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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 352, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496950

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Illumina BeadChip arrays are commonly used to generate DNA methylation data for large epidemiological studies. Updates in technology over time create challenges for data harmonization within and between studies, many of which obtained data from the older 450K and newer EPIC platforms. The pre-processing pipeline for DNA methylation is not trivial, and influences the downstream analyses. Incorporating different platforms adds a new level of technical variability that has not yet been taken into account by recommended pipelines. Our study evaluated the performance of various tools on different versions of platform data harmonization at each step of pre-processing pipeline, including quality control (QC), normalization, batch effect adjustment, and genomic inflation. We illustrate our novel approach using 450K and EPIC data from the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) prospective cohort. RESULTS: We found normalization and probe filtering had the biggest effect on data harmonization. Employing a meta-analysis was an effective and easily executable method for accounting for platform variability. Correcting for genomic inflation also helped with harmonization. We present guidelines for studies seeking to harmonize data from the 450K and EPIC platforms, which includes the use of technical replicates for evaluating numerous pre-processing steps, and employing a meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Ilhas de CpG , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Estudos Prospectivos
2.
Chest ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592319

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging data from longitudinal studies suggest that PRISm, defined by proportionate reductions in FEV1 and FVC, is a heterogeneous population with frequent transitions to other lung function categories relative to individuals with normal and obstructive spirometry. Controversy regarding the clinical significance of these transitions exists (e.g., whether transitions merely reflect measurement variability or "noise"). RESEARCH QUESTION: Are individuals with PRISm enriched for transitions associated with substantial changes in lung function? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Current and former smokers enrolled in COPDGene with spirometry available at Phases 1-3 (enrollment, 5-year, and 10-year follow-up) were analyzed. Post-bronchodilator lung function categories were: PRISm=FEV1<80% predicted with FEV1/FVC ratio≥0.7, GOLD0=FEV1≥80% predicted and FEV1/FVC ≥0.7, and obstruction=FEV1/FVC<0.7. "Significant-transition" status was affirmative if a subject belonged to ≥2 spirometric categories and had >10% change in FEV1% and/or FVC% predicted between consecutive visits. "Ever-PRISm" was present if a subject had PRISm at any visit. Logistic regression examined the association between "significant-transitions" and "ever-PRISm" status, adjusted for age, sex, race, FEV1% predicted, current smoking, pack-years, BMI, and ever-positive bronchodilator response. RESULTS: Among subjects with complete data (n=1,775) over 10.1±0.4 years of follow-up, the prevalence of PRISm remained consistent (10.4%-11.3%) between P1-P3, but nearly half of subjects with PRISm transitioned into or out of PRISm at each visit. 19.7% of subjects had a "significant transition"; "ever-PRISm" was a significant predictor of "significant transitions" (ORunadjusted=10.3, 95%CI=7.9-13.5, ORadjusted=14.9, 95%CI=10.9-20.7). Results were similar with additional adjustment for radiographic emphysema and gas trapping, when lower limit of normal criteria were used to define lung function categories, and when FEV1 alone (regardless of change in FVC%) was used to define "significant transitions" . INTERPRETATION: PRISm is an unstable group, with frequent significant transitions to both obstruction and normal spirometry over time.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death globally. COPD patients with cachexia or weight loss have increased risk of death independent of body mass index (BMI) and lung function. We tested the hypothesis genetic variation is associated with weight loss in COPD using a genome-wide association study approach. METHODS: Participants with COPD (N = 4308) from three studies (COPDGene, ECLIPSE, and SPIROMICS) were analysed. Discovery analyses were performed in COPDGene with replication in SPIROMICS and ECLIPSE. In COPDGene, weight loss was defined as self-reported unintentional weight loss > 5% in the past year or low BMI (BMI < 20 kg/m2 ). In ECLIPSE and SPIROMICS, weight loss was calculated using available longitudinal visits. Stratified analyses were performed among African American (AA) and Non-Hispanic White (NHW) participants with COPD. Single variant and gene-based analyses were performed adjusting for confounders. Fine mapping was performed using a Bayesian approach integrating genetic association results with linkage disequilibrium and functional annotation. Significant gene networks were identified by integrating genetic regions associated with weight loss with skeletal muscle protein-protein interaction (PPI) data. RESULTS: At the single variant level, only the rs35368512 variant, intergenic to GRXCR1 and LINC02383, was associated with weight loss (odds ratio = 3.6, 95% confidence interval = 2.3-5.6, P = 3.2 × 10-8 ) among AA COPD participants in COPDGene. At the gene level in COPDGene, EFNA2 and BAIAP2 were significantly associated with weight loss in AA and NHW COPD participants, respectively. The EFNA2 association replicated among AA from SPIROMICS (P = 0.0014), whereas the BAIAP2 association replicated in NHW from ECLIPSE (P = 0.025). The EFNA2 gene encodes the membrane-bound protein ephrin-A2 involved in the regulation of developmental processes and adult tissue homeostasis such as skeletal muscle. The BAIAP2 gene encodes the insulin-responsive protein of mass 53 kD (IRSp53), a negative regulator of myogenic differentiation. Integration of the gene-based findings participants with PPI data revealed networks of genes involved in pathways such as Rho and synapse signalling. CONCLUSIONS: The EFNA2 and BAIAP2 genes were significantly associated with weight loss in COPD participants. Collectively, the integrative network analyses indicated genetic variation associated with weight loss in COPD may influence skeletal muscle regeneration and tissue remodelling.

