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2.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e018476, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169643

RESUMO

Background Cardiovascular involvement in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is common and leads to worsened mortality. Diagnostic cardiovascular studies may be helpful for resource appropriation and identifying patients at increased risk for death. Methods and Results We analyzed 887 patients (aged 64±17 years) admitted with COVID-19 from March 1 - April 3, 2020 in New York City with 12 lead electrocardiography (ECG) within 2 days of diagnosis. Demographics, comorbidities, and laboratory testing including high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) were abstracted. At 30 days follow-up, 556 patients (63%) were living without requiring mechanical ventilation, 123 (14%) were living and required mechanical ventilation, and 203 (23%) had expired. ECG findings included atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter (AF/AFL) in 46 (5%) and ST-T wave changes in 306 (38%). 27 (59%) patients with AF/AFL expired as compared to 181 (21%) of 841 with other non-life threatening rhythms (p<0.001). Multivariable analysis incorporating age, comorbidities, AF/AFL, QRS abnormalities, and ST-T wave changes, and initial hs-cTnT ≥ 20 ng/L showed that increased age (HR 1.04/year), elevated hs-cTnT (HR 4.57), AF/AFL (HR 2.07), and a history of coronary artery disease (HR 1.56) and active cancer (HR 1.87) were associated with increased mortality. Conclusions Myocardial injury with hs-cTnT ≥ 20 ng/L, in addition to cardiac conduction perturbations, especially AF/AFL, upon hospital admission for COVID-19 infection is associated with markedly increased risk for mortality than either diagnostic abnormality alone.

3.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33196486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study characterized associations between sex, role misidentification, and burnout among surgical and nonsurgical residents. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Limited evidence suggests that female resident physicians are more likely to be misidentified as non-physician team members, with potential negative implications for wellbeing. The prevalence and impact of role misidentification on the trainee experience in surgical as compared to nonsurgical specialties is unknown. METHODS: An anonymous electronic survey was distributed to fourteen different residency programs at two academic medical centers in August 2018. The survey included questions about demographics, symptoms of burnout, the frequency of misidentification as another member of the care team, and the effect of misidentification on respondents' well-being. RESULTS: Two-hundred sixty out of 419 (62.1% response rate) resident physicians completed the survey, of whom 184 (77.3%) reported being misidentified as a non-physician at least weekly. Female sex was associated with a significantly increased odds of being misidentified at least weekly (adjusted OR 23.7, 95% CI 10.9-51.5; p < 0.001), as was training in a surgical program (adjusted OR 3.7, 95% CI 1.7-8.0; p = 0.001). Frequent role misidentification was associated with burnout (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.5; p = 0.01). In free-text responses, residents reported that being misidentified invoked a sense of not belonging, emotional exhaustion, and interfered with patient communication. CONCLUSIONS: Role misidentification is more prevalent among female residents and surgical residents, compared to male residents and nonsurgical residents, respectively. Physician role misidentification is associated with burnout and has negative implications for resident wellbeing; interventions to reduce role misidentification are needed.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(18): 2102-2113, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardio-obstetrics refers to a team-based approach to maternal care that includes multidisciplinary collaboration among maternal fetal medicine, cardiology, and others. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe clinical characteristics, maternal and fetal outcomes, and cardiovascular readmissions in a cohort of pregnant women with underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD) followed by a cardio-obstetrics team. METHODS: We identified patients evaluated by our cardio-obstetrics team from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2019, at a quaternary care hospital in New York City. Information was collected regarding demographics, comorbidities, underlying CVD, medications, maternal and fetal outcomes, and cardiovascular readmissions. Each patient was assigned a Cardiac Disease in Pregnancy (CARPREG) II score based on her clinical characteristics and underlying CVD. RESULTS: During the study period, 306 pregnant women (median age 29 years, 52.9% Hispanic or Latino) with CVD were seen. Most women (74.2%) were insured through Medicaid. The most common forms of CVD included arrhythmia (n = 88, 28.8%), congenital heart disease (n = 72, 23.5%), and cardiomyopathy (n = 72, 23.5%). The median CARPREG II score was 3; 130 patients (42.5%) had a CARPREG II score ≥4. Gestational diabetes occurred in 11.4%, gestational hypertension in 9.5%, and preeclampsia in 12.1% of women. Intensive care unit admission was required for 27 patients (8.8%) during delivery. Median gestational age for delivery was 38 weeks (interquartile range: 37 to 39). Live birth occurred in 98% of pregnancies. One maternal death occurred within a year of delivery in a woman with Eisenmenger syndrome. Following delivery, 30-day readmission rate was 2% and the rate of readmission from 30 to 90 days postpartum was 4.6%. Median follow-up was 2.6 years. CONCLUSIONS: In a population of primarily Medicaid-insured pregnant women managed by a cardio-obstetrics team, maternal outcomes were encouraging and readmission rates following delivery were low. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the impact of cardio-obstetric models of care on maternal outcomes.

