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1.
J Urol ; : 101097JU0000000000001075, 2020 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259467

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We studied the current management trends for extraperitoneal bladder injuries and evaluated the use of operative repair versus catheter drainage, and the associated complications with each approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively collected data on bladder trauma from 20 level 1 trauma centers across the United States from 2013 to 2018. We excluded patients with intraperitoneal bladder injury and those who died within 24 hours of hospital arrival. We separated patients with extraperitoneal bladder injuries into 2 groups (catheter drainage vs operative repair) based on their initial management within the first 4 days and compared the rates of bladder injury related complications among them. Regression analyses were used to identify potential predictors of complications. RESULTS: From 323 bladder injuries we included 157 patients with extraperitoneal bladder injuries. Concomitant injuries occurred in 139 (88%) patients with pelvic fracture seen in 79%. Sixty-seven patients (43%) initially underwent operative repair for their extraperitoneal bladder injuries. The 3 most common reasons for operative repair were severity of injury or bladder neck injury (40%), injury found during laparotomy (39%), and concern for pelvic hardware contamination (28%). Significant complications were identified in 23% and 19% of the catheter drainage and operative repair groups, respectively (p=0.55). The only statistically significant predictor for complications was bladder neck or urethral injury (RR 2.69, 95% 1.21-5.97, p=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this large multi-institutional cohort, 43% of patients underwent surgical repair for initial management of extraperitoneal bladder injuries. We found no significant difference in complications between the initial management strategies of catheter drainage and operative repair. The most significant predictor for complications was concomitant urethral or bladder neck injury.

2.
Shock ; 53(6): 754-760, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389905

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tranexamic acid (TXA) improves survival in traumatic hemorrhage, but difficulty obtaining intravenous (IV) access may limit its use in austere environments, given its incompatibility with blood products. The bioavailability of intramuscular (IM) TXA in a shock state is unknown. We hypothesized that IM and IV administration have similar pharmacokinetics and ability to reverse in vitro hyperfibrinolysis in a swine-controlled hemorrhage model. METHODS: Twelve Yorkshire cross swine were anesthetized, instrumented, and subjected to a 35% controlled hemorrhage, followed by resuscitation. During hemorrhage, they were randomized to receive a 1 g IV TXA infusion over 10 min, 1 g IM TXA in two 5 mL injections, or 10 mL normal saline IM injection as a placebo group to assess model adequacy. Serum TXA concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and plasma samples supplemented with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) were analyzed by rotational thromboelastometry. RESULTS: All animals achieved class III shock. There was no difference in the concentration-time areas under the curve between TXA given by either route. The absolute bioavailability of IM TXA was 97%. IV TXA resulted in a higher peak serum concentration during the infusion, with no subsequent differences. Both IV and IM TXA administration caused complete reversal of in vitro tPA-induced hyperfibrinolysis. CONCLUSION: The pharmacokinetics of IM TXA were similar to IV TXA during hemorrhagic shock in our swine model. IV administration resulted in a higher serum concentration only during the infusion, but all levels were able to successfully correct in vitro hyperfibrinolysis. There was no difference in total body exposure to equal doses of TXA between the two routes of administration. IM TXA may prove beneficial in scenarios where difficulty establishing dedicated IV access could otherwise limit or delay its use.