4.
Epigenetics ; : 1-12, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570667

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is associated with epigenetic changes that may be reversible following smoking cessation. Whole blood DNA methylation was evaluated in Framingham Heart Study Offspring (n = 169) and Third Generation (n = 30) cohort participants at two study visits 6 years apart and in Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (n = 222) participants at two study visits 20 years apart. Changes in DNA methylation (delta ß values) at 483,565 cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) were compared between participants who were current, former, or never smokers at both visits (current-current, former-former, never-never, respectively), versus those who quit in the interim (current-former). Interim quitters had more hypermethylation at four CpGs annotated to AHRR, one CpG annotated to F2RL3, and one intergenic CpG (cg21566642) compared with current-current smokers (FDR < 0.02 for all), and two significant DMRs were identified. While there were no significant differentially methylated CpGs in the comparison of interim quitters and former-former smokers, 106 DMRs overlapping with small nucleolar RNA were identified. As compared with all non-smokers, current-current smokers additionally had more hypermethylation at two CpG sites annotated to HIVEP3 and TMEM126A, respectively, and another intergenic CpG (cg14339116). Gene transcripts associated with smoking cessation were implicated in immune responses, cell homoeostasis, and apoptosis. Smoking cessation is associated with early reversion of blood DNA methylation changes at CpG sites annotated to AHRR and F2RL3 towards those of never smokers. Associated gene expression suggests a role of longitudinal smoking-related DNA methylation changes in immune response processes.