5.
Clin Transplant ; : e14109, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048376

RESUMO

The new heart transplantation (HT) allocation policy was introduced on 10/18/2018. Using the UNOS registry, we examined early outcomes following HT for restrictive cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac sarcoidosis, or cardiac amyloidosis compared to the old system. Those listed who had an event (transplant, death, or waitlist removal) prior to 10/17/2018 were in Era 1, and those listed on or after 10/18/2018 were in Era 2. The primary endpoint was death on the waitlist or delisting due to clinical deterioration. A total of 1232 HT candidates were included, 855 (69.4%) in Era 1 and 377 (30.6%) in Era 2. In Era 2, there was a significant increase in the use of temporary mechanical circulatory support and a reduction in the primary endpoint, (20.9 events per 100 PY (Era 1) vs. 18.6 events per 100 PY (Era 2), OR 1.98, p = .005). Median waitlist time decreased (91 vs. 58 days, p < .001), and transplantation rate increased (119.0 to 204.7 transplants/100 PY for Era 1 vs Era 2). Under the new policy, there has been a decrease in waitlist time and waitlist mortality/delisting due to clinical deterioration, and an increase in transplantation rates for patients with infiltrative, hypertrophic, and restrictive cardiomyopathies without any effect on post-transplant 6-month survival.

6.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(10): 2099-2109, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study whether combining vital signs and electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis can improve early prognostication. METHODS: This study analyzed 1258 adults with coronavirus disease 2019 who were seen at three hospitals in New York in March and April 2020. Electrocardiograms at presentation to the emergency department were systematically read by electrophysiologists. The primary outcome was a composite of mechanical ventilation or death 48 hours from diagnosis. The prognostic value of ECG abnormalities was assessed in a model adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, and vital signs. RESULTS: At 48 hours, 73 of 1258 patients (5.8%) had died and 174 of 1258 (13.8%) were alive but receiving mechanical ventilation with 277 of 1258 (22.0%) patients dying by 30 days. Early development of respiratory failure was common, with 53% of all intubations occurring within 48 hours of presentation. In a multivariable logistic regression, atrial fibrillation/flutter (odds ratio [OR], 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1 to 6.2), right ventricular strain (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 6.1), and ST segment abnormalities (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5 to 3.8) were associated with death or mechanical ventilation at 48 hours. In 108 patients without these ECG abnormalities and with normal respiratory vitals (rate <20 breaths/min and saturation >95%), only 5 (4.6%) died or required mechanical ventilation by 48 hours versus 68 of 216 patients (31.5%) having both ECG and respiratory vital sign abnormalities. CONCLUSION: The combination of abnormal respiratory vital signs and ECG findings of atrial fibrillation/flutter, right ventricular strain, or ST segment abnormalities accurately prognosticates early deterioration in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and may assist with patient triage.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Prognóstico
8.
Eur Heart J ; 41(42): 4127-4137, 2020 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33049774

