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2.
J Health Commun ; 24(11): 848-855, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621514

RESUMO

Japanese manga, which present dramatic and imaginative stories in comic book form, have a growing readership in Asia, Europe, and North America. We investigated depictions of tobacco and alcohol use in a sample of contemporary shonen manga, which have a primary readership of males ages 8-18, but also appeal to young females and adults. Large number of characters were shown smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol, especially males, adults, and those categorized as "good" characters. Compared to the shonens' early chapters (initiated in 1990-2003, depending on the series), more recently published chapters (2011-2016) portrayed fewer characters overall using a tobacco product and fewer minors using an alcohol product. The later chapters also presented significantly fewer depictions of tobacco-related behavior, consumption of both beer and other/unknown alcoholic beverages, and alcohol-related paraphernalia. Antitobacco and antialcohol behaviors or dialogue were rare. These findings raise legitimate concerns about the influence of these depictions on young readers' beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral choices. Future research should explore whether those concerns are warranted, but in the interim, government agencies and watchdog groups in Japan should consider applying increased public pressure on manga artists and producers to curtail these depictions and to offer positive role models in their place.

3.
Tob Control ; 28(1): 20-26, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29572355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In population studies, vaping is often treated as a dichotomous exposure (present/absent) without consideration of specific vaping devices and materials being used. A survey instrument is needed to record specific vaping devices and materials. METHODS: We developed a database of 613 vaping device models and 3196 vaping liquid products, indexed by device brand, device type, liquid brand, liquid name and liquid flavour type. We developed a survey instrument to allow participants to report their vaping device and liquid from the indexed lists. The survey was pilot tested with a convenience sample of 208 adults (≥age 21). We validated the vaping device and liquid responses with a recontact survey. We report the proportion of respondents finding their products, characteristics of people finding their products and survey response times. RESULTS: Devices used most frequently in the past 30 days were electronic cigarettes (33% of respondents), vaping pens (28%) and vaping mods (16%). Fifty-seven per cent used liquids containing nicotine most frequently in the past 30 days, followed by liquids without nicotine (20%) and marijuana or hashish (10%). Most (85%) participants found their vaping device successfully (median 19.7 s) and 74% found their vaping liquid (median 19.8 s). Females and older adults were less likely to find their devices and liquids. Responses were validated for 91% and 76% of devices and e-liquids, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the feasibility of an internet-based survey instrument to record specific vaping factors for use in studies of vaping and health.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Fumar Maconha/epidemiologia , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Feminino , Aromatizantes/química , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Phys Act Health ; 15(12): 888-894, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30462929

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older age groups are less likely than their younger counterparts to be regularly active and women are even less active. Ecological models suggest that multiple levels of influence with each level influencing the next level impacts physical activity behaviors. METHODS: Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to determine factors within and across the ecological model that predicted both total physical activity and walking for recreation. FINDINGS: The overall predictors of total physical activity were different than those of walking for recreation, with the exception of dog ownership and perceived barriers. Gender and age were significant predictors of walking for recreation, but these associations were not present for total physical activity. Women and older adults walked more for recreation in a mixed-use community, Mueller, (and thus engaged in more total physical activity) compared with men and younger adults. CONCLUSION: Behavior-specific physical activity as well as total physical activity led to a better understanding of factors that may impact behavior among an overall aging population, especially women. This level of specificity is important in understanding specific factors that are associated with physical activity among vulnerable populations and can help guide the development of tailored, cost-effective, and efficient policies and interventions.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Recreação/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Caminhada/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Percepção , Características de Residência , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 37(6): 774-781, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984430