5.
Respir Med ; 187: 106576, 2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise capacity (EC) and physical activity (PA) are independent, potentially modifiable predictors of clinical outcomes in COPD. Molecular measures of biological age may help characterize variability in EC and PA observed among COPD patients. METHODS: Veterans with COPD (FEV1/FVC<0.7 or emphysema on chest computed tomography) enrolled in 2 cohorts at VA Boston completed questionnaires, a 6-min walk distance (6MWD) for EC, and blood collection at enrollment. PA data (average daily step count) was collected using an HJ-720 ITC pedometer over ≥5 days. A subset of subjects returned for repeat assessment after 12 weeks. DNA methylation data was generated using the HumanMethylationEPIC platform; epigenetic estimates of biological age and age acceleration were generated using established algorithms. Multivariable models examined the associations between biological age, 6MWD, PA and future acute exacerbations (AEs), adjusting for chronological age, sex, race, smoking status, pack-years, body mass index, cohort, and estimated cell counts. RESULTS: Subjects (n = 269) were predominantly male (98.5%), white (92.9%), and elderly (70.6 ± 8.5 years) with average FEV1% of 57.7 ± 21.1, 6MWD of 374.3 ± 93.5 m, and daily steps of 3043.4 ± 2374 at baseline. In adjusted models, multiple measures of baseline epigenetic age and age acceleration were inversely associated with 6MWD; only GrimAge was inversely associated with PA. Longitudinal change in Hannum-Age was inversely associated with change in EC at 12 weeks (n = 94). No measures of biological age were significantly associated with prospective AEs over 1.3 ± 0.3 years. CONCLUSIONS: Epigenetic measures of biological age are independent predictors of EC and PA, but not AEs, among individuals with COPD.

6.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 235, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondary polycythemia is associated with cigarette smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the prevalence of polycythemia in COPD and the contributing risk factors for polycythemia in COPD have not been extensively studied. METHODS: We analyzed the presence of secondary polycythemia in current and former smokers with moderate to very severe COPD at the five-year follow-up visit in the observational COPDGene study. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association of polycythemia with age, sex, race, altitude, current smoking status, spirometry, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), quantitative chest CT measurements (including emphysema, airway wall thickness, and pulmonary artery to aorta diameter ratio), resting hypoxemia, exercise-induced hypoxemia, and long-term oxygen therapy. RESULTS: In a total of 1928 COPDGene participants with moderate to very severe COPD, secondary polycythemia was found in 97 (9.2%) male and 31 (3.5%) female participants. In a multivariable logistic model, severe resting hypoxemia (OR 3.50, 95% CI 1.41-8.66), impaired DLCO (OR 1.28 for each 10-percent decrease in DLCO % predicted, CI 1.09-1.49), male sex (OR 3.60, CI 2.20-5.90), non-Hispanic white race (OR 3.33, CI 1.71-6.50), current smoking (OR 2.55, CI 1.49-4.38), and enrollment in the Denver clinical center (OR 4.42, CI 2.38-8.21) were associated with higher risk for polycythemia. In addition, continuous (OR 0.13, CI 0.05-0.35) and nocturnal (OR 0.46, CI 0.21-0.97) supplemental oxygen were associated with lower risk for polycythemia. Results were similar after excluding participants with anemia and participants enrolled at the Denver clinical center. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of individuals with moderate to very severe COPD, male sex, current smoking, enrollment at the Denver clinical center, impaired DLCO, and severe hypoxemia were associated with increased risk for secondary polycythemia. Continuous or nocturnal supplemental oxygen use were associated with decreased risk for polycythemia.