RESUMO

AIMS: There are sex differences in presentation, treatment, and outcomes of myocardial infarction (MI) but less is known about these differences in a younger patient population. The objective of this study was to investigate sex differences among individuals who experience their first MI at a young age. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients presenting to two large academic medical centres with a Type 1 MI at ≤50 years of age between 2000 and 2016 were included. Cause of death was adjudicated using electronic health records and death certificates. In total, 2097 individuals (404 female, 19%) had an MI (mean age 44 ± 5.1 years, 73% white). Risk factor profiles were similar between men and women, although women were more likely to have diabetes (23.7% vs. 18.9%, P = 0.028). Women were less likely to undergo invasive coronary angiography (93.5% vs. 96.7%, P = 0.003) and coronary revascularization (82.1% vs. 92.6%, P < 0.001). Women were significantly more likely to have MI with non-obstructive coronary disease on angiography (10.2% vs. 4.2%, P < 0.001). They were less likely to be discharged with aspirin (92.2% vs. 95.0%, P = 0.027), beta-blockers (86.6% vs. 90.3%, P = 0.033), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers (53.4% vs. 63.7%, P < 0.001), and statins (82.4% vs. 88.4%, P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in in-hospital mortality; however, women who survived to hospital discharge experienced a higher all-cause mortality rate (adjusted HR = 1.63, P = 0.01; median follow-up 11.2 years) with no significant difference in cardiovascular mortality (adjusted HR = 1.14, P = 0.61). CONCLUSIONS: Women who experienced their first MI under the age of 50 were less likely to undergo coronary revascularization or be treated with guideline-directed medical therapies. Women who survived hospitalization experienced similar cardiovascular mortality with significantly higher all-cause mortality than men. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these differences is warranted.

9.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(9): e006910, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Advanced heart failure therapies such as left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation require intricate follow-up and complex care. We sought to explore the burden of psychosocial risk factors among patients with LVAD and their impact on postimplant outcomes using the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support. METHODS: Adult patients in the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support requiring durable LVAD between 2008 and 2017 were included. Individuals were determined to have psychosocial risk if they had one of the following: (1) limited social support; (2) limited cognition; (3) substance abuse (alcohol and drug); (4) severe psychiatric disease (including major depression and other major psychiatric diagnosis); and (5) repeated noncompliance. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to analyze predictors of survival and complications. RESULTS: A total of 15 403 continuous-flow LVAD recipients were included. A total of 3163 (20.5%) had one or more psychosocial risk factors. The most prevalent psychosocial risk factor was substance abuse in 1941 (12.6%) recipients. Patients with psychosocial risk factors were significantly younger at LVAD implant, less likely to be White, and less likely to be female compared with those without psychosocial risk, P<0.001 for all. Patients with psychosocial risk were significantly more likely to receive an LVAD as destination therapy, P<0.001. In adjusted models, patients with psychosocial risk were at increased hazards for device-related infection, gastrointestinal bleeding, pump thrombosis, and readmission and reduced hazards for cardiac transplantation (P<0.05 for all). There was no statistically significant difference in survival on pump support or stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Psychosocial risk is an important component of patient selection for advanced heart failure therapies. Addressing these specific components may help improve access to advanced therapies and post-LVAD outcomes.

