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1.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221582

RESUMO

AIMS: In the DAPA-HF trial, the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin reduced the risk of worsening heart failure (HF) and death in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction. We examined whether this benefit was consistent in relation to background HF therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this post hoc analysis, we examined the effect of study treatment in the following yes/no subgroups: diuretic, digoxin, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA), sacubitril/valsartan, ivabradine, implanted cardioverter-defibrillating (ICD) device, and cardiac resynchronization therapy. We also examined the effect of study drug according to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker dose, beta-blocker (BB) dose, and MRA (≥50% and <50% of target dose). We analysed the primary composite endpoint of cardiovascular death or a worsening HF event. Most randomized patients (n = 4744) were treated with a diuretic (84%), renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blocker (94%), and BB (96%); 52% of those taking a BB and 38% taking a RAS blocker were treated with ≥50% of the recommended dose. Overall, the dapagliflozin vs. placebo hazard ratio (HR) was 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.85] for the primary composite endpoint (P < 0.0001). The effect of dapagliflozin was consistent across all subgroups examined: the HR ranged from 0.57 to 0.86 for primary endpoint, with no significant randomized treatment-by-subgroup interaction. For example, the HR in patients taking a RAS blocker, BB, and MRA at baseline was 0.72 (95% CI 0.61-0.86) compared with 0.77 (95% CI 0.63-0.94) in those not on all three of these treatments (P-interaction 0.64). CONCLUSION: The benefit of dapagliflozin was consistent regardless of background therapy for HF.

4.
Am J Med ; 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Inflammation is intimately involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and is accurately measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), a sensitive marker for future risk of cardiovascular disease. The Correlation between Oral Health and Systemic Inflammation (COHESION) trial was designed to test the hypothesis that PlaqueHD, a plaque-identifying toothpaste, reduces hs-CRP. METHODS: The trial was designed initially to include 132 subjects with hs-CRP between 2.0 and 10.0 mg/L but instead randomized 112 between 0.5 and 10.0, of which 103 had baseline and follow-up data and comprised the intention-to-treat sample. Of these, a prespecified subgroup analysis included 40 with baseline hs-CRP >2.0 and all hs-CRP <10. Because the distribution of hs-CRP was skewed toward higher values, to achieve normality assumptions, the significance of changes in hs-CRP between groups over time was tested on log-transformed data using a mixed effects analysis of variance. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat analysis showed no significant differences between the PlaqueHD and placebo group (P = .615). The prespecified subgroup analysis showed a significant difference between the PlaqueHD and placebo group (P = .047). Results of the analysis showed a reduction in hs-CRP at follow-up of 0.58 in the PlaqueHD and an increase of 0.55 in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are compatible with those of a prior pilot trial that also suggested benefits only in subjects with baseline elevations. Future trials targeting reductions of hs-CRP levels should randomize subjects with baseline hs-CRP between 2.0 and 10.0 mg/L.

5.
Circulation ; 141(2): 100-111, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736328

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The DAPA-HF trial (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-Outcomes in Heart Failure) showed that dapagliflozin added to other guideline-recommended therapies reduced the risk of mortality and heart failure hospitalization and improved symptoms in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. We examined the effects of dapagliflozin according to age, given potential concerns about the efficacy and safety of therapies in the elderly. METHODS: Patients in New York Heart Association functional class II or greater with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% and a modest elevation of NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) were eligible. Key exclusion criteria included systolic blood pressure <95 mm Hg and estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 mL·min-1·1.73 m-2. The primary outcome was the composite of an episode of worsening heart failure (heart failure hospitalization or urgent heart failure visit) or cardiovascular death, whichever occurred first. RESULTS: A total of 4744 patients 22 to 94 years of age (mean age, 66.3 [SD 10.9] years) were randomized: 636 patients (13.4%) were <55 years of age, 1242 (26.2%) were 55 to 64 years of age, 1717 (36.2%) were 65 to 74 years of age, and 1149 (24.2%) were ≥75 years of age. The rate of the primary outcome (per 100 person-years, placebo arm) in each age group was 13.6 (95% CI, 10.4-17.9), 15.7 (95% CI, 13.2-18.7), 15.1 (95% CI, 13.1-17.5), and 18.0 (95% CI, 15.2-21.4) with corresponding dapagliflozin/placebo hazard ratios of 0.87 (95% CI, 0.60-1.28), 0.71 (95% CI, 0.55-0.93), 0.76 (95% CI, 0.61-0.95), and 0.68 (95% CI, 0.53-0.88; P for interaction=0.76). Consistent benefits were observed for the components of the primary outcome, all-cause mortality, and symptoms. Although adverse events and study drug discontinuation increased with age, neither was significantly more common with dapagliflozin in any age group. CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin reduced the risk of death and worsening heart failure and improved symptoms across the broad spectrum of age studied in DAPA-HF. There was no significant imbalance in tolerability or safety events between dapagliflozin and placebo, even in elderly individuals. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03036124.