7.
Genet Epidemiol ; 45(7): 685-693, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159627

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 mortality has been extensively studied in relation to host susceptibility. How sequence variations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome affect pathogenicity is poorly understood. Starting in October 2020, using the methodology of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we looked at the association between whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of the virus and COVID-19 mortality as a potential method of early identification of highly pathogenic strains to target for containment. Although continuously updating our analysis, in December 2020, we analyzed 7548 single-stranded SARS-CoV-2 genomes of COVID-19 patients in the GISAID database and associated variants with mortality using a logistic regression. In total, evaluating 29,891 sequenced loci of the viral genome for association with patient/host mortality, two loci, at 12,053 and 25,088 bp, achieved genome-wide significance (p values of 4.09e-09 and 4.41e-23, respectively), though only 25,088 bp remained significant in follow-up analyses. Our association findings were exclusively driven by the samples that were submitted from Brazil (p value of 4.90e-13 for 25,088 bp). The mutation frequency of 25,088 bp in the Brazilian samples on GISAID has rapidly increased from about 0.4 in October/December 2020 to 0.77 in March 2021. Although GWAS methodology is suitable for samples in which mutation frequencies varies between geographical regions, it cannot account for mutation frequencies that change rapidly overtime, rendering a GWAS follow-up analysis of the GISAID samples that have been submitted after December 2020 as invalid. The locus at 25,088 bp is located in the P.1 strain, which later (April 2021) became one of the distinguishing loci (precisely, substitution V1176F) of the Brazilian strain as defined by the Centers for Disease Control. Specifically, the mutations at 25,088 bp occur in the S2 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which plays a key role in viral entry of target host cells. Since the mutations alter amino acid coding sequences, they potentially imposing structural changes that could enhance viral infectivity and symptom severity. Our analysis suggests that GWAS methodology can provide suitable analysis tools for the real-time detection of new more transmissible and pathogenic viral strains in databases such as GISAID, though new approaches are needed to accommodate rapidly changing mutation frequencies over time, in the presence of simultaneously changing case/control ratios. Improvements of the associated metadata/patient information in terms of quality and availability will also be important to fully utilize the potential of GWAS methodology in this field.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus , Brasil , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Mutação , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
8.
Environ Int ; 153: 106505, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872926

RESUMO

RATIONALE: PM2.5-induced adverse effects on respiratory health may be driven by epigenetic modifications in airway cells. The potential impact of exposure duration on epigenetic alterations in the airways is not yet known. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study associations of fine particulate matter PM2.5 exposure with DNA methylation in nasal cells. METHODS: We conducted nasal epigenome-wide association analyses within 503 children from Project Viva (mean age 12.9 y), and examined various exposure durations (1-day, 1-week, 1-month, 3-months and 1-year) prior to nasal sampling. We used residential addresses to estimate average daily PM2.5 at 1 km resolution. We collected nasal swabs from the anterior nares and measured DNA methylation (DNAm) using the Illumina MethylationEPIC BeadChip. We tested 719,075 high quality autosomal CpGs using CpG-by-CpG and regional DNAm analyses controlling for multiple comparisons, and adjusted for maternal education, household smokers, child sex, race/ethnicity, BMI z-score, age, season at sample collection and cell-type heterogeneity. We further corrected for bias and genomic inflation. We tested for replication in a cohort from the Netherlands (PIAMA). RESULTS: In adjusted analyses, we found 362 CpGs associated with 1-year PM2.5 (FDR < 0.05), 20 CpGs passing Bonferroni correction (P < 7.0x10-8) and 10 Differentially Methylated Regions (DMRs). In 445 PIAMA participants (mean age 16.3 years) 11 of 203 available CpGs replicated at P < 0.05. We observed differential DNAm at/near genes implicated in cell cycle, immune and inflammatory responses. There were no CpGs or regions associated with PM2.5 levels at 1-day, 1-week, or 1-month prior to sample collection, although 2 CpGs were associated with past 3-month PM2.5. CONCLUSION: We observed wide-spread DNAm variability associated with average past year PM2.5 exposure but we did not detect associations with shorter-term exposure. Our results suggest that nasal DNAm marks reflect chronic air pollution exposure.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Epigenoma , Adolescente , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Criança , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Países Baixos , Material Particulado
9.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 127, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) is a proposed emphysema and airflow obstruction biomarker; however, previous publications have shown inconsistent associations and only one study has investigate the association between sRAGE and emphysema. No cohorts have examined the association between sRAGE and progressive decline of lung function. There have also been no evaluation of assay compatibility, receiver operating characteristics, and little examination of the effect of genetic variability in non-white population. This manuscript addresses these deficiencies and introduces novel data from Pittsburgh COPD SCCOR and as well as novel work on airflow obstruction. A meta-analysis is used to quantify sRAGE associations with clinical phenotypes. METHODS: sRAGE was measured in four independent longitudinal cohorts on different analytic assays: COPDGene (n = 1443); SPIROMICS (n = 1623); ECLIPSE (n = 2349); Pittsburgh COPD SCCOR (n = 399). We constructed adjusted linear mixed models to determine associations of sRAGE with baseline and follow up forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1) and emphysema by quantitative high-resolution CT lung density at the 15th percentile (adjusted for total lung capacity). RESULTS: Lower plasma or serum sRAGE values were associated with a COPD diagnosis (P < 0.001), reduced FEV1 (P < 0.001), and emphysema severity (P < 0.001). In an inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis, one SD lower log10-transformed sRAGE was associated with 105 ± 22 mL lower FEV1 and 4.14 ± 0.55 g/L lower adjusted lung density. After adjusting for covariates, lower sRAGE at baseline was associated with greater FEV1 decline and emphysema progression only in the ECLIPSE cohort. Non-Hispanic white subjects carrying the rs2070600 minor allele (A) and non-Hispanic African Americans carrying the rs2071288 minor allele (A) had lower sRAGE measurements compare to those with the major allele, but their emphysema-sRAGE regression slopes were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Lower blood sRAGE is associated with more severe airflow obstruction and emphysema, but associations with progression are inconsistent in the cohorts analyzed. In these cohorts, genotype influenced sRAGE measurements and strengthened variance modelling. Thus, genotype should be included in sRAGE evaluations.