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Clerks and servers at alcohol establishments often fail to verify age. Using mystery shoppers to provide performance feedback is one approach to improving age verification. Few controlled studies have evaluated mystery shop interventions. This paper reports on a cluster randomised cross-over trial of a mystery shop intervention in 16 communities in four US states. DESIGN AND METHODS: The intervention comprised monthly mystery shops after which clerks and servers received immediate feedback to reinforce age verification. Managers received monthly reports. Communities in each state were matched into pairs and, following a 3-month baseline, were randomly assigned within each pair to receive the intervention beginning after the fourth (Early Intervention) or the tenth (Delayed Intervention) mystery shop. On average, 17 (range = 14-20) randomly selected on-premises and 18 (range = 11-23) off-premises outlets participated in each community (N = 557). RESULTS: Fixed effects multi-level logistic regressions indicated that the intervention led to a two-fold increase in the odds of age verification, odds ratio (OR) = 2.05; P < 0.001; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.76, 2.39. Overall, ID-checking increased from an average of 80% pre-intervention to 94-96% by the end of the program. Significant effects were found for on-premises, OR = 1.79; P < 0.001; 95% CI 1.43, 2.24, and off-premises establishments, OR = 2.29; P < 0.001; 95% CI 1.86, 2.82. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Mystery shop interventions can increase age verification for alcohol purchases and may be an effective supplement to compliance checks and responsible beverage service programs.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/legislação & jurisprudência , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/legislação & jurisprudência , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing
6.
J Public Health Res ; 7(1): 1269, 2018 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29780765

RESUMO

Background: Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been shown to be an important contributor to the problem of underage drinking in the U.S. More work is needed on identifying and minimizing content with particular appeal to youth. Design and Methods: We tested the association between the youth-appeal of marketing content of televised alcohol advertisements and the brand-specific alcohol consumption of both underage youth and adults. We used existing data from three sources: a brand-specific alcohol consumption survey among underage youth (N=1032), a brand-specific alcohol consumption survey among adults (N ~13,000), and an analysis of content appealing to youth (CAY) in a sample of televised alcohol advertisements (n=96) aired during the youth survey. The association between CAY scores for the 96 alcohol ads and youth (age 13-20) versus adult (age 21+) consumption of those ads' brands was tested through bivariate and multivariate models. Results: Brand CAY scores were (a) positively associated with brand-specific youth consumption after controlling for adult brand consumption; (b) positively associated with a ratio of youth-toadult brand-specific consumption; and (c) not associated with adult brand consumption. Conclusions: Alcohol brands with youth-appealing advertising are consumed more often by youth than adults, indicating that these ads may be more persuasive to relatively younger audiences, and that youth are not simply mirroring adult consumption patterns in their choice of brands. Future research should consider the content of alcohol advertising when testing marketing effects on youth drinking, and surveillance efforts might focus on brands popular among youth.

7.
J Interpers Violence ; : 886260518762449, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29577841

RESUMO

Campus sexual assault is a long-standing challenge and continues to be a severe problem for American higher education. The present study examines the short-term impact of a widely utilized sexual violence prevention course for matriculating college students as a population-level prevention approach. The course focuses on correcting misperceptions of normative behavior, increasing students' likelihood to intervene in disconcerting situations, and encouraging empathy and support for victims. Participants were 167,424 first-year college students from 80 four-year institutions who completed preintervention and postintervention surveys to assess changes in composite factor scores derived from 20 attitudinal, self-efficacy, and behavioral intention items. Employing the composite factor scores as dependent variables, individual ANOVAs were run for each of the institutions to test whether there were significant increases in mean factor scores. High percentages of institutions saw statistically significant increases ( p < .05) in self-reported ability and intention to intervene to prevent sexual assault and relationship violence (98%), empathy and support for victims (84%), and corrected perceptions of social norms (75%). Fewer schools saw significant reductions in endorsement of sexual assault myths (34%). These findings suggest that when implemented as a population-level intervention for all first-year college students, the prevention course can foster accurate perceptions of positive social norms, increase empathy and support for victims, and increase students' stated ability and intention to intervene.