10.
JAMA Cardiol ; 5(9): 1048-1052, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936254

RESUMO

Importance: Solid organ transplants have declined significantly during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in the US. Limited data exist regarding changes in heart transplant (HT). Objective: To describe national and regional trends in waitlist inactivations, waitlist additions, donor recovery, and HT volume during COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This descriptive cross-sectional study used publicly available data from the United Network for Organ Sharing and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, using 8 prespecified United Network for Organ Sharing regions. Adult (18 years or older) HT candidates listed and deceased donors recovered between January 19 to May 9, 2020. Exposures: COVID-19 pandemic. Main Outcomes and Measures: Changes in waitlist inactivations, waitlist additions, deceased donor recovery, and transplant volumes from the pre-COVID-19 (January 19-March 15, 2020) to the COVID-19 era (March 15-May 9, 2020). Density mapping and linear regression with interrupted time series analysis were used to characterize changes over time and changes by region. Results: During the COVID-19 era, there were 600 waitlist inactivations compared with 343 during the pre-COVID era (75% increase). Waitlist additions decreased from 637 to 395 (37% reduction). These changes were most profound in the Northeast and Great Lakes regions with high rates of COVID-19. Deceased donor recovery decreased by 26% from 1878 to 1395; the most significant decrease occurred in the North Midwest despite low COVID-19 prevalence. Heart transplant volumes were significantly reduced across all regions except the Northwest. The largest decrease was seen in the Northeast where COVID-19 case rates were highest. From the pre-COVID-19 era to the COVID-19 era, there was significant regional variation in waitlist additions (eg, 69% decrease in the Northeast vs 8.5% increase in the South Midwest; P < .001) and deceased donor recovery (eg, 41% decrease in North Midwest vs 16% decrease in South Midwest; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: Heart transplant volumes have been significantly reduced in recent months, even in regions with a lower prevalence of COVID-19 cases. This has been accompanied by increased waitlist inactivations, decreased waitlist additions, and decreased donor recovery. Future studies are needed to determine if the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with changes in waitlist mortality.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Transplante de Coração/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/estatística & dados numéricos , Listas de Espera , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Utilização de Procedimentos e Técnicas , Estados Unidos
13.
J Card Fail ; 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771397

RESUMO

As post-transplant survival improves, many heart transplant (HT) recipients are of, or are surviving to, childbearing age. Solid-organ transplant recipients who become pregnant should be managed by a multidisciplinary cardio-obstetrics team, including specialists in maternal and fetal medicine, cardiology and transplant medicine, as well as anesthesia, neonatology, psychology, genetics, and social services. With careful patient selection, pregnancy after HT can been managed safely. The purpose of this comprehensive review was to summarize the current evidence and recommendations surrounding preconception counseling, medical management and surveillance, maternal outcomes, breastfeeding, and remaining gaps in knowledge.

14.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 33(10): 1278-1284, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32782131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite growing evidence of cardiovascular complications associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there are few data regarding the performance of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and the spectrum of echocardiographic findings in this disease. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed among adult patients admitted to a quaternary care center in New York City between March 1 and April 3, 2020. Patients were included if they underwent TTE during the hospitalization after a known positive diagnosis for COVID-19. Demographic and clinical data were obtained using chart abstraction from the electronic medical record. RESULTS: Of 749 patients, 72 (9.6%) underwent TTE following positive results on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 polymerase chain reaction testing. The most common clinical indications for TTE were concern for a major acute cardiovascular event (45.8%) and hemodynamic instability (29.2%). Although most patients had preserved biventricular function, 34.7% were found to have left ventricular ejection fractions ≤ 50%, and 13.9% had at least moderately reduced right ventricular function. Four patients had wall motion abnormalities suggestive of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Using Spearman rank correlation, there was an inverse relationship between high-sensitivity troponin T and left ventricular ejection fraction (ρ = -0.34, P = .006). Among 20 patients with prior echocardiograms, only two (10%) had new reductions in LVEF of >10%. Clinical management was changed in eight individuals (24.2%) in whom TTE was ordered for concern for acute major cardiovascular events and three (14.3%) in whom TTE was ordered for hemodynamic evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the clinical indications for use and diagnostic performance of TTE, as well as findings seen on TTE, in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. In appropriately selected patients, TTE can be an invaluable tool for guiding COVID-19 clinical management.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Cardiopatias/etiologia , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Direita/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(8): 1028-1042, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819520

RESUMO

Permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation is required in a subset of patients (∼10%) for sinus node dysfunction or atrioventricular block both early and late after heart transplantation. The incidence of PPM implantation has decreased to <5% with the advent of bicaval anastamosis transplantation surgery. Pacing dependence upon follow-up has been variably reported. An even smaller percentage of transplantation recipients (1.5% to 3.4%) undergo implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) placement. Rigorous data are lacking for the use of ICDs in the transplantation population and is largely derived from cohort studies and case series. Sudden cardiac death occurs in approximately 10% of transplantation recipients, but multiple nonarrhythmic factors are believed to be responsible, including acute rejection, late graft failure with electromechanical dissociation, and ischemia due to cardiac allograft vasculopathy. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the existing data regarding the role for PPMs and ICDs in this population, including leadless PPMs and subcutaneous ICDs, special considerations, and future directions.