10.
Metabolites ; 11(3)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799786

RESUMO

Susceptibility and progression of lung disease, as well as response to treatment, often differ by sex, yet the metabolic mechanisms driving these sex-specific differences are still poorly understood. Women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have less emphysema and more small airway disease on average than men, though these differences become less pronounced with more severe airflow limitation. While small studies of targeted metabolites have identified compounds differing by sex and COPD status, the sex-specific effect of COPD on systemic metabolism has yet to be interrogated. Significant sex differences were observed in 9 of the 11 modules identified in COPDGene. Sex-specific associations by COPD status and emphysema were observed in 3 modules for each phenotype. Sex stratified individual metabolite associations with COPD demonstrated male-specific associations in sphingomyelins and female-specific associations in acyl carnitines and phosphatidylethanolamines. There was high preservation of module assignments in SPIROMICS (SubPopulations and InteRmediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study) and similar female-specific shift in acyl carnitines. Several COPD associated metabolites differed by sex. Acyl carnitines and sphingomyelins demonstrate sex-specific abundances and may represent important metabolic signatures of sex differences in COPD. Accurately characterizing the sex-specific molecular differences in COPD is vital for personalized diagnostics and therapeutics.

11.
Chest ; 160(1): 104-113, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745988

RESUMO

Sex and gender differences in lung health and disease are imperative to consider and study if precision pulmonary medicine is to be achieved. The development of reliable COPD biomarkers has been elusive, and the translation of biomarkers to clinical care has been limited. Useful and effective biomarkers must be developed with attention to clinical heterogeneity of COPD; inherent heterogeneity exists related to grouping women and men together in the studies of COPD. Considering sex and gender differences and influences related to -omics may represent progress in susceptibility, diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic biomarker development and clinical innovation to improve the lung health of men and women.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7107, 2021 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782449

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 enters cells via angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, highly expressed in nasal epithelium with parallel high infectivity.1,2 The nasal epigenome is in direct contact with the environment and could explain COVID-19 disparities by reflecting social and environmental influences on ACE2 regulation. We collected nasal swabs from anterior nares of 547 children, measured DNA methylation (DNAm), and tested differences at 15 ACE2 CpGs by sex, age, race/ethnicity and epigenetic age. ACE2 CpGs were differentially methylated by sex with 12 sites having lower DNAm (mean = 12.71%) and 3 sites greater DNAm (mean = 1.45%) among females relative to males. We observed differential DNAm at 5 CpGs for Hispanic females (mean absolute difference = 3.22%) and lower DNAm at 8 CpGs for Black males (mean absolute difference = 1.33%), relative to white participants. Longer DNAm telomere length was associated with greater ACE2 DNAm at 11 and 13 CpGs among males (mean absolute difference = 7.86%) and females (mean absolute difference = 8.21%), respectively. Nasal ACE2 DNAm differences could contribute to our understanding COVID-19 severity and disparities reflecting upstream environmental and social influences. Findings need to be confirmed among adults and patients with risk factors for COVID-19 severity.