3.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(3): 357-365, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2018, the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) published revisions to the renal injury grading system to reflect the increased reliance on computed tomography scans and non-operative management of high-grade renal trauma (HGRT). We aimed to evaluate how these revisions will change the grading of HGRT and if it outperforms the original 1989 grading in predicting bleeding control interventions. METHODS: Data on HGRT were collected from 14 Level-1 trauma centers from 2014 to 2017. Patients with initial computed tomography scans were included. Two radiologists reviewed the scans to regrade the injuries according to the 1989 and 2018 AAST grading systems. Descriptive statistics were used to assess grade reclassifications. Mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression was used to measure the predictive ability of each grading system. The areas under the curves were compared. RESULTS: Of the 322 injuries included, 27.0% were upgraded, 3.4% were downgraded, and 69.5% remained unchanged. Of the injuries graded as III or lower using the 1989 AAST, 33.5% were upgraded to grade IV using the 2018 AAST. Of the grade V injuries, 58.8% were downgraded using the 2018 AAST. There was no statistically significant difference in the overall areas under the curves between the 2018 and 1989 AAST grading system for predicting bleeding interventions (0.72 vs. 0.68, p = 0.34). CONCLUSION: About one third of the injuries previously classified as grade III will be upgraded to grade IV using the 2018 AAST, which adds to the heterogeneity of grade IV injuries. Although the 2018 AAST grading provides more anatomic details on injury patterns and includes important radiologic findings, it did not outperform the 1989 AAST grading in predicting bleeding interventions. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and Epidemiological Study, level III.

4.
Injury ; 50(11): 1908-1914, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466700

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Trauma patients are predisposed to kidney injury. We hypothesized that in shock, zone 3 REBOA would increase renal blood flow (RBF) compared to control and that a period of zone 3 occlusion following zone 1 occlusion would improve renal function compared to zone 1 occlusion alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four anesthetized swine underwent hemorrhagic shock, 45 min of zone 1 REBOA (Z1, supraceliac), zone 3 REBOA (Z3, infrarenal), or no intervention (control) followed by resuscitation with shed blood and 5 h of critical care. In a fourth group (Z1Z3), animals underwent 55 min of zone 3 REBOA following zone 1 occlusion. Physiologic parameters were recorded, blood and urine were collected at specified intervals. RESULTS: During critical care, there were no differences in RBF between the Z1 and Z3 groups. The average RBF during critical care in Z1Z3 was significantly lower than in Z3 alone (98.2 ±â€¯23.9 and 191.9 ±â€¯23.7 mL/min; p = 0.046) and not different than Z1. There was no difference in urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin-to-urinary creatinine ratio between Z1 and Z1Z3. Animals in the Z1Z3 group had a significant increase in the ratio at the end of the experiment compared to baseline [median (IQR)] [9.2 (8.2-13.2) versus 264.5 (73.6-1174.6)]. Following Z1 balloon deflation, RBF required 45 min to return to baseline. CONCLUSION: Neither zone 3 REBOA alone nor zone 3 REBOA following zone 1 REBOA improved renal blood flow or function. Following zone 1 occlusion, RBF is restored to baseline levels after approximately 45 min.

5.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 197, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31275952

RESUMO

While hemorrhagic shock might be the result of various conditions, hemorrhage control and resuscitation are the corner stone of patient management. Hemorrhage control can prove challenging in both the acute care and surgical settings, especially in the abdomen, where no direct pressure can be applied onto the source of bleeding. Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has emerged as a promising replacement to resuscitative thoracotomy (RT) for the management of non-compressible torso hemorrhage in human trauma patients. By inflating a balloon at specific levels (or zones) of the aorta to interrupt blood flow, hemorrhage below the level of the balloon can be controlled. While REBOA allows for hemorrhage control and augmentation of blood pressure cranial to the balloon, it also exposes caudal tissue beds to ischemia and the whole body to reperfusion injury. We aim to introduce the advantages of REBOA while reviewing known limitations. This review outlines a step-by-step approach to REBOA implementation, and discusses common challenges observed both in human patients and during translational large animal studies. Currently accepted and debated indications for REBOA in humans are discussed. Finally, we review possible applications for veterinary patients and how REBOA has the potential to be translated into clinical veterinary practice.

