13) years, 1276 (54.2%) were women, and 1099 (46.7%) met the PA guidelines. Incremental light-intensity PA was associated with higher total brain volume; each additional hour of light-intensity PA was associated with approximately 1.1 years less brain aging (ß estimate, 0.22; SD, 0.07; P = .003). Among individuals not meeting the PA guidelines, each hour of light-intensity PA (ß estimate, 0.28; SD, 0.11; P = .01) and achieving 7500 steps or more per day (ß estimate, 0.44; SD, 0.18; P = .02) were associated with higher total brain volume, equivalent to approximately 1.4 to 2.2 years less brain aging. After adjusting for light-intensity PA, neither increasing moderate to vigorous PA levels nor meeting the threshold moderate to vigorous PA level recommended by the PA guidelines were significantly associated with total brain volume. Conclusions and Relevance: Every additional hour of light-intensity PA was associated with higher brain volumes, even among individuals not meeting current PA guidelines. These data are consistent with the notion that the potential benefits of PA on brain aging may accrue at a lower, more achievable level of intensity or duration.

12.
Neurology ; 92(19): e2221-e2231, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952798

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether free water (FW) content, initially developed to correct metrics derived from diffusion tensor imaging and recently found to be strongly associated with vascular risk factors, may constitute a sensitive biomarker of white matter (WM) microstructural differences associated with cognitive performance but remains unknown. METHODS: Five hundred thirty-six cognitively diverse individuals, aged 77 ± 8 years, received yearly comprehensive clinical evaluations and a baseline MRI examination of whom 224 underwent follow-up MRI. WM microstructural measures, including FW, fractional anisotropy, and mean diffusivity corrected for FW and WM hyperintensity burden were computed within WM voxels of each individual. Baseline and change in MRI metrics were then used as independent variables to explain baseline and change in episodic memory (EM), executive function (EF), and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scores using linear, logistic, and Cox proportional-hazards regressions. RESULTS: Higher baseline FW and WM hyperintensity were associated with lower baseline EM and EF, higher baseline CDR, accelerated EF and EM decline, and higher probability to transition to a more severe CDR stage (p values <0.01). Annual change in FW was also found to be associated with concomitant change in cognitive and functional performance (p values <0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study finds cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between FW content and trajectory of cognitive and functional performance in a large sample of cognitively diverse individuals. It supports the need to investigate the pathophysiologic process that manifests increased FW, potentially leading to more severe WM territory injury and promoting cognitive and functional decline.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215378, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hispanics/Latinos have some of the highest prevalence rates for cardiovascular disease risk factors, but stark differences exist by self-reported background. Cardiovascular disease risk factors negatively impact cognition in Hispanics/Latinos; less is known about these relationships by Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. We investigated cognitive associations with cardiovascular disease risk factor burden in a diverse cohort, the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. METHODS: Baseline data from this observational study of cardiovascular disease and its antecedents was collected from 2008-2011. We included 7,121 participants 45-74 years old from Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, or South American backgrounds. Dichotomous indicators for hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and smoking were evaluated and totaled, with participants grouped by lowest (0-2), middle (3) or highest (4-5) burden. Cognitive testing included the Brief Spanish English Verbal Learning Test, letter fluency, and digit symbol substitution. RESULTS: In separate fully-adjusted linear regression models, lower fluency and digit symbol substitution performance were restricted to the highest compared to the lowest burden group; whereas the middle burden group displayed impaired memory performance compared to the lowest burden group (p-values≤0.05). Background interacted with burden for learning and memory performance. That is, the association of burden level (i.e., lowest, middle, or highest) with cognitive performance was modified by background (e.g., Mexicans vs Cuban). CONCLUSIONS: Hispanics/Latinos with higher levels of cardiovascular disease risk factor burden displayed lower levels of cognitive performance, with learning and memory performance modified by background.