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , COVID-19/genética , Metilação de DNA , Mucosa Nasal/metabolismo , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/virologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(6): 1832-1845, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414500

RESUMO

Maternal anxiety during pregnancy is associated with adverse foetal, neonatal, and child outcomes, but biological mechanisms remain unclear. Altered foetal DNA methylation (DNAm) has been proposed as a potential underlying mechanism. In the current study, we performed a meta-analysis to examine the associations between maternal anxiety, measured prospectively during pregnancy, and genome-wide DNAm from umbilical cord blood. Sixteen non-overlapping cohorts from 12 independent longitudinal studies of the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium participated, resulting in a combined dataset of 7243 mother-child dyads. We examined prenatal anxiety in relation to genome-wide DNAm and differentially methylated regions. We observed no association between the general symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy or pregnancy-related anxiety, and DNAm at any of the CpG sites, after multiple-testing correction. Furthermore, we identify no differentially methylated regions associated with maternal anxiety. At the cohort-level, of the 21 associations observed in individual cohorts, none replicated consistently in the other cohorts. In conclusion, contrary to some previous studies proposing cord blood DNAm as a promising potential mechanism explaining the link between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and adverse outcomes in offspring, we found no consistent evidence for any robust associations between maternal anxiety and DNAm in cord blood. Larger studies and analysis of DNAm in other tissues may be needed to establish subtle or subgroup-specific associations between maternal anxiety and the foetal epigenome.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Epigenoma , Ansiedade/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Epigenômica , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez
14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 13(2): 1742-1764, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468710

RESUMO

Fetal perturbations in DNA methylation during lung development may reveal insights into the enduring impacts on adult lung health and disease during aging that have not been explored altogether before. We studied the association between genome-wide DNA-methylation and post-conception age in fetal-lung (n=78, 42 exposed to in-utero-smoke (IUS)) tissue and chronological age in adult-lung tissue (n=160, 114 with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) using multi-variate linear regression models with covariate adjustment and tested for effect modification by phenotypes. Overlapping age-associations were evaluated for functional and tissue-specific enrichment using the Genotype-Tissue-Expression (GTEx) project. We identified 244 age-associated differentially methylated positions and 878 regions overlapping between fetal and adult-lung tissues. Hyper-methylated CpGs (96%) were enriched in transcription factor activity (FDR adjusted P=2x10-33) and implicated in developmental processes including embryonic organ morphogenesis, neurogenesis and growth delay. Hypo-methylated CpGs (2%) were enriched in oxido-reductase activity and VEGFA-VEGFR2 Signaling. Twenty-one age-by-sex and eleven age-by-pack-years interactions were statistically significant (FDR<0.05) in adult-lung tissue. DNA methylation in transcription factors during development in fetal lung recapitulates in adult-lung tissue with aging. These findings reveal molecular mechanisms and pathways that may link disrupted development in early-life and age-associated lung diseases.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Pulmão/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Idoso , Envelhecimento/genética , Envelhecimento/patologia , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia
15.
Epigenetics ; 16(6): 692-703, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962511