6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 86(6): 974-982, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indications for intervention after high-grade renal trauma (HGRT) remain poorly defined. Certain radiographic findings can be used to guide the management of HGRT. We aimed to assess the associations between initial radiographic findings and interventions for hemorrhage after HGRT and to determine hematoma and laceration sizes predicting interventions. METHODS: The Genitourinary Trauma Study is a multicenter study including HGRT patients from 14 Level I trauma centers from 2014 to 2017. Admission computed tomography scans were categorized based on multiple variables, including vascular contrast extravasation (VCE), hematoma rim distance (HRD), and size of the deepest laceration. Renal bleeding interventions included angioembolization, surgical packing, renorrhaphy, partial nephrectomy, and nephrectomy. Mixed-effect Poisson regression was used to assess the associations. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to define optimal cutoffs for HRD and laceration size. RESULTS: In the 326 patients, injury mechanism was blunt in 81%. Forty-seven (14%) patients underwent 51 bleeding interventions, including 19 renal angioembolizations, 16 nephrectomies, and 16 other procedures. In univariable analysis, presence of VCE was associated with a 5.9-fold increase in risk of interventions, and each centimeter increase in HRD was associated with 30% increase in risk of bleeding interventions. An HRD of 3.5 cm or greater and renal laceration depth of 2.5 cm or greater were most predictive of interventions. In multivariable models, VCE and HRD were significantly associated with bleeding interventions. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the importance of certain radiographic findings in prediction of bleeding interventions after HGRT. These factors can be used as adjuncts to renal injury grading to guide clinical decision making. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and Epidemiological Study, Level III and Therapeutic/Care Management, Level IV.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/patologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Nefropatias/etiologia , Rim/lesões , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Traumatismos Abdominais/complicações , Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indications for intervention after high-grade renal trauma (HGRT) remain poorly defined. Certain radiographic findings can be used to guide the management of HGRT. We aimed to assess the associations between initial radiographic findings and interventions for hemorrhage after HGRT and to determine hematoma and laceration sizes predicting interventions. METHODS: The Genito-Urinary Trauma Study is a multi-center study including HGRT patients from 14 Level-1 trauma centers from 2014-2017. Admission CT scans were categorized based upon multiple variables, including vascular contrast extravasation (VCE), hematoma rim distance (HRD), and size of the deepest laceration. Renal bleeding interventions included: angioembolization, surgical packing, renorrhaphy, partial nephrectomy, and nephrectomy. Mixed effect Poisson regression was used to assess the associations. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to define optimal cut-offs for HRD and laceration size. RESULTS: In the 326 patients, injury mechanism was blunt in 81%. Forty-seven patients (14%) underwent 51 bleeding interventions including 19 renal angioembolizations, 16 nephrectomies, and 16 other procedures. In univariable analysis, presence of VCE was associated with a 5.9-fold increase in risk of interventions, and each centimeter increase in HRD was associated with 30% increase in risk of bleeding interventions. An HRD ≥3.5cm and renal laceration depth of ≥2.5cm were most predictive of interventions. In multivariable models, VCE and HRD were significantly associated with bleeding interventions. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the importance of certain radiographic findings in prediction of bleeding interventions after HGRT. These factors can be used as adjuncts to renal injury grading to guide clinical decision making. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and Epidemiological Study, Level III.

8.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 86(5): 774-782, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of high-grade renal trauma (HGRT) and the indications for intervention are not well defined. The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) renal grading does not incorporate some important clinical and radiologic variables associated with increased risk of interventions. We aimed to use data from a multi-institutional contemporary cohort to develop a nomogram predicting risk of interventions for bleeding after HGRT. METHODS: From 2014 to 2017, data on adult HGRT (AAST grades III-V) were collected from 14 level 1 trauma centers. Patients with both clinical and radiologic data were included. Data were gathered on demographics, injury characteristics, management, and outcomes. Clinical and radiologic parameters, obtained after trauma evaluation, were used to predict renal bleeding interventions. We developed a prediction model by applying backward model selection to a logistic regression model and built a nomogram using the selected model. RESULTS: A total of 326 patients met the inclusion criteria. Mechanism of injury was blunt in 81%. Median age and injury severity score were 28 years and 22, respectively. Injuries were reported as AAST grades III (60%), IV (33%), and V (7%). Overall, 47 (14%) underwent interventions for bleeding control including 19 renal angioembolizations, 16 nephrectomies, and 12 other procedures. Of the variables included in the nomogram, a hematoma size of 12 cm contributed the most points, followed by penetrating trauma mechanism, vascular contrast extravasation, pararenal hematoma extension, concomitant injuries, and shock. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.81-0.85). CONCLUSION: We developed a nomogram that integrates multiple clinical and radiologic factors readily available upon assessment of patients with HGRT and can provide predicted probability for bleeding interventions. This nomogram may help in guiding appropriate management of HGRT and decreasing unnecessary interventions. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological study, level III.

