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1.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061470

RESUMO

AIMS: Associations between growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), cardiovascular outcomes, and exercise capacity among patients with a recent hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) are unknown. We utilized data from the 'Functional Impact of GLP-1 for Heart Failure Treatment' (FIGHT) study to address these knowledge gaps. METHODS AND RESULTS: FIGHT was a randomized clinical trial testing the effect of liraglutide (vs. placebo) among 300 participants with HFrEF and a recent HHF. Multivariable regression models evaluated associations between baseline GDF-15 and change in GDF-15 (per 1000 pg/mL increase from baseline to 30 days) with clinical outcomes (at 180 days) and declines in exercise capacity (6 min walk distance ≥ 45 m). At baseline (n = 249), median GDF-15 value was 3221 pg/mL (interquartile range 1938-5511 pg/mL). Participants in the highest tertile of baseline GDF-15 were more likely to be male and have more co-morbidities. After adjustment, an increase in GDF-15 over 30 days was associated with higher risk of death or HHF [hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.64]. In addition, higher baseline GDF-15 (per 1000 pg/mL until 6000 pg/mL) and an increase in GDF-15 over 30 days were associated with declining 6 min walk distance (odds ratio 1.26, 95% CI 1.02-1.55 and odds ratio 1.37, 95% CI 1.12-1.69, respectively). GDF-15 levels remained stable among participants randomized to liraglutide. CONCLUSIONS: An increase in GDF-15 over 30 days among patients in HFrEF was independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and declining exercise capacity. These results support the value of longitudinal GDF-15 trajectory in informing risk of heart failure disease progression.

2.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33932120

RESUMO

AIMS: Improving the health status (symptoms, function, and quality of life) of patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is a primary treatment goal. Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitors (ARNI) improve short-term health status in clinical practice, but the sustainability of these improvements is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: In CHAMP-HF, a multicentre observational study of outpatients with HFrEF, patients initiated on ARNI were propensity score matched 1:2 to patients not using ARNI with Cox regression modelling time to ARNI initiation, adjusted for sociodemographic and clinical variables, medical history, medications, and baseline Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) scores. Repeated measures models for the overall KCCQ score and each domain compared the health status trajectories of patients initiated on ARNI vs. not. Among 3930 participants, 746 (19.0%) began ARNI, of whom 576 were matched to 1152 non-ARNI patients. Prior to matching, participants initiated on ARNI were younger, non-Hispanic, had lower EFs, more commonly had a history of ventricular arrhythmia, were less likely to be taking an ACEI/ARB, and more likely to be treated with beta-blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. There were no differences after matching. In the matched cohort, participants initiated on ARNI experienced improved health status by 3 months that persisted through 12 months [KCCQ Overall Summary Score (OSS) = 73.4 vs. 70.8; P < 0.001], with the largest benefit observed in the KCCQ Quality of Life domain (68.7 vs. 64.7; P < 0.001). Similar health status benefits were noted through 18 months (KCCQ-OSS = 73.9 vs. 71.3; P < 0.001). A responder analysis showed that 12 patients would need to be initiated on ARNI for one to experience at least a large improvement (≥10 points) in health status benefit at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: In outpatient practice, ARNI therapy was associated with improved health status by 3 months and continued to 18 months after initiating therapy.

3.
JACC Heart Fail ; 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992563

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess temporal trends and factors associated with cardiac rehabilitation (CR) enrollment and participation among Medicare beneficiaries after the 2014 Medicare coverage expansion. BACKGROUND: CR improves exercise capacity, quality of life, and clinical outcomes in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). In 2014, Medicare coverage for CR was expanded to include chronic HFrEF. METHODS: Among Medicare beneficiaries from quarter (Q) 1 2014 to Q2 2016, 11,696 patients from 14,258 hospitalizations with primary discharge diagnosis of HF were identified. Patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction were excluded. Quarterly CR participation rates among hospitalized HF patients within 6 months of discharge were identified through outpatient administrative claims. The predictors of CR participation were assessed with the use of a multivariable logistic regression model that included patient- and hospital-level characteristics. A secondary analysis to assess participation rates of CR after outpatient encounters for HF was performed. RESULTS: Overall, only 611 (4.3%) and 349 (2.2%) eligible patients participated CR after primary hospitalization or outpatient visit for HF, respectively. There was a modest, statistically significant increase in CR participation after HF admissions (2.8% in Q1 2014; 5.0% in Q2 2016; p < 0.001) without significant increase after outpatient visits for HF (2.6% to 3.8%; p = 0.21). Younger age, male sex, nonblack race, previous cardiovascular procedures, and hospitalization at hospitals with available CR facilities were all independently associated with CR participation. CONCLUSION: s: CR participation among eligible Medicare beneficiaries with HFrEF was low with minimal increase since 2014 Medicare coverage decision. Sex, race, and institution-dependent variables were independent predictors of CR participation.

