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1.
J Aging Phys Act ; : 1-9, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453026

RESUMO

This study cross-sectionally examines the relations of sitting and physical activity (PA) with cognitive impairment in community-dwelling adults aged 55-87 years (n = 3,780). Multivariable logistic regression assessed independent and joint relations of sitting and PA with Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores adjusting for covariates. Sitting ≥75% of the time and not meeting PA guidelines were related to 60% (95% confidence interval [CI] [1.19, 2.17]) and 27% (95% CI [1.06, 1.53]) higher odds for cognitive impairment, respectively. Stratification by age showed that sitting ≥75% of the time was associated with higher cognitive impairment odds in midlife (odds ratio [OR] = 1.86; 95% CI [1.31, 2.65]), but not older adults (OR = 1.06; 95% CI [0.57, 1.95]). Joint association analysis revealed that, overall, the highest odds for cognitive impairment were in those sitting ≥75% of the time while meeting or not meeting PA guidelines (OR = 1.69, 95% CI [1.13, 2.53]; and OR = 1.66, 95% CI [1.19, 2.32], respectively). In conclusion, prolonged sitting and insufficient PA are independent risk markers for cognitive impairment.

2.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431829

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine whether higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are related to increased alcohol consumption and dependence among a large sample of adults attending a preventive medicine clinic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 38,653 apparently healthy patients who visited the Cooper Clinic (Dallas, TX) for preventive medical exams (1988-2019) and enrolled in the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. The primary independent variable was cardiorespiratory fitness, based on a maximal treadmill test, and the dependent variables were alcohol consumption and dependence (self-reported). The relations between fitness category (low, moderate, high) and alcohol consumption (low, moderate, heavy) and suggested alcohol dependence (CAGE score ≥ 2) among women and men, were estimated via multivariable regression while adjusting for covariates (e.g., age, birth year cohort, marital status, and BMI). RESULTS: Women within the moderate and high fitness categories had 1.58 (95%CI 1.32-1.91) and 2.14 (95%CI 1.77-2.58) greater odds of moderate/heavy alcohol consumption, respectively, in comparison to their low fitness counterparts. Similarly, moderate and high fit men had 1.42 (95%CI 1.30-1.55) and 1.63 (95%CI 1.49-1.80) times greater odds of moderate-to-heavy alcohol consumption, respectively, in comparison to the low fitness group. In addition, among men who were heavy drinkers (but not women), higher fitness levels were related to lower rates of suggested alcohol dependence. Specifically, these men had 45.7%, 41.7%, and 34.9% proportions of clinically relevant alcohol problems across low, moderate, and high fitness categories (adjusted p for trend <0.001). CONCLUSION: Higher fitness levels are significantly related to greater alcohol consumption among a large cohort of adult patients. Interventions focusing on increasing fitness (via physical activity promotion) might consider concurrently aiming to reduce alcohol consumption.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444117

RESUMO

Tobacco taxation and price policies are considered the most effective for lowering demand for tobacco products. While this statement is based on research from numerous countries, scant evidence exists on this topic for Israel. Accordingly, we assessed the association between cigarette prices and smoking prevalence and intensity from a national sample of adults in Israel (2002-2017). Data on smoking behavior were derived from the Israeli Knowledge Attitudes and Practices (KAP) survey, a repeated cross-sectional survey. Price information is from the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) since it was not collected in the KAP survey. We used the price of a pack of 20 cigarettes for Marlboro and the local brand. These two price variables were the primary independent variables, and we adjusted for inflation. The dependent variables were current smoking (yes/no) and smoking intensity, defined as the number of cigarettes smoked per week. Multivariable analysis was employed using a two-part model while adjusting for covariates. The first step of the model utilized logistic regression with current smoking as the dependent variable. The second step examining smoking intensity as the dependent variable, used OLS regression. Price elasticity was estimated as well. Analysis revealed that a one-unit increase (Israeli currency) in the price of local brand of cigarettes was related to 2.0% (OR = 0.98; 95%CI 0.98, 0.99) lower odds of being a current smoker, adjusting for covariates including household income. Moreover, a one unit increase in the price of the local brand of cigarettes was related to consuming 1.49 (95% CI -1.97, -1.00) fewer weekly cigarettes, controlling for household income and covariates. Similar results were found with the Marlboro cigarette prices. The total price elasticity of cigarette demand, given by the sum of price elasticities of smoking prevalence and intensity, showed that a 10.0% increase in the price is associated with a 4.6-9.2% lower cigarette consumption among Israeli adults. Thus, increasing cigarette prices will likely lead to a reduction in cigarette smoking thereby improving public health in Israel.