16.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(8): e006605, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gender disparities in authorship of heart failure (HF) guideline citations and clinical trials have not been examined. METHODS: We identified authors of publications referenced in Class I Recommendations in United States (n=173) and European (n=100) HF guidelines and of publications of all HF trials with >400 participants (n=118) published between 2001 and 2016. Authors' genders were determined, and changes in authorship patterns over time were evaluated with linear regression and nonparametric testing. RESULTS: The median proportion of women authors per publication was 20% (interquartile range [IQR], 8%-33%) in United States guidelines, 14% (IQR, 2%-20%) in European guidelines, and 11% (IQR, 4%-20%) in HF trials. The proportion of women authors increased modestly over time in United States and European guidelines' references (ß=0.005 and 0.003, respectively, from 1986 to 2016; P<0.001) but not in HF trials (12.5% [IQR, 0%-20%] in 2001-2004 to 8.9% [IQR, 0%-20%] in 2013-2016; P>0.50). Overall proportions of women as first or last authors in HF trials (16%) did not change significantly over time (P=0.60). North American HF trials had the highest likelihood of having a woman as first or senior author (24%). HF trials with a woman first or senior author were associated with a higher proportion of enrolled female participants (39% versus 26%, P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In HF practice guidelines and trials, few women are authors of pivotal publications. Higher number of women authors is associated with higher enrollment of women in HF trials. Barriers to authorship and representation of women in HF guidelines and HF trial leadership need to be addressed.

17.
J Card Fail ; 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829019

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CA) is an under-recognized cause of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. In the United States, the valine-to-isoleucine substitution (Val122Ile) is the most common inherited variant. Data on sex differences in presentation and outcomes of Val122Ile associated ATTR-CA are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a retrospective, single-center study of 73 patients diagnosed with Val122Ile associated ATTR-CA between 2001 and 2018, sex differences in clinical and echocardiographic data at the time of diagnosis were evaluated. Pressure-volume analysis using noninvasive single beat techniques was used to compare chamber performance. Compared with men (n = 46), women (n = 27) were significantly older at diagnosis, 76 years vs 69 years; P < .001. The end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, 5.1 mm Hg*m2/mL vs 4.3 mm Hg*m2/mL; P = .27, arterial elastance, 5.5 mm Hg*m2/mL vs 5.7 mm Hg*m2/mL; P = .62, and left ventricular capacitance were similar between sexes as was pressure-volume areas indexed to a left ventricular end-diastolic pressure of 30 mm Hg, a measure of overall pump function. The 3-year mortality rates were also similar, 34% vs 43%; P = .64. CONCLUSIONS: Despite being significantly older at time of diagnosis with Val122Ile associated ATTR-CA, women have similar overall cardiac chamber function and rates of mortality to men, suggesting a less aggressive disease trajectory. These findings should be confirmed with longitudinal studies.

