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Nature ; 595(7865): 58-65, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194019


The natural world provides many examples of multiphase transport and reaction processes that have been optimized by evolution. These phenomena take place at multiple length and time scales and typically include gas-liquid-solid interfaces and capillary phenomena in porous media1,2. Many biological and living systems have evolved to optimize fluidic transport. However, living things are exceptionally complex and very difficult to replicate3-5, and human-made microfluidic devices (which are typically planar and enclosed) are highly limited for multiphase process engineering6-8. Here we introduce the concept of cellular fluidics: a platform of unit-cell-based, three-dimensional structures-enabled by emerging 3D printing methods9,10-for the deterministic control of multiphase flow, transport and reaction processes. We show that flow in these structures can be 'programmed' through architected design of cell type, size and relative density. We demonstrate gas-liquid transport processes such as transpiration and absorption, using evaporative cooling and CO2 capture as examples. We design and demonstrate preferential liquid and gas transport pathways in three-dimensional cellular fluidic devices with capillary-driven and actively pumped liquid flow, and present examples of selective metallization of pre-programmed patterns. Our results show that the design and fabrication of architected cellular materials, coupled with analytical and numerical predictions of steady-state and dynamic behaviour of multiphase interfaces, provide deterministic control of fluidic transport in three dimensions. Cellular fluidics may transform the design space for spatial and temporal control of multiphase transport and reaction processes.

Células/metabolismo , Microfluídica/instrumentação , Microfluídica/métodos , Absorção Fisico-Química , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Gases/metabolismo , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transpiração Vegetal , Gravação de Videodisco , Água/metabolismo
Nano Lett ; 19(9): 5829-5835, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702295


Critical to the success of three-dimensional (3D) printing of living materials with high performance is the development of new ink materials and 3D geometries that favor long-term cell functionality. Here we report the use of freeze-dried live cells as the solid filler to enable a new living material system for direct ink writing of catalytically active microorganisms with tunable densities and various self-supporting porous 3D geometries. Baker's yeast was used as an exemplary live whole-cell biocatalyst, and the printed structures displayed high resolution, large scale, high catalytic activity and long-term viability. An unprecedented high cell loading was achieved, and cell inks showed unique thixotropic behavior. In the presence of glucose, printed bioscaffolds exhibited increased ethanol production compared to bulk counterparts due largely to improved mass transfer through engineered porous structures. The new living materials developed in this work could serve as a versatile platform for process intensification of an array of bioconversion processes utilizing diverse microbial biocatalysts for production of high-value products or bioremediation applications.

Enzimas/química , Impressão Tridimensional , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , Tecidos Suporte/química , Catálise , Etanol/química , Etanol/metabolismo , Tinta , Porosidade
Nat Commun ; 7: 11900, 2016 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27301270


An industrial process for the selective activation of methane under mild conditions would be highly valuable for controlling emissions to the environment and for utilizing vast new sources of natural gas. The only selective catalysts for methane activation and conversion to methanol under mild conditions are methane monooxygenases (MMOs) found in methanotrophic bacteria; however, these enzymes are not amenable to standard enzyme immobilization approaches. Using particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO), we create a biocatalytic polymer material that converts methane to methanol. We demonstrate embedding the material within a silicone lattice to create mechanically robust, gas-permeable membranes, and direct printing of micron-scale structures with controlled geometry. Remarkably, the enzymes retain up to 100% activity in the polymer construct. The printed enzyme-embedded polymer motif is highly flexible for future development and should be useful in a wide range of applications, especially those involving gas-liquid reactions.

Bioimpressão , Metano/metabolismo , Metanol/metabolismo , Oxigenases/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos , Estabilidade Enzimática , Hidrogel de Polietilenoglicol-Dimetacrilato/química , Methylococcus/enzimologia , Material Particulado/química , Polietilenoglicóis/química