9.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 86(2): 274-281, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Excretory phase computed tomography (CT) scan is used for diagnosis of renal collecting system injuries and accurate grading of high-grade renal trauma. However, optimal timing of the excretory phase is not well established. We hypothesized that there is an association between excretory phase timing and diagnosis of urinary extravasation and aimed to identify the optimal excretory phase timing for diagnosis of urinary extravasation. METHODS: The Genito-Urinary Trauma Study collected data on high-grade renal trauma (grades III-V) from 14 Level I trauma centers between 2014 and 2017. The time between portal venous and excretory phases at initial CT scans was recorded. Poisson regression was used to measure the association between excretory phase timing and diagnosis of urinary extravasation. Predictive receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to identify a cutoff point optimizing detection of urinary extravasation. RESULTS: Overall, 326 patients were included; 245 (75%) had excretory phase CT scans for review either initially (n = 212) or only at their follow-up (n = 33). At initial CT with excretory phase, 46 (22%) of 212 patients were diagnosed with urinary extravasation. Median time between portal venous and excretory phases was 4 minutes (interquartile range, 4-7 minutes). Time of initial excretory phase was significantly greater in those diagnosed with urinary extravasation. Increased time to excretory phase was positively associated with finding urinary extravasation at the initial CT scan after controlling for multiple factors (risk ratio per minute, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.22; p < 0.001). The optimal delay for detection of urinary extravasation was 9 minutes. CONCLUSION: Timing of the excretory phase is a significant factor in accurate diagnosis of renal collecting system injury. A 9-minute delay between the early and excretory phases optimized detection of urinary extravasation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic tests/criteria study, level III.

10.
Shock ; 51(5): 659-666, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29877961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The resuscitation of patients in shock is materially intensive and many patients are refractory to maximal therapy. We hypothesized that partial inflation of an intra-aortic balloon, termed Endovascular Perfusion Augmentation for Critical Care (EPACC), would minimize material requirements while improving physiologic metrics. METHODS: Swine underwent a 25% controlled bleed and 45 min of complete aortic occlusion to create a severe ischemia-reperfusion shock state. Animals received either standardized critical care (SCC) composed of IV fluids and norepinephrine delivered through an algorithmically controlled platform or EPACC in addition to SCC. Physiologic parameters were collected, and blood was sampled for analysis. Primary outcomes were total IV fluids and average MAP during the critical care phase. Differences (P < 0.05) were measured with t test (continuous data) and Wilcoxon rank-sum test (ordinal data). RESULTS: There were no differences in baseline characteristics. There were no differences in the maximum lactate; however, animals in the EPACC group had a higher average MAP (EPACC 65 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI], 65-66; SCC 60 mmHg, 95% CI, 57-63; P < 0.01) and remained within goal MAP for a greater period of time (EPACC 95.3%, 95% CI, 93.2-97.4; SCC 51.0%, 95% CI, 29.5-72.6; P < 0.01). EPACC animals required less IV fluids when compared with the SCC group (EPACC 21 mL/kg, 95% CI, 0-42; SCC 96 mL/kg, 95% CI, 76-117; P < 0.01). There were no differences in final lactate. Animals in the EPACC group had a higher final creatinine (EPACC 2.3 mg/dL, 95% CI, 2.1-2.5; SCC 1.7 mg/dL, 95% CI, 1.4-2.0; P < 0.01), but there were no differences in renal cellular damage on histology (P = 0.16). CONCLUSION: Using a swine model of severe shock, the addition of EPACC to SCC significantly reduced fluid resuscitation requirements and improved blood pressure. This is the first description of a new therapy for patients in refractory shock or in resource-limited settings.