14.
JAMA Neurol ; 76(5): 598-606, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830207

RESUMO

Importance: Blood-based biomarkers have the potential to improve the identification of persons with the greatest dementia risk for inclusion in dementia prevention trials through low-cost and minimally invasive screening. Objective: To investigate the use of plasma total tau as a blood biomarker for dementia and related endophenotypes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study used data from the US community-based Framingham Heart Study with replication in the Memento study, a multicenter cohort of persons with mild cognitive impairment or subjective cognitive complaints recruited from memory clinics across France. Total tau levels were measured from stored plasma samples in Framingham Heart Study participants during 2004 to 2011. Dementia follow-up occurred across a median of 6 years (interquartile range, 5-8 years) for persons 65 years and older who were dementia free at baseline. Plasma and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples were obtained from Memento study participants from April 19, 2011, to June 22, 2016. Dementia follow-up took place over a median of 4 years (interquartile range, 3-5 years). Data analysis was performed from January to November 2018. Exposures: Plasma total tau level measured using single-molecule array technology. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of dementia of any cause (all dementia) and dementia due to clinical Alzheimer disease (AD dementia). Results: Among the 1453 participants in the Framingham dementia study sample, the mean (SD) age was 75 (7) years; 792 (54.5%) were female. Among the 367 individuals in the replication cohort, the mean (SD) age was 69 (9) years; 217 (59.1%) were female. Of 134 cases of incident all dementia in the Framingham sample, 105 were AD dementia. After adjustment for age and sex, each SD unit increase in the log of plasma total tau level was associated with a 35% increase in AD dementia risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.35; 95% CI, 1.10-1.67). The addition of plasma total tau to a model including age and sex improved the stratification of participants for risk of AD dementia (net reclassification improvement, 0.382; 95% CI, 0.030-0.716). Higher plasma total tau level was associated with poorer cognition across 7 cognitive tasks (P < .05) and smaller hippocampi (hippocampal volume: ß [SE] = 0.002 [0.001]; P = .003) as well as neurofibrillary tangles (ß [SE] = 0.95 [0.45]; P = .04) and microinfarcts (odds ratio, 3.04; 95% CI, 1.26-7.37) at autopsy. In the replication cohort, plasma total tau level weakly correlated with cerebrospinal fluid total tau level (Spearman correlation coefficient, 0.16; P = .07), but plasma total tau was at least as strongly associated with incident AD dementia as cerebrospinal fluid total tau (log plasma total tau: HR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.00-5.48; log cerebrospinal fluid total tau: HR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.33-3.44) after adjustment for age and sex. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings suggest that plasma total tau levels may improve the prediction of future dementia, are associated with dementia endophenotypes, and may be used as a biomarker for risk stratification in dementia prevention trials.

15.
Neurology ; 92(13): 631-634, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: With the long-term goal of improving community health by screening for dementia, we tested the utility of integrating the Six-Item Screener (SIS) into our emergency department neurology consultations. METHODS: In this cross-sectional observational study, we measured SIS performance within 24 hours of hospital arrival in 100 consecutive English-speaking patients aged ≥45 years. Performance was compared to patient age, previously charted cognitive impairment, and proxies for in-hospital complexity: whether or not a patient was admitted to the hospital and the number of medical studies ordered. RESULTS: Those with poor SIS performance were older (p = 0.02) and more likely to have previously charted cognitive impairment (p < 0.01; sensitivity 86%, specificity 77%). Poor performers were more likely to be admitted to the hospital (p = 0.04; odds ratio 3.6) and were subjected to more tests once admitted (p < 0.01), relationships that persisted after accounting for age and history of cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Poor performance on the SIS was associated with previously charted cognitive impairment, justifying future study of its ability to detect unrecognized dementia cases. Until then, its ability to inexpensively anticipate medically complex hospital admissions motivates broader emergency department use of the SIS.