Assuntos
Comércio , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Israel/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Impostos
4.
Prev Med ; 150: 106720, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252504

RESUMO

Few studies have adequately assessed the simultaneous effects of changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) and body mass on cardiometabolic risk. Hence, the current study's aims were twofold: (1) To determine whether increases in body mass result in higher cardiometabolic risk after controlling for fitness changes; and (2) To assess whether increases in fitness result in lower cardiometabolic risk after controlling for weight changes. The study consisted of 3534 patients who came for preventive medicine visits ≥4 times over any 10-year period (1979-2019). The primary independent variables were body mass and fitness, and the dependent variable was metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. Mixed-effects regression was used to model the relationship between changes in body mass, fitness, and MetS. Results indicate that increasing body mass up to a 10-year period was significantly related to increasing risk of MetS while controlling for changes in fitness. Specifically, a 1-kg increase in body mass was associated with a 17% (OR = 1.17; 95% CI 1.15-1.19) increased odds for MetS, while adjusting for fitness changes. A 1-MET increase in fitness was related to a 23% (OR = 0.77; 95% CI 0.70-0.84) decrease in odds for MetS, while adjusting for body mass changes up to 10 years. Moreover, body mass change was significantly related to changes in all cardiometabolic components of MetS. Fitness change was significantly associated with changes in MetS components. Future interventions should focus concurrently on increasing fitness and on body mass loss (or maintenance) to improve cardiometabolic health.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Síndrome Metabólica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Aptidão Física , Fatores de Risco
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 485, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to: 1) examine the maintenance of Physical Education and physical activity during the distance learning time, 2) determine the resources educators are utilizing to deliver PE curricula, and 3) understand the challenges experienced by educators during distance learning. METHODS: A survey was sent to a cohort of school-based fitness assessment software users. Respondents were largely school-based individuals including PE teachers (n = 1789), school (n = 62) and district administrators (n = 64), nurses (n = 3), and "other" (n = 522). RESULTS: Of 2440 respondents, most were from a city or suburb (69.7%), elementary or middle school (72.3%), and had Title 1 status (60.4%), an indicator of low socioeconomic status. Most campuses were closed during the COVID-19 pandemic (97.8%). Of the schools closed during the pandemic, only 2.8% had no prior PE requirements and that increased to 21% during the pandemic. In schools that remained open during the pandemic, 7.7% had no prior PE requirements and this increased to 60.5%. Importantly, 79% of respondents reported that students were either "significantly less" or "somewhat less" physically active during the closure. For closed schools, the most frequently cited challenges included "student access to online learning", "teacher/student communication" and "teacher remote work arrangements". For open schools, the most commonly reported challenges included "social distancing", "access to gymnasium/equipment", and "concern for personal health and wellbeing". CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused important reductions in PE requirements and time engaged in physical activity. Challenges experienced by teachers were identified for closed and open schools.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Educação Física e Treinamento/tendências , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Estudantes , Adulto , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Currículo , Educação à Distância , Humanos , Porto Rico/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and prostate cancer (PC) remains unclear. METHODS: We compared incident PC rates as a function of the Omega-3 Index [O3I, erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA + DHA)] in 5607 men (40-80 years of age) seen at the Cooper Clinic who were free of PC at baseline. The average follow-up was 5.1 ± 2.8 years until censoring or reporting a new PC diagnosis. Proportional hazards regression was used to model the linear association between baseline O3I and the age-adjusted time to diagnosis. A meta-analysis of n-3 PUFA biomarker-based studies and incident PC was updated with the present findings. RESULTS: A total of 116 cases of incident PC were identified. When O3I was examined as a continuous variable, the age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) was 0.98 (0.89, 1.07; p = 0.25) for each 1% increment in the O3I. The updated meta-analysis with 10 biomarker-based studies found no significant relationship between EPA or DHA levels and risk for PC. CONCLUSIONS: We find no evidence in this study nor in a meta-analysis of similar studies that consuming n-3 PUFA-rich fish or using fish oil supplements affects the risk of PC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análogos & derivados , Eritrócitos , Óleos de Peixe , Peixes , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 53(1): 68-73, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694363