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking impacts DNA methylation, but the investigation of sex-specific features of lung tissue DNA methylation in smokers has been limited. Women appear more susceptible to cigarette smoke, and often develop more severe lung disease at an earlier age with less smoke exposure. We aimed to analyse whether there are sex differences in DNA methylation in lung tissue and whether these DNA methylation marks interact with smoking. We collected lung tissue samples from former smokers who underwent lung tissue resection. One hundred thirty samples from white subjects were included for this analysis. Regression models for sex as a predictor of methylation were adjusted for age, presence of COPD, smoking variables and technical batch variables revealed 710 associated sites. 294 sites demonstrated robust sex-specific methylation associations in foetal lung tissue. Pathway analysis identified 6 nominally significant pathways including the mitophagy pathway. Three CpG sites demonstrated a suggested interaction between sex and pack-years of smoking: GPR132, ANKRD44 and C19orf60. All of them were nominally significant in both male- and female-specific models, and the effect estimates were in opposite directions for male and female; GPR132 demonstrated significant association between DNA methylation and gene expression in lung tissue (P < 0.05). Sex-specific associations with DNA methylation in lung tissue are wide-spread and may reveal genes and pathways relevant to sex differences for lung damaging effects of cigarette smoking.

16.
Eur Respir J ; 57(6)2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214212

RESUMO

Epigenetic mechanisms represent potential molecular routes which could bridge the gap between genetic background and environmental risk factors contributing to the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases. In patients with COPD, asthma and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), there is emerging evidence of aberrant epigenetic marks, mainly including DNA methylation and histone modifications which directly mediate reversible modifications to the DNA without affecting the genomic sequence. Post-translational events and microRNAs can be also regulated epigenetically and potentially participate in disease pathogenesis. Thus, novel pathogenic mechanisms and putative biomarkers may be detectable in peripheral blood, sputum, nasal and buccal swabs or lung tissue. Besides, DNA methylation plays an important role during the early phases of fetal development and may be impacted by environmental exposures, ultimately influencing an individual's susceptibility to COPD, asthma and PAH later in life. With the advances in omics platforms and the application of computational biology tools, modelling the epigenetic variability in a network framework, rather than as single molecular defects, provides insights into the possible molecular pathways underlying the pathogenesis of COPD, asthma and PAH. Epigenetic modifications may have clinical applications as noninvasive biomarkers of pulmonary diseases. Moreover, combining molecular assays with network analysis of epigenomic data may aid in clarifying the multistage transition from a "pre-disease" to "disease" state, with the goal of improving primary prevention of lung diseases and its subsequent clinical management.We describe epigenetic mechanisms known to be associated with pulmonary diseases and discuss how network analysis could improve our understanding of lung diseases.

17.
Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis ; 7(4): 346-361, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877963

RESUMO

Background: Risk factor identification is a proven strategy in advancing treatments and preventive therapy for many chronic conditions. Quantifying the impact of those risk factors on health outcomes can consolidate and focus efforts on individuals with specific high-risk profiles. Using multiple risk factors and longitudinal outcomes in 2 independent cohorts, we developed and validated a risk score model to predict mortality in current and former cigarette smokers. Methods: We obtained extensive data on current and former smokers from the COPD Genetic Epidemiology (COPDGene®) study at enrollment. Based on physician input and model goodness-of-fit measures, a subset of variables was selected to fit final Weibull survival models separately for men and women. Coefficients and predictors were translated into a point system, allowing for easy computation of mortality risk scores and probabilities. We then used the SubPopulations and InteRmediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study (SPIROMICS) cohort for external validation of our model. Results: Of 9867 COPDGene participants with standard baseline data, 17.6% died over 10 years of follow-up, and 9074 of these participants had the full set of baseline predictors (standard plus 6-minute walk distance and computed tomography variables) available for full model fits. The average age of participants in the cohort was 60 for both men and women, and the average predicted 10-year mortality risk was 18% for women and 25% for men. Model time-integrated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve statistics demonstrated good predictive model accuracy (0.797 average), validated in the external cohort (0.756 average). Risk of mortality was impacted most by 6-minute walk distance, forced expiratory volume in 1 second and age, for both men and women. Conclusions: Current and former smokers exhibited a wide range of mortality risk over a 10- year period. Our models can identify higher risk individuals who can be targeted for interventions to reduce risk of mortality, for participants with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using current Global initiative for obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria.