16.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 68(1): 357-365, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775993

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MSRB3 gene encoding Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase-B3 (MsrB3) to be associated with the risk for low hippocampal volume and late onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Subsequently, we identified AD-associated abnormal patterns of neuronal and vascular MsrB3 expression in postmortem hippocampi. The present study investigated the relationship between the MSRB3 SNP rs61921502, G (minor/risk allele) and MRI measures of brain injury including total brain volume, hippocampal volume, and white matter hyperintensities using linear regression models; the presence of brain infarcts using logistic regression models; and the incidence of stroke, dementia, and AD using Cox proportional hazards models in 2,038 Framingham Heart Study Offspring participants with MRI administered close to examination cycle 7 (1998-2001). Participants with neurological conditions that impede evaluation of vascular pathology by MRI, i.e., brain tumors, multiple sclerosis, and major head trauma, were excluded from the study. When adjusted for age and age squared at MRI exam, sex, and presence of Apolipoproteinɛ4 allele (APOE4), individuals with MSRB3 rs61921502 minor allele had increased odds for brain infarcts on MRI compared to those with no minor allele. However, in stratified analyses, MSRB3 rs61921502 minor allele was significantly associated with increased odds for MRI brain infarcts only in the absence of APOE4.

17.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 68(1): 145-158, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775996

RESUMO

Our nation is becoming increasingly diverse; however, few autopsy studies examine multiple ethnoracial groups, especially Hispanics. We examined differences in neuropathological diagnoses of 423 deceased participants with dementia from three ethnoracial groups (35 Black, 28 Hispanic, and 360 non-Hispanic White) evaluated at the University of California Davis Alzheimer's Disease Center. We used novel applications of bootstrap resampling and logistic regression standardization to project neuropathological diagnostic rates for non-Hispanic Whites to minority sample characteristics to improve inference of findings. Alzheimer's disease (AD) without significant cerebrovascular disease (CVD) or other dementia-related pathologies (AD (non-mixed)) was present in 15 Black (43%), 4 Hispanic (14%), and 156 (43%) non-Hispanic Whites. CVD sufficient to contribute to dementia was confirmed in 14 Black (40%), 15 Hispanic (54%), and 101 (28%) non-Hispanic White decedents. The observed CVD prevalence of 40% in Blacks exceeded the predicted 29% [95% CI: 22%-36%]. Despite being outside the 95% confidence interval, the difference between observed and predicted was not statistically significant after bootstrap testing. Conversely, for Hispanics, the observed proportion at 54% exceeded significantly the predicted prevalence of 24% from non-Hispanic Whites [95% CI: 16%-34%], avg. p = 0.008). An identical analysis using AD (non-mixed) as the outcome predicted AD (non-mixed) in Blacks averaging 41% [95% CI: 34%-48%], nearly equal to observed prevalence. For Hispanics, however, the observed proportion at 14%, was well below predictions (mean = 42%, 95% CI: 32%-53%], avg. p = 0.008). We conclude mixed diagnoses and CVD are more common in Hispanic and Black decedents than Non-Hispanic Whites with dementia in our cohort. The increased prevalence of vascular co-morbidity may be a potential opportunity to intervene more effectively in dementia treatment of those individuals.