6.
Circulation ; 141(2): 90-99, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Goals of management in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction include reducing death and hospitalizations, and improving health status (symptoms, physical function, and quality of life). In the DAPA-HF trial (Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse-Outcomes in Heart Failure), sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, reduced death and hospitalizations, and improved symptoms in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. In this analysis, we examine the effects of dapagliflozin on a broad range of health status outcomes, using the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ). METHODS: KCCQ was evaluated at randomization, 4 and 8 months. Patients were divided by baseline KCCQ total symptom score (TSS); Cox proportional hazards models examined the effects of dapagliflozin on clinical events across these subgroups. We also evaluated the effects of dapagliflozin on KCCQ-TSS, clinical summary score, and overall summary score. Responder analyses were performed to compare proportions of dapagliflozin versus placebo-treated patients with clinically meaningful changes in KCCQ at 8 months. RESULTS: A total of 4443 patients had available KCCQ at baseline (median KCCQ-TSS, 77.1 [interquartile range, 58.3-91.7]). The effects of dapagliflozin vs placebo on reducing cardiovascular death or worsening heart failure were consistent across the range of KCCQ-TSS (lowest to highest tertile: hazard ratio, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.57-0.86]; hazard ratio, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.61-0.98]; hazard ratio, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.46-0.83]; P for heterogeneity=0.52). Patients treated with dapagliflozin had greater improvement in mean KCCQ-TSS, clinical summary score, and overall summary score at 8 months (2.8, 2.5 and 2.3 points higher versus placebo; P<0.0001 for all). Fewer patients treated with dapagliflozin had a deterioration in KCCQ-TSS (odds ratio, 0.84 [95% CI, 0.78-0.90]; P<0.0001); and more patients had at least small, moderate, and large improvements (odds ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.08-1.23]; odds ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.08-1.22]; odds ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.07-1.22]; number needed to treat=14, 15, and 18, respectively; P<0.0001 for all; results consistent for KCCQ clinical summary score and overall summary score). CONCLUSIONS: Dapagliflozin reduced cardiovascular death and worsening heart failure across the range of baseline KCCQ, and improved symptoms, physical function, and quality of life in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Furthermore, dapagliflozin increased the proportion of patients experiencing at least small, moderate, and large improvements in health status; these effects were clinically important. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT03036124.

7.
Am J Med ; 133(3): e87-e90, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520622

RESUMO

Integrity and trust are essential attributes of medical researchers. Research misconduct represents clear and present dangers to academic institutions and their faculty, residents, students, and staff. To achieve and maintain public trust, medical researchers must achieve and maintain research integrity. To do so requires synchronicity and collaboration between and within academic institutions. Substantial failures to maintain research integrity by institutional leadership will lead to increasing demands to do so from the funding organizations and the general public. This, in turn, will lead to avoidable consequences of substantial penalties, financial and otherwise, adverse publicity, and reputational damage. Researchers must self-regulate to avoid pitfalls, including those created by changes in the medical care delivery system that have decreased the influence of health care providers and increased the influence of outside legal and business interests. Our common goal should be to return public trust in our research enterprise that has done so much good for so many, but requires the establishment and maintenance of vigilance to establish and maintain research integrity.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 381(21): 1995-2008, 2019 11 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31535829

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with type 2 diabetes, inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) reduce the risk of a first hospitalization for heart failure, possibly through glucose-independent mechanisms. More data are needed regarding the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with established heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, regardless of the presence or absence of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this phase 3, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 4744 patients with New York Heart Association class II, III, or IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of 40% or less to receive either dapagliflozin (at a dose of 10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure (hospitalization or an urgent visit resulting in intravenous therapy for heart failure) or cardiovascular death. RESULTS: Over a median of 18.2 months, the primary outcome occurred in 386 of 2373 patients (16.3%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 502 of 2371 patients (21.2%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.85; P<0.001). A first worsening heart failure event occurred in 237 patients (10.0%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 326 patients (13.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.83). Death from cardiovascular causes occurred in 227 patients (9.6%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 273 patients (11.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.98); 276 patients (11.6%) and 329 patients (13.9%), respectively, died from any cause (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.97). Findings in patients with diabetes were similar to those in patients without diabetes. The frequency of adverse events related to volume depletion, renal dysfunction, and hypoglycemia did not differ between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction, the risk of worsening heart failure or death from cardiovascular causes was lower among those who received dapagliflozin than among those who received placebo, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DAPA-HF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03036124.).