8.
Glob Public Health ; 13(10): 1481-1494, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28994352

RESUMO

In 2012, Saving Mothers, Giving Life (SMGL), a multi-level health systems initiative, launched in Kalomo District, Zambia, to address persistent challenges in reducing maternal mortality. We assessed the impact of the programme from 2012 to 2013 using a quasi-experimental study with both household- and health facility-level data collected before and after implementation in both intervention and comparison areas. A total of 21,680 women and 75 non-hospital health centres were included in the study. Using the difference-in-differences method, multivariate logistic regression, and run charts, rates of facility-based birth (FBB) and delivery with a skilled birth provider were compared between intervention and comparison sites. Facility capacity to provide emergency obstetric and newborn care was also assessed before and during implementation in both study areas. There was a 45% increase in the odds of FBB after the programme was implemented in Kalomo relative to comparison districts, but there was a limited measurable change in supply-side indicators of intrapartum maternity care. Most facility-level changes related to an increase in capacity for newborn care. As SMGL and similar programmes are scaled-up and replicated, our results underscore the need to ensure that the health services supply is in balance with improved demand to achieve maximal reductions in maternal mortality.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Tratamento de Emergência , Saúde Materna , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Zâmbia
9.
Health Commun ; 33(2): 164-173, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27982709

RESUMO

Underage drinking is a serious public health problem in the United States, and youth exposure to alcohol advertising has been indicated as a possible contributing factor. Although a number of studies have identified advertising content features that youth find appealing, a key limitation of this research is the absence of a broader tool to examine those features, especially those used by alcohol brands that are popular with underage drinkers. We created an index of content elements found in the research literature to be appealing to youth, and then used this index in a content analysis to identify the degree to which youth-appealing content appeared in a sample of alcohol ads that aired on television shows popular among youth. Finally, using bivariate analysis, we tested the relationship between alcohol brands' use of this content and the popularity of those brands among youth. We found that many of the ads featured youth-appealing content, and that the ads for the alcohol brands most popular among youth had more youth-appealing content than the less popular brands.


Assuntos
/tendências , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor/tendências , Televisão , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Criança , Comportamento do Consumidor , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 41(11): 1946-1952, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examined whether alcohol brands more popular among youth are more likely to have aired television advertisements that violated the alcohol industry's voluntary code by including youth-appealing content. METHODS: We obtained a complete list of 288 brand-specific beer advertisements broadcast during the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) men's and women's basketball tournaments from 1999 to 2008. All ads were rated by a panel of health professionals using a modified Delphi method to assess the presence of youth-appealing content in violation of the alcohol industry's voluntary code. The ads represented 23 alcohol brands. The popularity of these brands was operationalized as the brand-specific popularity of youth alcohol consumption in the past 30 days, as determined by a 2011 to 2012 national survey of underage drinkers. Brand-level popularity was used as the exposure variable to predict the odds of having advertisements with youth-appealing content violations. RESULTS: Accounting for other covariates and the clustering of advertisements within brands, increased brand popularity among underage youth was associated with significantly increased odds of having youth-appeal content violations in ads televised during the NCAA basketball tournament games (adjusted odds ratio = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.38, 2.09). CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol brands popular among underage drinkers are more likely to air television advertising that violates the industry's voluntary code which proscribes youth-appealing content.


Assuntos
Cerveja , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor/tendências , Televisão/tendências , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/prevenção & controle , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , /tendências , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Televisão/legislação & jurisprudência , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Child Fam Stud ; 26(2): 652-663, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28529440

RESUMO

Despite the risk it poses to children's mental and physical health, approval and use of corporal punishment (CP) remains high in the United States. Informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, we examined potential predictors of attitudes supportive of CP while assessing the moderating effects of parents' (N=500) chosen primary professional source of advice regarding child discipline: pediatricians (47.8%), religious leaders (20.8%), mental health professionals (MHPs) (n=18.4%), or other identified professionals (13.0%). We conducted a random-digit-dial telephone survey among parents ages 18 and over within New Orleans, LA. The main outcome measure was derived from the Attitudes Toward Spanking scale (ATS). The main "predictors" were: perceived injunctive norms (i.e., perceived approval of CP by professionals; and by family and friends), perceived descriptive norms of family and friends regarding CP, and expected outcomes of CP use. We used multivariate OLS models to regress ATS scores on the predictor variables for each subset of parents based on their chosen professional source of advice. Perceived approval of CP by professionals was the strongest predictor of parental attitudes supportive of CP, except for those seeking advice from MHPs. Perceived injunctive and descriptive norms of family and friends were important, but only for those seeking advice from pediatricians or religious leaders. Positive expected outcomes of CP mattered, but only for those seeking advice from religious leaders or MHPs. In conclusion, the strength and relevance of variables predicting attitudes toward CP varied according to the professional from which the parent was most likely to seek advice.