11.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 85(3): 519-526, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is effective at limiting hemorrhage from noncompressible sources and restoring but causes progressive distal ischemia, supraphysiologic pressures, and increased cardiac afterload. Endovascular variable aortic control (EVAC) addresses these limitations, while still controlling hemorrhage. Previous work demonstrated improved outcomes following a 90-minute intervention period in an uncontrolled hemorrhage model. The present study compares automated EVAC to REBOA over an occlusion period reflective of contemporary REBOA usage. METHODS: Following instrumentation, 12 Yorkshire-cross swine underwent controlled 25% hemorrhage, a 45-minute intervention period of EVAC or REBOA, and subsequent resuscitation with whole blood and critical care for the remainder of a 6-hour experiment. Hemodynamics were acquired continuously, and laboratory parameters were assessed at routine intervals. Tissue was collected for histopathologic analysis. RESULTS: No differences were seen in baseline parameters. During intervention, EVAC resulted in more physiologic proximal pressure augmentation compared with REBOA (101 vs. 129 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 105-151 mm Hg; p = 0.04). During critical care, EVAC animals required less than half the amount of crystalloid (3,450 mL; 95% CI, 1,215-5,684 mL] vs. 7,400 mL [95% CI, 6,148-8,642 mL]; p < 0.01) and vasopressors (21.5 ng/kg [95% CI, 7.5-35.5 ng/kg] vs. 50.5 ng/kg [95% CI, 40.5-60.5 ng/kg]; p = 0.05) when compared with REBOA animals. Endovascular variable aortic control resulted in lower peak and final lactate levels. Endovascular variable aortic control animals had less aortic hyperemia from reperfusion with aortic flow rates closer to baseline (36 mL/kg per minute [95% CI, 30-44 mL/kg per minute] vs. 51 mL/kg per minute [95% CI, 41-61 mL/kg per minute]; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: For short durations of therapy, EVAC produces superior hemodynamics and less ischemic insult than REBOA in this porcine-controlled hemorrhage model, with improved outcomes during critical care. This study suggests EVAC is a viable strategy for in-hospital management of patients with hemorrhagic shock from noncompressible sources. Survival studies are needed to determine if these early differences persist over time.


Assuntos
Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/terapia , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Oclusão com Balão/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia/terapia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Reperfusão , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Suínos
12.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 85(1): 101-107, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29965941