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Glucosídeos/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Terapia Combinada , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Glucosídeos/efeitos adversos , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico/efeitos dos fármacos , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico
9.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(11): 1402-1411, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aims of this study were to: (i) report the baseline characteristics of patients enrolled in the Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure (DAPA-HF) trial, (ii) compare DAPA-HF patients to participants in contemporary heart failure (HF) registries and in other recent HF trials, and (iii) compare individuals with diabetes, pre-diabetes and a normal glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in DAPA-HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adults with HF in New York Heart Association functional class ≥ II, a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%, an elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentration and receiving standard treatment were eligible for DAPA-HF, which is comparing dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily to matching placebo. In patients without a history of diabetes, previously undiagnosed diabetes was defined as a confirmed HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. Among patients without known or undiagnosed diabetes, pre-diabetes was defined as a HbA1c ≥ 5.7% The remainder of patients, with a HbA1c < 5.7%, were defined as normoglycaemic. Of the 4744 patients (mean age 66 years; 23% women) randomized, 42% had known diabetes and 3% undiagnosed diabetes. Of the remainder, 67% had pre-diabetes and 33% normal HbA1c. Overall, DAPA-HF patients were generally similar to those in recent registries and in relevant trials and had high levels of background therapy: 94% angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker/angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, 96% beta-blocker, and 71% mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist; 26% had a defibrillator. Patients with diabetes had worse HF status, more co-morbidity, and greater renal impairment but received similar HF therapy. Patients with diabetes received non-insulin hypoglycaemic therapy alone in 49%, insulin alone in 11%, both in 14%, and none in 26%. CONCLUSIONS: Patients randomized in DAPA-HF were similar to those in other contemporary HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) registries and trials. These patients were receiving recommended HFrEF therapy and those with diabetes were also treated with conventional glucose-lowering therapy. Consequently, DAPA-HF will test the incremental efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin in HFrEF patients with and without diabetes. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03036124.

10.
JAMA ; 321(21): 2135, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31162566
11.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(5): 665-675, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have been shown to reduce the risk of incident heart failure hospitalization in individuals with type 2 diabetes who have, or are at high risk of, cardiovascular disease. Most patients in these trials did not have heart failure at baseline and the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on outcomes in individuals with established heart failure (with or without diabetes) is unknown. DESIGN AND METHODS: The Dapagliflozin And Prevention of Adverse-outcomes in Heart Failure trial (DAPA-HF) is an international, multicentre, parallel group, randomized, double-blind, study in patients with chronic heart failure, evaluating the effect of dapagliflozin 10 mg, compared with placebo, given once daily, in addition to standard care, on the primary composite outcome of a worsening heart failure event (hospitalization or equivalent event, i.e. an urgent heart failure visit) or cardiovascular death. Patients with and without diabetes are eligible and must have a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 40%, a moderately elevated N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide level, and an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 . The trial is event-driven, with a target of 844 primary outcomes. Secondary outcomes include the composite of total heart failure hospitalizations (including repeat episodes), and cardiovascular death and patient-reported outcomes. A total of 4744 patients have been randomized. CONCLUSIONS: DAPA-HF will determine the efficacy and safety of the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin, added to conventional therapy, in a broad spectrum of patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction.