12.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 41(5): 1012-1023, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28324915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many transgender college students struggle with identity formation and other emotional, social, and developmental challenges associated with emerging adulthood. A potential maladaptive coping strategy employed by such students is heavy drinking. Prior literature has suggested greater consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences (ARCs) in transgender students compared with their cisgender peers, but little is known about their differing experiences with alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs). We examined the level of alcohol consumption, the frequency of ARBs and other ARCs, and motivations for drinking reported by the largest sample of transgender college students to date. METHODS: A Web survey from an alcohol-prevention program, AlcoholEdu for College™, assessed student demographics and drinking-related behaviors, experiences, and motivations of newly matriculating first-year college students. A self-reported drinking calendar was used to examine each of the following measures over the previous 14 days: number of drinking days, total number of drinks, and maximum number of drinks on any single day. A 7-point Likert scale was used to measure ARCs, ARBs, and drinking motivations. Transgender students of both sexes were compared with their cisgender peers. RESULTS: A total of 989 of 422,906 students (0.2%) identified as transgender. Over a 14-day period, transgender compared with cisgender students were more likely to consume alcohol over more days, more total drinks, and a greater number of maximum drinks on a single day. Transgender students (36%) were more likely to report an ARB than cisgender students (25%) as well as more negative academic, confrontation-related, social, and sexual ARCs. Transgender respondents more often cited stress reduction, social anxiety, self-esteem issues, and the inherent properties of alcohol as motivations for drinking. For nearly all measures, higher values were yielded by male-to-female than female-to-male transgender students. CONCLUSIONS: Transgender compared with cisgender first-year students engage in higher-risk drinking patterns and experience more ARBs and other negative ARCs. Broad institutional efforts are required to address the unique circumstances of transgender men and women and to reduce negative ARCs in college students, regardless of their sex or gender identity.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/psicologia , Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Motivação , Autorrelato , Estudantes/psicologia , Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Intoxicação Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Health Commun ; 21(10): 1079-87, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27668832

RESUMO

Social norms affect human behavior, and underage drinking is no exception. Using the theory of normative social behavior, this study tested the proposition that the association between perceptions about the prevalence of drinking (descriptive norms) and underage drinking is strengthened when perceived pressures to conform (injunctive norms) and beliefs about the benefits of drinking (outcome expectations) are high. This proposition was tested on a nationally representative sample of underage drinkers ages 13-20 (N = 1,031) in relation to their alcohol consumption, expanding on research with college-age youth. On average, males and females reported drinking 23 and 18 drinks per month, respectively. The main effect of descriptive norms (ß = .10, p < .01) on alcohol consumption was modified by interactions with injunctive norms (ß = .11, p < .01), benefit to self (ß = .12, p < .001), and benefit to others (ß = .10, p < .01). Underage drinkers are most vulnerable to excessive drinking if they believe that most others drink, that they themselves are expected to drink, and that drinking confers several benefits. Norms-based interventions to reduce youth alcohol use need to focus on changing not only descriptive norms but also injunctive norms and outcome expectations.


Assuntos
Motivação , Normas Sociais , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Conformidade Social , Percepção Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 77(5): 723-9, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27588530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although studies demonstrate that exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising is associated with an increased likelihood of youth consuming particular brands, the relationship between quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure and quantity of brand-specific consumption has not been firmly established. METHOD: Using the Alcohol Brand Research Among Underage Drinkers (ABRAND) national sample of 1,031 young drinkers (ages 13-20), this study examined the relationship between their aggregated past-year exposure to advertising (in adstock units, a measure based on gross rating points) for 61 alcohol brands that advertised on the 20 most popular nonsports television programs viewed by underage youth and their aggregated total consumption of those same brands during the past 30 days. Predictive models adjusted for other media exposure, predictors of youth's alcohol consumption, and the consumption of brands not advertised on the 20 shows. RESULTS: For the fully adjusted models, each 100 adstock unit increase in exposure (about 1 SD) was associated with an increase of 5.9 drinks (95% CI [0.9, 11.0 drinks]) consumed during the past 30 days among those with less than 300 units of advertising exposure, and an increase of 55.7 drinks (95% CI [13.9, 97.4 drinks]) among those with 300 or more adstock units of exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Among underage youth, the quantity of brand-specific advertising exposure is positively associated with the total quantity of consumption of those advertised brands, even after controlling for the consumption of non-advertised brands. Future research should examine exposure-consumption relationships longitudinally and in other media.