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), vitamin D deficiency, and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) are prevalent among U.S. adults. Joint associations among these variables are not well described. METHODS: Between 2006 and 2018, 14,353 apparently healthy men completed a comprehensive health examination, including CRF based on a maximal treadmill test, components of MetSyn, and serum vitamin D levels [25(OH)D]. Participants were classified into groups of low (category 1), moderate (categories 2-3), and high (categories 4-5) CRF by age-group, as well as by clinical cut points for MetSyn and 25(OH)D. We calculated odds ratios (OR) of MetSyn across levels of CRF and 25(OH)D and also examined joint associations among these three variables. RESULTS: Mean 25(OH)D levels were 30.9 ± 11.6 and 26.3 ± 10.7 ng·mL in men without and with MetSyn, respectively (P < 0.001). The prevalence of MetSyn was inversely associated with ordered categories of CRF and 25(OH)D (Ptrend < 0.001 for both). Men with normal 25(OH)D had significantly lower odds of MetSyn than men who were vitamin D deficient (OR = 0.29, 95% confidence interval = 0.26-0.33). Men with moderate (OR = 0.31, 0.27-0.35) or high CRF (OR = 0.08, 0.07-0.09) had significantly lower odds of MetSyn than men with low CRF. Joint associations between CRF, 25(OH)D, and MetSyn revealed significantly greater prevalence of MetSyn in unfit men compared with fit men within each category of 25(OH)D (P < 0.001). Each 5 ng·mL increment of 25(OH)D and 1 MET increment of CRF was associated with a 16.0% and 31.3% lower prevalence of MetSyn, respectively. CONCLUSION: There are strong individual and joint associations between CRF, 25(OH)D, and MetSyn. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate these joint associations with regard to mortality outcomes.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
J Clin Lipidol ; 15(1): 212-217, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of fish oil products containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on LDL-C levels are controversial. OBJECTIVE: To determine if changes in erythrocyte DHA are associated with changes in LDL-C levels. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, erythrocyte DHA levels and LDL-C levels were measured in 9253 individuals who presented for at least two examinations at a medical clinic. Changes in DHA levels and the reported use of omega-3 dietary supplements were correlated with changes in LDL-C in multi-variable adjusted models including the use of LDL-C-lowering drugs. RESULTS: Mean (standard deviation) age at baseline was 52.6 (10.6) years, and the time between exams averaged 1.9 (1.4) years. As a group, erythrocyte DHA increased from 5.0% (1.3) to 5.3% (1.3) (p < 0.001), and LDL-C was not significantly changed (109 (33) to 108 (33) mg/dL, p = 0.875). However, in multivariable-adjusted models of within-participant changes, a 1% increase in erythrocyte DHA was associated with a 1.9 mg/dL reduction in LDL-C (95% confidence interval (1.6, 2.2), p < 0.001). Similar relationships were seen with changes in erythrocyte EPA and EPA + DHA. In adjusted analyses, an increased use of omega-3 supplements was associated with a significant increase in erythrocyte DHA and a decrease in LDL-C in both users and non-users of lipid-lowering drugs. CONCLUSIONS: In a predominantly male, normolipidemic, middle-aged cohort, increases in erythrocyte DHA were associated with decreases in LDL-C, and initiating fish oil supplement use did not increase LDL-C. These findings may serve to reassure individuals who, in adopting a more heart-healthy lifestyle, want to increase their omega-3 fatty acid intake.