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is an emerging technology to augment proximal blood pressure during the resuscitation of patients with noncompressible torso hemorrhage. Currently, placement choice, supraceliac (Zone 1) versus infrarenal (Zone 3) aorta, depends on injury patterns, but remains a highly debated topic. We sought to compare the proximal hemodynamic support provided by Zone 1 versus Zone 3 REBOA placement and the degree of hemodynamic instability upon reperfusion following intervention. METHODS: Eighteen anesthetized swine underwent controlled hemorrhage of 25% total blood volume, followed by 45 minutes of Zone 1 REBOA, Zone 3 REBOA, or no intervention (control). They were then resuscitated with shed blood, aortic balloons were deflated, and 5 hours of critical care ensued prior to euthanasia. Physiologic parameters were recorded continuously, and blood was drawn for analysis at specified intervals. Significance was defined as p < 0.05. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups at baseline or during the initial 30 minutes of hemorrhage. During the intervention period, average proximal MAP was significantly greater in Zone 1 animals when compared with Zone 3 animals (127.9 ± 1.3 vs. 53.4 ± 1.1 mm Hg) and greater in Zone 3 animals when compared with control animals (42.9 ± 0.9 mm Hg). Lactate concentrations were significantly higher in Zone 1 animals (9.6 ± 0.4 mmol/L) when compared with Zone 3 animals (5.1 ± 0.3 mmol/L) and control animals (4.2 ± 0.8 mmol/L). CONCLUSIONS: In our swine model of hemorrhagic shock, Zone 3 REBOA provided minimal proximal hemodynamic support when compared with Zone 1 REBOA, albeit with less ischemic burden and instability upon reperfusion. In cases of impending hemodynamic collapse, Zone 1 REBOA placement may be more efficacious regardless of injury pattern, whereas Zone 3 should be reserved only for relatively stable patients with ongoing distal hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Aorta/cirurgia , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/cirurgia , Animais , Oclusão com Balão/veterinária , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Procedimentos Endovasculares/veterinária , Feminino , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Masculino , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/etiologia , Ressuscitação/veterinária , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Choque Hemorrágico/veterinária , Suínos
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30020223

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) is effective at limiting hemorrhage from non-compressible sources and restoring, yet causes progressive distal ischemia, supraphysiologic pressures and increased cardiac afterload. Endovascular Variable Aortic Control (EVAC) addresses these limitations, while still controlling hemorrhage. Previous work demonstrated improved outcomes following a 90-minute intervention period in an uncontrolled hemorrhage model. The present study compares automated EVAC to REBOA over an occlusion period reflective of contemporary REBOA usage. METHODS: Following instrumentation, 12 Yorkshire-cross swine underwent controlled 25% hemorrhage, a 45-minute intervention period of EVAC or REBOA, and subsequent resuscitation with whole blood and critical care for the remainder of a six-hour experiment. Hemodynamics were acquired continuously and laboratory parameters were assessed at routine intervals. Tissue was collected for histopathologic analysis. RESULTS: No differences were seen in baseline parameters. During intervention, EVAC resulted in more physiologic proximal pressure augmentation compared to REBOA (101 mmHg vs 129 mmHg 95CI 105-151, p=0.04). During critical care, EVAC animals required less than half the amount of crystalloid (3450 ml 95CI 1215-5684 vs 7400 ml 95CI 6148-8642, p<0.01) and vasopressors (21.5 ng/kg 95CI 7.5-35.5 vs 50.5 ng/kg 95CI 40.5-60.5, p=0.05) when compared to REBOA animals. EVAC resulted in lower peak and final lactate levels. EVAC animals had less aortic hyperemia from reperfusion with aortic flow rates closer to baseline (36 ml/kg/min 95CI 30-44 vs 51 mL/kg/min 95CI 41-61, p=0.01). CONCLUSION: For short durations of therapy, EVAC produces superior hemodynamics and less ischemic insult than REBOA in this porcine controlled hemorrhage model, with improved outcomes during critical care. This study suggests EVAC is a viable strategy for in-hospital management of patients with hemorrhagic shock from non-compressible sources. Survival studies are needed to determine if these early differences persist over time. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 1 STUDY TYPE: Translational Science.