18.
medRxiv ; 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995808

RESUMO

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 enters cells via angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, highly expressed in nasal epithelium with parallel high infectivity.1,2 The nasal epigenome is in direct contact with the environment and could explain COVID-19 disparities by reflecting social and environmental influences on ACE2 regulation. We collected nasal swabs from anterior nares of 547 children, measured DNA methylation (DNAm), and tested differences at 15 ACE2 CpGs by sex, age, race/ethnicity and epigenetic age. ACE2 CpGs were differentially methylated by sex with 12 sites having lower DNAm (mean=12.71%) and 3 sites greater DNAm (mean=1.45%) among females relative to males. We observed differential DNAm at 5 CpGs for Hispanic females (mean absolute difference=3.22%) and lower DNAm at 8 CpGs for Black males (mean absolute difference=1.33%), relative to white participants. Longer DNAm telomere length was associated with greater ACE2 DNAm at 11 and 13 CpGs among males (mean absolute difference=7.86%) and females (mean absolute difference=8.21%), respectively. Nasal ACE2 DNAm differences could contribute to our understanding COVID-19 severity and disparities reflecting upstream environmental and social influences.

19.
Lancet ; 396(10250): 565-582, 2020 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828189

RESUMO

Clinicians can encounter sex and gender disparities in diagnostic and therapeutic responses. These disparities are noted in epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, disease progression, and response to treatment. This Review discusses the fundamental influences of sex and gender as modifiers of the major causes of death and morbidity. We articulate how the genetic, epigenetic, and hormonal influences of biological sex influence physiology and disease, and how the social constructs of gender affect the behaviour of the community, clinicians, and patients in the health-care system and interact with pathobiology. We aim to guide clinicians and researchers to consider sex and gender in their approach to diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases as a necessary and fundamental step towards precision medicine, which will benefit men's and women's health.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Nível de Saúde , Medicina de Precisão/normas , Distribuição por Sexo , Doença Aguda/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Caracteres Sexuais , Fatores Sexuais
20.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): 696-708, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, but the individual variants that have been identified have small effects. We hypothesised that a polygenic risk score using additional variants would predict COPD and associated phenotypes. METHODS: We constructed a polygenic risk score using a genome-wide association study of lung function (FEV1 and FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC]) from the UK Biobank and SpiroMeta. We tested this polygenic risk score in nine cohorts of multiple ethnicities for an association with moderate-to-severe COPD (defined as FEV1/FVC <0·7 and FEV1 <80% of predicted). Associations were tested using logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, height, smoking pack-years, and principal components of genetic ancestry. We assessed predictive performance of models by area under the curve. In a subset of studies, we also studied quantitative and qualitative CT imaging phenotypes that reflect parenchymal and airway pathology, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FINDINGS: The polygenic risk score was associated with COPD in European (odds ratio [OR] per SD 1·81 [95% CI 1·74-1·88] and non-European (1·42 [1·34-1·51]) populations. Compared with the first decile, the tenth decile of the polygenic risk score was associated with COPD, with an OR of 7·99 (6·56-9·72) in European ancestry and 4·83 (3·45-6·77) in non-European ancestry cohorts. The polygenic risk score was superior to previously described genetic risk scores and, when combined with clinical risk factors (ie, age, sex, and smoking pack-years), showed improved prediction for COPD compared with a model comprising clinical risk factors alone (AUC 0·80 [0·79-0·81] vs 0·76 [0·75-0·76]). The polygenic risk score was associated with CT imaging phenotypes, including wall area percent, quantitative and qualitative measures of emphysema, local histogram emphysema patterns, and destructive emphysema subtypes. The polygenic risk score was associated with a reduced lung growth pattern. INTERPRETATION: A risk score comprised of genetic variants can identify a small subset of individuals at markedly increased risk for moderate-to-severe COPD, emphysema subtypes associated with cigarette smoking, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Capacidade Vital
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