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) can favorably influence cardiac autonomic tone. However, data regarding n-3 PUFA status and heart rate recovery (HRR) in healthy adults are sparse. PURPOSE: To examine the association between n-3 PUFA status and HRR. METHODS: Participants included 13,912 patients who underwent a comprehensive examination at the Cooper Clinic, Dallas TX. Fitness was determined from a maximal exercise test. HRR was calculated by subtracting the heart rate at 1, 3, and 5 min of an active recovery period from the maximal heart rate. Participants were categorized as having a low (<4%), normal (4-8%) or optimal (>8%) Omega-3 Index (O3I) (i.e., erythrocyte levels of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids). Multiple linear regression was used to model the association between O3I and HRR adjusting for age, maximal METs, body mass index, and smoking by sex. RESULTS: Higher categories of O3I were associated with greater HRR at 1 min (men: 23.7, 23.9, 24.6 beats/min; women: 23.9, 24.6, 25.9 and 3 min (men: 52.4, 52.9, 53.6 beats/min; women: 51.9, 53.4, 54.6), p trend <0.01 for all. Corresponding HRR at 5 min were (men: 60.0, 60.2, 60.7 beats/min, p trend=0.09; women: 59.4, 60.8, 61.6, p trend <0.001). The HRR gradients across O3I categories were steeper in women than men at 1, 3, and 5 min (p<0.03 for all sex x O3I category interactions with HRR). CONCLUSIONS: A direct relationship between HRR and O3I values was observed in both men and women, with a steeper gradient in women. These findings suggest a potential cardioprotective mechanism for n-3 PUFA.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/sangue , Teste de Esforço , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Frequência Cardíaca , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(13): 1538-1547, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An inverse association between cardiorespiratory fitness and mortality was robustly demonstrated 3 decades ago. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether significant advances in disease prevention, detection, and treatment since that time have modified this association. METHODS: A total of 47,862 men completed baseline examinations, including a maximal treadmill test. Cohort 1 (n = 24,475) was examined during 1971 to 1991 and followed for mortality through 1992. Cohort 2 (n = 23,387) was examined during 1992 to 2013 with follow-up through 2014. Men were categorized as low fit, moderate fit, or high fit using Cooper Clinic normative data. Hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause, cardiovascular disease, and cancer mortality were determined across fitness categories in the 2 cohorts. RESULTS: A significant inverse trend between fitness categories and all-cause (HR: 1.0, 0.60, and 0.53 in cohort 1 and HR: 1.0, 0.76, and 0.52 in cohort 2) and cardiovascular disease mortality (HR: 1.0, 0.55, and 0.43 in cohort 1 and HR: 1.0, 0.84, and 0.52 in cohort 2) was observed (p trend <0.001 for all). The trend across fitness categories and cancer mortality was significant for cohort 1 (HR: 1.0, 0.62, and 0.48; p < 0.001), but not for cohort 2 (HR: 1.0, 1.08, and 0.74; p = 0.19). HRs for all-cause mortality were 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.82 to 0.90) and 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.83 to 0.91) per 1-MET increment in fitness for cohorts 1 and 2, respectively (p < 0.001 for both). Similar values were seen for cardiovascular disease and cancer mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Despite significant advances in disease prevention, detection, and treatment since fitness was first shown to be associated with mortality, the inverse association between fitness and mortality remains consistent in a contemporary cohort of men.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Mortalidade , Adulto , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medicina Preventiva
13.
J Investig Med ; 68(2): 378-382, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540967