15.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 85(3): 512-518, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New strategies to mitigate ischemia during REBOA and to prolong its maximal duration are needed. We hypothesized that simple external cooling of the hind limbs would decrease ischemia-reperfusion injury following prolonged Zone 3 REBOA. METHODS: Twelve swine were anesthetized, instrumented, splenectomized, and then underwent 15% total blood volume hemorrhage. Animals were randomized to hypothermia or control followed by 4 hours of Zone 3 REBOA, resuscitation with shed blood, and 3 hours of critical care. Physiologic parameters were continuously recorded, and laboratory specimens were obtained at regular intervals. Baseline and end-of-study muscle biopsies were obtained for histologic analysis. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between groups at baseline or after hemorrhage. Maximum creatine kinase was significantly lower in the hypothermia group compared with the normothermia group (median [interquartile range] = 3,445 U/mL [3,380-4,402 U/mL] vs. 22,544 U/mL [17,030-24,981 U/mL]; p < 0.01). Maximum serum myoglobin was also significantly lower in the hypothermia group (1,792 ng/mL [1,250-3,668 ng/mL] vs. 21,186 ng/mL [14,181-24,779 ng/mL]; p < 0.01). Fascial compartment pressures were significantly lower during critical care in the hypothermia group (p = 0.03). No histologic differences were observed in hind limb skeletal muscle. CONCLUSIONS: External cooling during prolonged Zone 3 REBOA decreased ischemic muscle injury and resulted in lower compartment pressures following reperfusion. Hypothermia may be a viable option to extend the tolerable duration of Zone 3 occlusion, beyond what is currently achievable. Future survival studies are required to assess functional outcomes.


Assuntos
Temperatura Baixa/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/instrumentação , Extremidade Inferior/irrigação sanguínea , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Animais , Oclusão com Balão/métodos , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Membro Posterior/irrigação sanguínea , Membro Posterior/fisiopatologia , Hipotermia/complicações , Isquemia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Músculos/irrigação sanguínea , Músculos/metabolismo , Músculos/patologia , Mioglobina/sangue , Reperfusão/efeitos adversos , Ressuscitação/instrumentação , Choque Hemorrágico , Suínos
16.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 84(3): 418-425, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29298242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rarity of renal trauma limits its study and the strength of evidence-based guidelines. Although management of renal injuries has shifted toward a nonoperative approach, nephrectomy remains the most common intervention for high-grade renal trauma (HGRT). We aimed to describe the contemporary management of HGRT in the United States and also evaluate clinical factors associated with nephrectomy after HGRT. METHODS: From 2014 to 2017, data on HGRT (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grades III-V) were collected from 14 participating Level-1 trauma centers. Data were gathered on demographics, injury characteristics, management, and short-term outcomes. Management was classified into three groups-expectant, conservative/minimally invasive, and open operative. Descriptive statistics were used to report management of renal trauma. Univariate and multivariate logistic mixed effect models with clustering by facility were used to look at associations between proposed risk factors and nephrectomy. RESULTS: A total of 431 adult HGRT were recorded; 79% were male, and mechanism of injury was blunt in 71%. Injuries were graded as III, IV, and V in 236 (55%), 142 (33%), and 53 (12%), respectively. Laparotomy was performed in 169 (39%) patients. Overall, 300 (70%) patients were managed expectantly and 47 (11%) underwent conservative/minimally invasive management. Eighty-four (19%) underwent renal-related open operative management with 55 (67%) of them undergoing nephrectomy. Nephrectomy rates were 15% and 62% for grades IV and V, respectively. Penetrating injuries had significantly higher American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grades and higher rates of nephrectomy. In multivariable analysis, only renal injury grade and penetrating mechanism of injury were significantly associated with undergoing nephrectomy. CONCLUSION: Expectant and conservative management is currently utilized in 80% of HGRT; however, the rate of nephrectomy remains high. Clinical factors, such as surrogates of hemodynamic instability and metabolic acidosis, are associated with nephrectomy for HGRT; however, higher renal injury grade and penetrating trauma remain the strongest associations. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic/epidemiologic study, level III; Therapeutic study, level IV.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Rim/lesões , Sociedades Médicas , Traumatologia , Sistema Urogenital/lesões , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/cirurgia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/cirurgia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Centros de Traumatologia , Índices de Gravidade do Trauma , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 83(3): 457-463, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28846579