4.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few contemporary data exist evaluating care patterns and outcomes in HF across the spectrum of kidney function. OBJECTIVES: To characterize differences in quality of care and outcomes in patients hospitalized for HF by degree of kidney dysfunction. METHODS: We evaluated quality metrics among patients hospitalized with HF at 418 sites in the GWTG-HF registry from 2014-2019 by discharge CKD-EPI-derived eGFR. We additionally evaluated the risk-adjusted association of admission eGFR with in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Among 365,494 hospitalizations (age 72±15y, LVEF 43±17%), median discharge eGFR was 51(34-72) mL/min/1.73m2, 234,332 (64%) had eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73m2, and 18,869 (5%) were on dialysis. eGFR distribution remained stable from 2014-2019. Among 157,439 patients with HFrEF(≤40%), discharge guideline-directed medical therapies, including ß-blockers, were lowest in discharge eGFR<30 mL/min/1.73m2 or dialysis (P<0.001). "Triple therapy" with ACE inhibitor/ARB/ARNI+ß-blocker+MRA was used in 38%, 33%, 25%, 15%, 5%, and 3% for eGFR ≥90, 60-89, 45-59, 30-44, <30 mL/min/1.73m2 and dialysis, respectively; P<0.001. Mortality was higher in a graded fashion at lower admission eGFR groups (1.1%, 1.5%, 2.0%, 3.0%, 5.0%, and 4.2%, respectively; P<0.001). Steep covariate-adjusted associations between admission eGFR and mortality were observed across EF subgroups, but was slightly stronger in HFrEF compared with HF with mid-range or preserved EF (Pinteraction=0.045). CONCLUSION: Despite facing elevated risks of mortality, patients with comorbid HFrEF and kidney disease are not optimally treated with evidence-based medical therapies, even at levels of eGFR where such therapies would not be contraindicated by kidney dysfunction. Further efforts are required to mitigate risk in comorbid HF and kidney disease.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; : e018684, 2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34056910

RESUMO

Background Peripheral artery disease (PAD) and heart failure (HF) are each independently associated with poor outcomes. Risk factors associated with new-onset HF in patients with primary PAD are unknown. Furthermore, how the presence of HF is associated with outcomes in patients with PAD is unknown. Methods and Results This analysis examined risk relationships of HF on outcomes in patients with symptomatic PAD randomized to ticagrelor or clopidogrel as part of the EUCLID (Examining Use of Ticagrelor in Peripheral Arterial Disease) trial. Patients were stratified based on presence of HF at enrollment. Cox models were used to determine the association of HF with outcomes. A separate Cox model was used to identify risk factors associated with development of HF during follow-up. Patients with PAD and HF had over twice the rate of concomitant coronary artery disease as those without HF. Patients with PAD and HF had significantly increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (hazard ratio [HR], 1.31; 95% CI, 1.13-1.51) and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.19-1.63). In patients with PAD, the presence of HF was associated with significantly less bleeding (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.45-0.96). Characteristics associated with HF development included age ≥66 (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.18-1.40 per 5 years), diabetes mellitus (HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.41-2.43), and weight (bidirectionally associated, ≥76 kg, HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64-0.93; <76 kg, HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.07-1.16). Conclusions Patients with PAD and HF have a high rate of coronary artery disease with a high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events and death. These data support the possible need for aggressive treatment of (recurrent) atherosclerotic disease in PAD, especially patients with HF.

6.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(4): e007957, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33813838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to afflict millions of people worldwide. Patients with end-stage heart failure and left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) may be at risk for severe COVID-19 given a high prevalence of complex comorbidities and functional impaired immunity. The objective of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with end-stage heart failure and durable LVADs. METHODS: The Trans-CoV-VAD registry is a multi-center registry of LVAD and cardiac transplant patients in the United States with confirmed COVID-19. Patient characteristics, exposure history, presentation, laboratory data, course, and clinical outcomes were collected by participating institutions and reviewed by a central data repository. This report represents the participation of the first 9 centers to report LVAD data into the registry. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients were included in this cohort. The median age was 56 years (interquartile range, 46-68), 14 (35%) were women, and 21 (52%) were Black. Among the most common presenting symptoms were cough (41%), fever, and fatigue (both 38%). A total of 18% were asymptomatic at diagnosis. Only 43% of the patients reported either subjective or measured fever during the entire course of illness. Over half (60%) required hospitalization, and 8 patients (20%) died, often after lengthy hospitalizations. CONCLUSIONS: We present the largest case series of LVAD patients with COVID-19 to date. Understanding these characteristics is essential in an effort to improve the outcome of this complex patient population.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Coração Auxiliar , Pandemias , Idoso , /diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Ventrículos do Coração , Coração Auxiliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825802