RESUMO

Evidence suggests that substantial testosterone therapy is occurring without checking levels of testosterone, presumably based on the presence of symptoms alone. We sought to explore the relationship between total testosterone level and non-specific symptoms, metabolic abnormalities, and sexual dysfunction associated with hypogonadism. This cross-sectional study included 2994 generally healthy men aged 50-79 years examined at a preventive medicine clinic in Dallas, TX from January 2012 to March 2016. Symptoms of hypogonadism were assessed. Screening morning total testosterone levels were measured and categorized into low (<250 ng/dL), low normal (250-399 ng/dL), and normal (≥400 ng/dL). Multiple logistic regression models were used to test the associations between total testosterone and signs and symptoms of hypogonadism. When considering symptoms and signs of hypogonadism, only decreased libido (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.70), fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dL (OR 1.47, CI 1.15 to 1.88), and hemoglobin A1c over 6% (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.03) were associated with increased odds of low testosterone after adjustment for age, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Testosterone levels were not associated with fatigue, depression, or erectile dysfunction in our study (p>0.6). In this preventive medicine cohort, symptoms commonly attributed to testosterone deficiency were not associated with low total testosterone levels.

14.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 29(3): 319-326, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532335

RESUMO

Background: Associations among cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), different adiposity exposures, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women are not well defined. Materials and Methods: A total of 19,838 women completed a baseline examination between 1971 and 2013. Measures included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height (W:HT) ratio, skinfold-derived percent body fat (% Fat), and CRF estimated from a maximal treadmill test. CRF categories were low (quintile 1), moderate (quintiles 2-3), and high (quintiles 4-5); standard cut points were used for adiposity exposures. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox regression. Results: During a mean follow-up period of 19.2 ± 10.3 years, 391 cardiovascular deaths occurred. HRs (95% confidence interval) for CVD in moderate and low CRF groups, using high CRF as the referent, were 1.87 (1.46-2.38) and 2.54 (1.93-3.35), respectively (p trend <0.001). HRs of obese women within each adiposity exposure were higher when compared with normal-weight women (p ≤ 0.03). Joint associations of CRF × adiposity showed a positive trend in CVD mortality across decreasing categories of CRF within each category of W:HT and % Fat, as well as within the normal and overweight BMI categories and the normal WC category (p ≤ 0.03 for each). Conclusion: Higher levels of CRF are associated with lower CVD mortality risk in women, and predict lower risk of CVD mortality in normal-weight women and in obese women. Using different measures of adiposity to predict CVD mortality risk in women may be misleading unless CRF is taken into account. These results support the American Heart Association (AHA) recommendation for including CRF as a clinical vital sign.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/fisiologia , Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Sobrepeso/fisiopatologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Circunferência da Cintura , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Aging Phys Act ; : 1-6, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810061

RESUMO

The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the cross-sectional associations of participation in muscle-strengthening activities (MSAs) with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) among older adults. The data are from 2,557 older adult participants enrolled in an observational cohort who reported no history of cardiovascular disease. MSA was determined using a questionnaire. Carotid ultrasound was performed to measure the CIMT of the common carotid artery bilaterally. Logistic regression models were constructed to estimate the association of MSA with CIMT after adjustment for potential confounders. The participants were aged 68.6 ± 7.0 years, and the majority were male (71.7%) and White (96.5%); 18% had abnormal CIMT. Meeting the physical activity guidelines for MSA was inversely associated with abnormal CIMT after adjustment for age and sex. However, this observed inverse relation became statistically null after further adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors, including aerobic physical activity.