14.
Am Heart J ; 202: 97-103, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29909156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Influenza leads to significant cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality-particularly in patients with cardiovascular disease-that may be prevented with a standard influenza vaccine. However, patients with cardiovascular conditions have a reduced immune response to influenza vaccine, potentially resulting in reduced effectiveness for preventing clinical events. High-dose vaccine augments immune response in cardiac patients, suggesting that a high-dose influenza vaccination strategy may further reduce morbidity and mortality. Alternatively, broader coverage with an influenza vaccine containing an increased number of viral strains is an alternative strategy without direct evaluation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: INfluenza Vaccine to Effectively Stop Cardio Thoracic Events and Decompensated heart failure (INVESTED) is a pragmatic, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, active-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of an annual vaccination strategy of high-dose trivalent versus standard-dose quadrivalent influenza vaccine in patients with a history of recent heart failure or myocardial infarction hospitalization. The trial will enroll approximately 9,300 patients over 4 influenza seasons. The primary hypothesis is that high-dose influenza vaccine will reduce the composite outcome of all-cause mortality and hospitalization from a cardiovascular or pulmonary cause compared with standard-dose influenza vaccine within each enrolling season. Approximately 1,300 primary outcome events will provide >90% power to detect an 18% relative risk reduction at a 2-sided α level of .05. CONCLUSION: INVESTED is the largest and longest study to assess whether high-dose influenza vaccine is superior to standard-dose influenza vaccine in reducing cardiopulmonary events in a high-risk cardiovascular population (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02787044).


Assuntos
Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Hospitalização , Humanos , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/mortalidade , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco
15.
Clin Trials ; 15(4): 321-328, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29629815

RESUMO

Maintaining confidentiality of emerging data and ensuring the independence of Data Monitoring Committees are best practices of considerable importance to the ability of these committees to achieve their mission of safeguarding the interests of study participants and enhancing the integrity and credibility of clinical trials. Even with the wide recognition of these principles, there are circumstances where confidentiality issues remain challenging, controversial or inconsistently addressed. First, consider settings where a clinical trial's interim data could provide the evidence regulatory authorities require for decisions about marketing approval, yet where such a trial would be continued post-approval to provide more definitive evidence about principal safety and/or efficacy outcomes. In such settings, data informative about the longer term objectives of the trial should remain confidential until pre-specified criteria for trial completion have been met. Second, for those other than Data Monitoring Committee members, access to safety and efficacy outcomes during trial conduct, even when presented as data pooled across treatment arms, should be on a limited "need to know" basis relating to the ability to carry out ethical or scientific responsibilities in the conduct of the trial. Third, Data Monitoring Committee members should have access to unblinded efficacy and safety data throughout the trial to enable timely and informed judgments about risks and benefits. Fourth, it should be recognized that a mediator potentially could be useful in rare settings where the Data Monitoring Committee would have serious ethical or scientific concerns about the sponsor's dissemination or lack of dissemination of information. Data Monitoring Committee Contract Agreements, Indemnification Agreements and Charters should be developed in a manner to protect Data Monitoring Committee members and their independence, in order to enhance the Data Monitoring Committee's ability to effectively address their mission.


Assuntos
Comitês de Monitoramento de Dados de Ensaios Clínicos/normas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/normas , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Confidencialidade , Humanos , Autonomia Profissional
16.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 11(1): e005499, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29326129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reduces morbidity and mortality in heart failure patients with reduced left ventricular function and intraventricular conduction delay. However, individual outcomes vary significantly. This study sought to use a machine learning algorithm to develop a model to predict outcomes after CRT. METHODS AND RESULTS: Models were developed with machine learning algorithms to predict all-cause mortality or heart failure hospitalization at 12 months post-CRT in the COMPANION trial (Comparison of Medical Therapy, Pacing, and Defibrillation in Heart Failure). The best performing model was developed with the random forest algorithm. The ability of this model to predict all-cause mortality or heart failure hospitalization and all-cause mortality alone was compared with discrimination obtained using a combination of bundle branch block morphology and QRS duration. In the 595 patients with CRT-defibrillator in the COMPANION trial, 105 deaths occurred (median follow-up, 15.7 months). The survival difference across subgroups differentiated by bundle branch block morphology and QRS duration did not reach significance (P=0.08). The random forest model produced quartiles of patients with an 8-fold difference in survival between those with the highest and lowest predicted probability for events (hazard ratio, 7.96; P<0.0001). The model also discriminated the risk of the composite end point of all-cause mortality or heart failure hospitalization better than subgroups based on bundle branch block morphology and QRS duration. CONCLUSIONS: In the COMPANION trial, a machine learning algorithm produced a model that predicted clinical outcomes after CRT. Applied before device implant, this model may better differentiate outcomes over current clinical discriminators and improve shared decision-making with patients.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Idoso , Tomada de Decisões , Aprendizado Profundo , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes
17.
JAMA ; 318(23): 2301-2303, 2017 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29260205
18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 106(5): 1175-1189, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29021287