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The small diameter of temporary vascular shunts for vascular trauma management may restrict flow and result in ischemia or early thrombosis. We have previously reported a clinical experience with direct, open surgical reconstruction using expandable polytetrafluoroethylene stent grafts to create a "sutureless" anastomosis as an alternative to standard temporary vascular shunts. We sought to characterize patency and flow characteristics of these grafts compared with standard shunts in a survival model of porcine vascular injury. METHODS: Twelve Yorkshire-cross swine received a 2-cm-long near-circumferential defect in the bilateral iliac arteries. A 14 Fr Argyle shunt was inserted into one randomly assigned artery, with a self-expanding expandable polytetrafluoroethylene stent deployed in the other. At 72 hours, conduit patency was evaluated by angiography. Arterial flow measurements were obtained at baseline, immediately after intervention, and after 72 hours via direct measurement with perivascular flow meters. Blood pressure proximal and distal to the conduits and arterial samples for histopathology were obtained during the terminal procedure. RESULTS: Angiography revealed no difference in patency at 72 hours (p = 1.0). While there was no difference in baseline arterial flow between arteries (p = 0.63), the stent grafts demonstrated significantly improved blood flow compared with shunts both immediately after intervention (390 ± 36 mL/min vs. 265 ± 25 mL/min, p = 0.002) and at 72 hours (261 ± 29 mL/min vs. 170 ± 36 mL/min, p = 0.005). The pressure gradient across the shunts was greater than that of the stent grafts (11.5 mm Hg [interquartile range, 3-19 mm Hg] vs. 3 mm Hg [interquartile range, 3-5 mm Hg], p = 0.013). The speed of deployment was similar between the two devices. CONCLUSIONS: Open "sutureless" direct site repair using commercially available stent grafts to treat vascular injury is a technically feasible strategy for damage control management of peripheral vascular injury and offers increased blood flow when compared with temporary shunts. Furthermore, stent grafts may offer improved durability to extend the window until definitive vascular repair. The combination of these traits may improve outcomes after vascular injury. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic/Prognostic, level III.


Assuntos
Implante de Prótese Vascular/métodos , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Artéria Ilíaca/cirurgia , Politetrafluoretileno , Stents , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/cirurgia , Angiografia , Animais , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Prótese Vascular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Artéria Ilíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Artéria Ilíaca/lesões , Desenho de Prótese , Suínos , Grau de Desobstrução Vascular
18.
J Surg Res ; 215: 67-73, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28688664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Graduating military preliminary interns are often required to fill flight surgeon billets. General surgery preliminary interns get experience evaluating surgical and trauma patients, but receive very little training in primary care and flight medicine. At a joint military and civilian training program, we developed a supplemental curriculum to help transition our interns into flight medicine. METHODS: From 2013 to 2016, we developed a lecture series focused on aerospace medicine, primary care, and specialty topics including dermatology, ophthalmology, orthopedics, pediatrics, psychiatry, and women's health. During the 2016 iteration attended by 10 interns, pre- and post-participation 10-item Likert scale surveys were administered. Questions focused on perceived preparedness for primary care role and overall enthusiasm for flight medicine. Open-ended surveys from 2013 to 2016 were also used to gauge the effect of the curriculum. RESULTS: The composite number of agreement responses (indicating increased comfort with presented material) increased 63% after course completion. Disagreement responses and neutral responses decreased 78% and 30%, respectively. Open-ended surveys from 14 participants showed an overall positive impression of the curriculum with all indicating it aided their transition to flight medicine. CONCLUSIONS: Survey responses indicate an overall perceived benefit from participation in the curriculum with more confidence in primary care topics and improved transition to a flight medicine tour. This model for supplemental aerospace medicine and primary care didactics should be integrated into any residency program responsible for training military preliminary interns who may serve as flight surgeons.


Assuntos
Medicina Aeroespacial/educação , Cirurgia Geral/educação , Internato e Residência/métodos , Militares/educação , Modelos Educacionais , Competência Clínica , Currículo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estados Unidos
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