16.
J Aging Phys Act ; : 1-7, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801110

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between self-reported physical activity (PA) and mean common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA IMT) among older adults. The data are from 1,811 Cooper Center Longitudinal Study participants, who were aged ≥60 years, with no history of cardiovascular disease. A medical history questionnaire was used to assess PA. Carotid ultrasound was performed to measure CCA IMT and the presence of plaque and stenosis. Logistic regression models were constructed to estimate the association between PA and CCA IMT after adjustment for covariates. The participants were aged 69.2 ± 5.9 years, and the majority were male (73.3%) and White (96.7%). The odds ratio of abnormal thickening of CCA IMT was 0.72 (95% confidence interval [0.54, 0.96]) in physically active participants (≥500 metabolic equivalent·min/week) after adjustment for covariates. In the current study, meeting PA guidelines in older adulthood was associated with lower odds of abnormal thickening of CCA IMT.

19.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 67(7): 1437-1443, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30854644

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nondemented cognitive impairment (CI) presents opportunities for early interventions among individuals at risk for dementia. Identification of modifiable determinants is paramount to the development of effective clinical interventions. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was theorized as a risk factor, but current research yields inconsistent findings. Few studies have examined the association between MetS and CI among US populations, and global results may be ungeneralizable. We investigated the MetS-CI association among high socioeconomic, nondemented older US adults, examining the roles of sociodemographic, clinical, behavioral, and genetic factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Cooper Clinic of Dallas, Texas: Cooper Center Longitudinal Study (2009-2017). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 5200 dementia-free older adult Cooper Clinic patients. MEASUREMENTS: CI was detected with a Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score lower than 26. MetS was established based on National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel guidelines. Unadjusted and multivariable log-binomial regression were used to assess the MetS-CI association, with modification assessment by age, sex, education, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and apolipoprotein-ε4 carrier status (APOE-ε4). RESULTS: MetS was not associated with CI when adjusting for age, sex, minority status, education, and marital status (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.09; 95% confidence interval = .97-1.23) or when additionally adjusting for body mass index, CRF, alcohol consumption, current smoking status, and APOE-ε4 (PR = 1.07; 95% confidence interval = .80-1.45). The association was not modified by age, sex, CRF, or APOE-ε4 (P for interaction >.05). CONCLUSION: In contrast with some global and US studies, MetS and CI were not associated among our study population of nondemented older US adults. MetS may not be a suitable intervention target for poor cognitive outcomes among high socioeconomic older US adults, although separate MetS components may have different recommendations. Future studies should explore more diverse older US populations. If replicated, these findings would inform clinical efforts to reduce the burden of poor cognitive outcomes in the United States.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Texas/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Atherosclerosis ; 282: 137-142, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30731286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: While numerous cross-sectional studies have demonstrated an inverse relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and carotid atherosclerosis in middle age, much less is known about the association of midlife CRF with carotid atherosclerosis in later life. METHODS: We studied 1094 participants, free of cardiovascular disease, who completed a maximal exercise test (GXT) for an objective measure of CRF between ages 40 and 59 and carotid ultrasound after the age of 59, with at least five years between studies. Carotid intima media thickness was measured. Assessments were also made regarding the presence of plaque and percent stenosis in four regions: common carotid, bulb, internal carotid and external carotid arteries. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to estimate the association of CRF with carotid artery disease. RESULTS: At the time of GXT and carotid scan, participants were aged 50.7 ±â€¯5.7 years and 69.3 ±â€¯6.4 years, respectively. Almost half of participants had high midlife CRF (48.6%); 41.3% and 10.1% had moderate and low CRF, respectively. Over a mean follow-up period of 18.6 ±â€¯8.5 years, the odds of having carotid artery disease in later life in the high CRF group was 0.50 (95% CI: 0.29-0.87) compared with the low CRF group. Each 1 MET increase in CRF was associated with 10% lower odds of having carotid artery disease (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.80-0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Midlife CRF was inversely associated with carotid artery disease measured almost two decades later. This may represent a mechanistic link between high midlife CRF and reduced risk of stroke in later life.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/complicações , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/prevenção & controle , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Exercício Físico , Adulto , Idoso , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Texas/epidemiologia
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