18.
Neurology ; 92(10): e1086-e1097, 2019 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated differences in the anatomical distribution of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) on MRI, hypothesized to indicate the type of underlying cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), between Eastern and Western general populations. METHODS: We analyzed data from 11 studies identified by a PubMed search between 1996 and April 2014 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Individual Participant Data. Study quality measures indicated low or medium risk of bias. We included stroke-free participants from populations aged between 55 and 75 years, categorized by geographic location (Eastern or Western). We categorized CMB distribution (strictly lobar, deep and/or infratentorial [D/I], or mixed [i.e., CMBs located in both lobar and D/I regions]). We tested the hypothesis that Eastern and Western populations have different anatomical distributions of CMBs using multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and hypertension and clustering by institution. RESULTS: Among 8,595 stroke-free individuals (mean age [SD] 66.7 [5.6] years; 48% male; 42% from a Western population), 624 (7.3%) had CMBs (strictly lobar in 3.1%; D/I or mixed in 4.2%). In multivariable mixed effects models, Eastern populations had higher odds of D/I or mixed CMBs (adjusted odds ratio 2.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.77-4.35) compared to Western populations. Eastern populations had a higher number of D/I or mixed CMBs (adjusted prevalence ratio 2.83, 95% CI 1.27-6.31). CONCLUSIONS: Eastern and Western general populations have different anatomical distributions of CMBs, suggesting differences in the spectrum of predominant underlying SVDs, with potential implications for SVD diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 68(1): 187-196, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30775991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of vascular burden on rates of decline in episodic memory and executive function. We hypothesize that greater vascular burden will have an additive negative impact on cognition after accounting for baseline cognitive impairment, positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid burden, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures. METHODS: Individuals were followed an average of 5 years with serial cognitive assessments. Predictor variables include vascular burden score (VBS), quantitative brain MRI assessment, and amyloid imaging. Subjects consisted of 65 individuals, 53% of whom were male, aged 73.2±7.2 years on average with an average of 15.5±3.3 years of educational achievement. RESULTS: Baseline cognitive impairment was significantly associated poorer episodic memory (p < 0.0001), smaller hippocampal volume (p < 0.0001), smaller brain volume (p = 0.0026), and greater global Pittsburg Imaging Compound B (PiB) index (p = 0.0008). Greater amyloid burden was associated with greater decline in episodic memory over time (ß= -0.20±0.07, p < 0.005). VBS was significantly associated with the level of executive function performance (ß= -0.14±0.05, p < 0.005) and there was a significant negative interaction between VBS, cognitive impairment, and PiB index (ß= -0.065±0.03, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Our results find a significant influence of VBS independent of standard MRI measures and cerebral amyloid burden on executive function. In addition, VBS reduced the amount of cerebral amyloid burden needed to result in cognitive impairment. We conclude that the systemic effects of vascular disease as reflected by the VBS independently influence cognitive ability.

20.
Neuroimage Clin ; 21: 101581, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606656

RESUMO

Manual quantification of the hippocampal atrophy state and rate is time consuming and prone to poor reproducibility, even when performed by neuroanatomical experts. The automation of hippocampal segmentation has been investigated in normal aging, epilepsy, and in Alzheimer's disease. Our first goal was to compare manual and automated hippocampal segmentation in ischemic stroke and to, secondly, study the impact of stroke lesion presence on hippocampal volume estimation. We used eight automated methods to segment T1-weighted MR images from 105 ischemic stroke patients and 39 age-matched controls sampled from the Cognition And Neocortical Volume After Stroke (CANVAS) study. The methods were: AdaBoost, Atlas-based Hippocampal Segmentation (ABHS) from the IDeALab, Computational Anatomy Toolbox (CAT) using 3 atlas variants (Hammers, LPBA40 and Neuromorphometics), FIRST, FreeSurfer v5.3, and FreeSurfer v6.0-Subfields. A number of these methods were employed to re-segment the T1 images for the stroke group after the stroke lesions were masked (i.e., removed). The automated methods were assessed on eight measures: process yield (i.e. segmentation success rate), correlation (Pearson's R and Shrout's ICC), concordance (Lin's RC and Kandall's W), slope 'a' of best-fit line from correlation plots, percentage of outliers from Bland-Altman plots, and significance of control-stroke difference. We eliminated the redundant measures after analysing between-measure correlations using Spearman's rank correlation. We ranked the automated methods based on the sum of the remaining non-redundant measures where each measure ranged between 0 and 1. Subfields attained an overall score of 96.3%, followed by AdaBoost (95.0%) and FIRST (94.7%). CAT using the LPBA40 atlas inflated hippocampal volumes the most, while the Hammers atlas returned the smallest volumes overall. FIRST (p = 0.014), FreeSurfer v5.3 (p = 0.007), manual tracing (p = 0.049), and CAT using the Neuromorphometics atlas (p = 0.017) all showed a significantly reduced hippocampal volume mean for the stroke group compared to control at three months. Moreover, masking of the stroke lesions prior to segmentation resulted in hippocampal volumes which agreed less with manual tracing. These findings recommend an automated segmentation without lesion masking as a more reliable procedure for the estimation of hippocampal volume in ischemic stroke.

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