Assuntos
/tendências , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Televisão/tendências , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/tendências , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Intoxicação Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distância Social , Adulto Jovem
15.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 51(5): 602-8, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27325885

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: : First-year college students are at particular risk for experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences that may set the stage for experiencing such consequences in later life. Latent class analysis is a person-centered approach that, based on observable indicator variables, divides a population into mutually exclusive and exhaustive groups ('classes'). To date, no studies have examined the latent class structure of negative alcohol-related consequences experienced by first-year college students just before entering college. AIMS: The aims of this study were to (a) identify classes of first-year college students based on the patterns of negative alcohol-related consequences they experienced just before entering college, and (b) determine whether specific covariates were associated with class membership. METHODS: Incoming freshmen from 148 colleges and universities (N = 54,435) completed a baseline questionnaire as part of an alcohol education program they completed just prior to their first year of college. Participants answered questions regarding demographics and other personal characteristics, their alcohol use in the past 2 weeks, and the negative alcohol-related consequences they had experienced during that time. RESULTS: Four distinct classes of students emerged: (a) No Problems, (b) Academic Problems, (c) Injured Self and (d) Severe Problems. Average number of drinks per drinking day, total number of drinking days, age of drinking initiation, intention to join a fraternity or sorority and family history of alcohol problems were associated with membership in all of the problem classes relative to the No Problems class. CONCLUSIONS: These results can inform future campus-based prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 77(4): 638-48, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27340969

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study tested whether perceived parental approval of high-risk drinking is directly linked to alcohol-related outcomes or whether the link between perceived parental approval and these outcomes is mediated by perceived friends' approval of high-risk drinking. METHOD: In fall 2009, 1,797 incoming first-year college students (49.7% female) from 142 U.S. colleges and universities completed a web-based survey before participating in an online substance use prevention program. The analytic sample included only 18- to 20-year-old freshmen students who had consumed alcohol in the past year. Students answered questions about perceived parental approval and perceived friends' approval of high-risk drinking. They also answered questions about their alcohol use (heavy episodic drinking, risky drinking behaviors), use of self-protective strategies (to prevent drinking and driving and to moderate alcohol use), and negative alcohol-related consequences (health, academic and work, social consequences, and drinking and driving). RESULTS: Mediation analyses controlling for the clustering of students within schools indicated that perceived parental approval was directly associated with more easily observable outcomes (e.g., academic- and work-related consequences, drinking and driving). Perceived friends' approval significantly mediated the link between perceived parental approval and outcomes that are less easily observed (e.g., alcohol use, health consequences). CONCLUSIONS: During the transition to college, parents may influence students' behaviors both directly (through communication) as well as indirectly (by shaping their values and whom students select as friends). Alcohol use prevention programs for students about to start college should address both parental and friend influences on alcohol use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Amigos , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Percepção Social , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
17.
Addict Res Theory ; 24(1): 32-39, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27034628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol research focused on underage drinkers has not comprehensively assessed the landscape of brand-level drinking behaviors among youth. This information is needed to profile youth alcohol use accurately, explore its antecedents, and develop appropriate interventions. METHODS: We collected national data on the alcohol brand-level consumption of underage drinkers in the United States and then examined the association between those preferences and several factors including youth exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising, corporate sponsorships, popular music lyrics, and social networking sites, and alcohol pricing. This paper summarizes our findings, plus the results of other published studies on alcohol branding and youth drinking. RESULTS: Our findings revealed several interesting facts regarding youth drinking. For example, we found that: 1) youth are not drinking the cheapest alcohol brands; 2) youth brand preferences differ from those of adult drinkers; 3) underage drinkers are not opportunistic in their alcohol consumption, but instead consume a very specific set of brands; 4) the brands that youth are heavily exposed to in magazines and television advertising correspond to the brands they most often report consuming; and 5) youth consume more of the alcohol brands to whose advertising they are most heavily exposed. CONCLUSION: The findings presented here suggests that brand-level alcohol research will provide important insight into youth drinking behaviors, the factors that contribute to youth alcohol consumption, and potential avenues for effective public health surveillance and programming.