18.
Res Sq ; 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818209

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), can result in a hyperinflammatory state, leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), myocardial injury, and thrombotic complications, among other sequelae. Statins, which are known to have anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic properties, have been studied in the setting of other viral infections and ARDS, but their benefit has not been assessed in COVID-19. Thus, we sought to determine whether antecedent statin use is associated with lower in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. This is a retrospective analysis of patients admitted with COVID-19 from February 1 st through May 12 th , 2020 with study period ending on June 11 th , 2020. Antecedent statin use was assessed using medication information available in the electronic medical record. We constructed a multivariable logistic regression model to predict the propensity of receiving statins, adjusting for baseline socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and outpatient medications. The primary endpoint included in-hospital mortality within 30 days. A total of 2626 patients were admitted during the study period, of whom 951 (36.2%) were antecedent statin users. Among 1296 patients (648 statin users, 648 non-statin users) identified with 1:1 propensity-score matching, demographic, baseline, and outpatient medication information were well balanced. Statin use was significantly associated with lower odds of the primary endpoint in the propensity-matched cohort (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.36 â€" 0.64, p<0.001). We conclude that antecedent statin use in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 was associated with lower inpatient mortality. Randomized clinical trials evaluating the utility of statin therapy in patients with COVID-19 are needed.

19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e209649, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639567

RESUMO

Importance: Despite significant progress in primary prevention, the rate of myocardial infarction (MI) continues to increase in young adults. Objectives: To identify the prevalence of tobacco use and to examine the association of both smoking and smoking cessation with survival in a cohort of adults who experienced an initial MI at a young age. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Partners YOUNG-MI registry is a retrospective cohort study from 2 large academic centers in Boston, Massachusetts, that includes patients who experienced an initial MI at 50 years or younger. Smoking status at the time of presentation and at 1 year after MI was determined from electronic medical records. Participants were 2072 individuals who experienced an MI at 50 years or younger between January 2000 and April 2016. The dates of analysis were October to December 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Deaths were ascertained from the Social Security Administration Death Master File, the Massachusetts Department of Vital Statistics, and the National Death Index. Cause of death was adjudicated independently by 2 cardiologists. Propensity score-adjusted Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to evaluate the association between smoking cessation and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Results: Among the 2072 individuals (median age, 45 years [interquartile range, 42-48 years]; 1669 [80.6%] men), 1088 (52.5%) were smokers at the time of their index hospitalization. Of these, 910 patients were further classified into either the cessation group (343 [37.7%]) or the persistent smoking group (567 [62.3%]) at 1 year after MI. Over a median follow-up of 11.2 years (interquartile range, 7.3-14.2 years), individuals who quit smoking had a statistically significantly lower rate of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.35; 95% CI, 0.19-0.63; P < .001) and cardiovascular mortality (HR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11-0.79; P = .02). These values remained statistically significant after propensity score adjustment (HR, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.16-0.56; P < .001] for all-cause mortality and 0.19 [95% CI, 0.06-0.56; P = .003] for cardiovascular mortality). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, approximately half of individuals who experienced an MI at 50 years or younger were active smokers. Among them, smoking cessation within 1 year after MI was associated with more than 50% lower all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

20.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(22): 2804-2815, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) recovery is associated with better long-term outcomes after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the association between long-term outcomes and EF recovery among young MI patients has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the prevalence of left ventricular systolic dysfunction among patients who experience their first MI at a young age and to compare outcomes between those who recovered their EF versus those who did not. METHODS: The YOUNG-MI registry is a retrospective cohort study of patients who experienced an MI at ≤50 years of age. EF at the time of MI and within 180 days post-MI were determined from all available medical records. The primary outcomes were all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. RESULTS: There were 1,724 patients with baseline EF data: 503 (29%) had EF <50%, whereas 1,221 (71%) had a normal baseline EF. Patients with lower EF were more likely to have experienced ST-segment elevation MI, have higher troponin values, and have more severe angiographic coronary artery disease. Among patients with abnormal baseline EF, information on follow-up EF was available for 216, of whom 90 (42%) recovered their EF to ≥50%. Patients who experienced EF recovery had less severe angiographic disease, lower alcohol use, and a lower burden of comorbidities. Over a median follow-up of 11.1 years, EF recovery was associated with an ∼8-fold reduction in all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.12; p = 0.001) and a ∼10-fold reduction in cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.10; p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly one-third of young patients presented with left ventricular dysfunction post-MI. Among them, EF recovery occurred in more than 40% and was independently associated with a substantial decrease in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

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