RESUMO

Surrogate biomarkers for clinical outcomes afford scientific and economic efficiencies when investigating nutritional interventions in chronic diseases. However, valid scientific results are dependent on the qualification of these disease markers that are intended to be substitutes for a clinical outcome and to accurately predict benefit or harm. In this article, we examine the challenges of evaluating surrogate markers and describe the framework proposed in a 2010 Institute of Medicine report. The components of this framework are presented in the context of nutritional interventions for chronic diseases. We present case studies of 2 well-accepted surrogate markers [blood pressure within sodium intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) context and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations within a saturated fat and CVD context]. We also describe additional cases in which the evidence is insufficient to validate their surrogate status. Guidance is offered for future research that evaluates or uses surrogate markers.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Dieta , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença Crônica , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Sódio na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Sódio na Dieta/sangue , Estados Unidos
19.
JACC Heart Fail ; 5(6): 399-407, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28501522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this clinical trial was to evaluate the long-term effects of flosequinan on the morbidity and mortality of patients with severe chronic heart failure. BACKGROUND: Flosequinan was the first oral vasodilator to be used in the clinic to augment the effects of digitalis, diuretics, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in heart failure. However, the drug activated neurohormonal systems and exerted both positive inotropic and chronotropic effects, raising concerns about its safety during long-term use. METHODS: Following a run-in period designed to minimize the risk of tachycardia, we randomly assigned 2,354 patients in New York Heart Association functional class III to IV heart failure and with an ejection fraction ≤35% to receive long-term treatment with placebo or flosequinan (75 or 100 mg/day) in addition to their usual therapy. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. RESULTS: The trial was terminated after a recommendation of the Data and Safety Monitoring Board, because during an average of 10 months of follow-up, 192 patients died in the placebo group and 255 patients died in the flosequinan group (hazard ratio: 1.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.15 to 1.67; p = 0.0006). Flosequinan also increased the risk of disease progression, which was paralleled by drug-related increases in heart rate and neurohormonal activation. However, during the first month, patients in the flosequinan group were more likely to report an improvement in well-being and less likely to experience worsening heart failure. Similarly, during the month following drug withdrawal at the end of the trial, patients withdrawn from flosequinan were more likely than those withdrawn from placebo to report symptoms of or to require treatment for worsening heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: Although flosequinan produced meaningful symptomatic benefits during short- and long-term treatment, the drug increased the risk of death in patients with severe chronic heart failure.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Vasodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica , Progressão da Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Término Precoce de Ensaios Clínicos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Assistência de Longa Duração , Masculino , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Vasodilatadores/efeitos adversos
20.
Clin Trials ; 14(2): 115-123, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28359194

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Data monitoring committees are responsible for safeguarding the interests of study participants and assuring the integrity and credibility of clinical trials. The independence of data monitoring committees from sponsors and investigators is essential in achieving this mission. Creative approaches are needed to address ongoing and emerging challenges that potentially threaten data monitoring committees' independence and effectiveness. METHODS: An expert panel of representatives from academia, industry and government sponsors, and regulatory agencies discussed these challenges and proposed best practices and operating principles for effective functioning of contemporary data monitoring committees. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Prospective data monitoring committee members need better training. Options could include didactic instruction as well as apprenticeships to provide real-world experience. Data monitoring committee members should be protected against legal liability arising from their service. While avoiding breaches in confidentiality of interim data remains a high priority, data monitoring committees should have access to unblinded efficacy and safety data throughout the trial to enable informed judgments about risks and benefits. Because overly rigid procedures can compromise their independence, data monitoring committees should have the flexibility necessary to best fulfill their responsibilities. Data monitoring committee charters should articulate principles that guide the data monitoring committee process rather than list a rigid set of requirements. Data monitoring committees should develop their recommendations by consensus rather than through voting processes. The format for the meetings of the data monitoring committee should maintain the committee's independence and clearly establish the leadership of the data monitoring committee chair. The independent statistical group at the Statistical Data Analysis Center should have sufficient depth of knowledge about the study at hand and experience with trials in general to ensure that the data monitoring committee has access to timely, reliable, and readily interpretable insights about emerging evidence in the clinical trial. Contracts engaging data monitoring committee members for industry-sponsored trials should have language customized to the unique responsibilities of data monitoring committee members rather than use language appropriate to consultants for product development. Regulatory scientists would benefit from experiencing data monitoring committee service that does not conflict with their regulatory responsibilities.


Assuntos
Comitês de Monitoramento de Dados de Ensaios Clínicos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Confidencialidade , Humanos , Seguro
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