18.
J Am Coll Health ; 64(1): 80-4, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26158381

RESUMO

Few colleges have made the prevention of alcohol-related injuries and deaths an institutional priority, and even fewer have implemented prevention strategies with a solid evidentiary base. We look to presidents to provide leadership on this issue, but those who do are atypical. Boards of trustees should step in by asserting that student wellness be a primary focus in the institution's strategic plan, with specific, measurable goals; holding the president accountable for progress in reducing high-risk drinking and its consequences; and mandating a line item in the annual budget, with adequate staffing and revenues to put evidence-based practices in place. Boards will be more likely to respond when led to focus on the cost implications of the campus alcohol problem; the link between high-risk drinking and mission-critical institutional objectives such as academic performance, student engagement, and retention; and the institution's potential liability if evidence-based prevention strategies are not in place.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Prioridades em Saúde , Responsabilidade Legal , Curadores/psicologia , Universidades/organização & administração , Humanos , Objetivos Organizacionais , Estados Unidos
19.
Subst Abus ; 37(1): 222-9, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25961837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No previous study has determined whether there are differences in the youth appeal of alcohol advertisements for popular versus unpopular brands among underage drinkers. This paper provides a systematic investigation of the differential appeal of brand-level alcohol advertisements among underage youth and young adults in the United States. METHODS: We examined 3 issues of 8 magazines popular among underage youth. From the advertised alcohol brands, we selected the ads for the top 10 and bottom 10 brands by prevalence of underage youth consumption, based on the results of a previous national survey. We assessed the ads' appeal using a sample of 211 students recruited from 1 graduate and 2 undergraduate courses at Boston University. Respondents rated the appeal of each advertisement on 4 dimensions: physical and social appeal, appeal to underage youth, perceived effectiveness, and liking. Using random-effects linear regression, we compared the appeal of advertisements for popular versus unpopular brands. RESULTS: On each dimension, the ads for popular youth alcohol brands were rated as significantly more appealing than the ads for unpopular brands. The magnitude of this difference was 0.26 standard deviation for the physical and social appeal score, 0.25 for the appeal to underage youth score, 0.21 for the perceived effectiveness score, and 0.16 for the liking score. CONCLUSIONS: Advertising for alcohol brands that are popular among youth contain elements that are more likely to appeal to underage youth and young adults than ads for brands that are relatively unpopular among young drinkers.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse ; 42(1): 4-14, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26479468

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Marketing is increasingly recognized as a potentially important contributor to youth drinking, yet few studies have examined the relationship between advertising exposure and alcohol consumption among underage youth at the brand level. OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between brand-specific exposure to alcohol advertising among underage youth and the consumption prevalence of each brand in a national sample of underage drinkers. METHODS: We analyzed the relationship between population-level exposure of underage youth ages 12-20 to brand-specific alcohol advertising in national magazines and television programs and the 30-day consumption prevalence--by brand--among a national sample of underage drinkers ages 13-20. Underage youth exposure to alcohol advertising by brand for each month in 2011, measured in gross rating points (GRPs, a standard measure of advertising exposure), was obtained from GfK MRI (a media consumer research company) and Nielsen for all measured national issues of magazines and all national television programs, respectively. The 30-day consumption prevalence for each brand was obtained from a national survey of 1031 underage drinkers conducted between December 2011 and May 2012. RESULTS: Underage youth were more than five times more likely to consume brands that advertise on national television and 36% more likely to consume brands that advertise in national magazines. The consumption prevalence of a brand increased by 36% for each 1.5 standard deviation (50 GRPs) increase in television adstock among underage youth and by 23% for each 1.5 standard deviation (10 GRPs) increase in magazine adstock. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that alcohol advertising influences an important aspect of drinking behavior--brand choice--among youth who consume alcohol.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas , Comportamento do Consumidor , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Televisão/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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