RESUMO

Importance: The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services uses a new peer group-based payment system to compare hospital performance as part of its Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, which classifies hospitals into quintiles based on their share of dual-eligible beneficiaries for Medicare and Medicaid. However, little is known about the association of a hospital's share of dual-eligible beneficiaries with the quality of care and outcomes for patients with heart failure (HF). Objective: To evaluate the association between a hospital's proportion of patients with dual eligibility for Medicare and Medicaid and HF quality of care and outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study evaluated 436 196 patients hospitalized for HF using the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2017. The analysis included patients 65 years or older with available data on dual-eligibility status. Hospitals were divided into quintiles based on their share of dual-eligible patients. Quality and outcomes were analyzed using unadjusted and adjusted multivariable logistic regression models. Data analysis was performed from April 1, 2020, to January 1, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause readmission. The secondary outcomes included in-hospital mortality, 30-day HF readmissions, 30-day all-cause mortality, and HF process of care measures. Results: A total of 436 196 hospitalized HF patients 65 years or older from 535 hospital sites were identified, with 258 995 hospitalized patients (median age, 81 years; interquartile range, 74-87 years) at 455 sites meeting the study criteria and included in the primary analysis. A total of 258 995 HF hospitalizations from 455 sites were included in the primary analysis of the study. Hospitals in the highest dual-eligibility quintile (quintile 5) tended to care for patients who were younger, were more likely to be female, belonged to racial minority groups, or were located in rural areas compared with quintile 1 sites. After multivariable adjustment, hospitals with the highest quintile of dual eligibility were associated with lower rates of key process measures, including evidence-based ß-blocker prescription, measure of left ventricular function, and anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. Differences in clinical outcomes were seen with higher 30-day all-cause (adjusted odds ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.14-1.35) and HF (adjusted odds ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.27) readmissions in higher dual-eligible quintile 5 sites compared with quintile 1 sites. Risk-adjusted in-hospital and 30-day mortality did not significantly differ in quintile 1 vs quintile 5 hospitals. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, hospitals with a higher share of dual-eligible patients provided care with lower rates of some of the key HF quality of care process measures and with higher 30-day all-cause or HF readmissions compared with lower dual-eligibility quintile hospitals.

8.
J Card Fail ; 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864931

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of information on patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF) who leave against medical advice (AMA). We sought to identify patient and hospital characteristics and outcomes of patients with HF who left AMA compared with those conventionally discharged to home. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry, data were analyzed from January 2010 to June 2019. In addition, outcomes were examined from a subset of hospitalizations with Medicare-linked claims between January 2010 and November 2015. The fully eligible population included 561,823 patients and the Medicare-linked subset included 74,502 patients. In total, 8747 patients (1.56%) left AMA. The proportion of patients leaving AMA increased from 1.1% to 2.1% over the years of study. Patients leaving a HF hospitalization AMA, compared with patients conventionally discharged to home, were more likely younger, minorities, Medicaid covered, or uninsured. The Medicare-linked subset of patients who left AMA had substantially higher 30-day and 12-month readmission rates and higher mortality at each assessment point over 12 months compared with patients who were conventionally discharged to home. After risk adjustments, the hazard ratio of mortality in the Medicare-linked subset AMA group compared with the conventionally discharged to home group was 1.25 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.51; P = .005). CONCLUSIONS: One in 64 hospitalized patients with HF left AMA. An AMA discharge status was associated with higher risk for adverse 30-day and 12-month outcomes compared with being conventionally discharged home. Strategies that identify patients at risk of leaving AMA and policies to direct interventional strategies are warranted.

9.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(4): 293-300, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714749

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors estimated changes of stressed blood volume (SBV) induced by splanchnic nerve block (SNB) in patients with either decompensated or ambulatory heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). BACKGROUND: The splanchnic vascular capacity is a major determinant of the SBV, which in turn determines cardiac filling pressures and may be modifiable through SNB. METHODS: We analyzed data from 2 prospective, single-arm clinical studies in decompensated HFrEF (splanchnic HF-1; resting hemodynamics) and ambulatory heart failure (splanchnic HF-2; exercise hemodynamics). Patients underwent invasive hemodynamics and short-term SNB with local anesthetics. SBV was simulated using heart rate, cardiac output, central venous pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, systolic and diastolic systemic arterial and pulmonary artery pressures, and left ventricular ejection fraction. SBV is presented as ml/70 kg body weight. RESULTS: Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 21 ± 11%. In patients with decompensated HFrEF (n = 11), the mean estimated SBV was 3,073 ± 251 ml/70 kg. At 30 min post-SNB, the estimated SBV decreased by 10% to 2,754 ± 386 ml/70 kg (p = 0.003). In ambulatory HFrEF (n = 14) patients, the mean estimated SBV was 2,664 ± 488 ml/70 kg and increased to 3,243 ± 444 ml/70 kg (p < 0.001) at peak exercise. The resting estimated SBV was lower in ambulatory patients with HFrEF than in decompensated HFrEF (p = 0.019). In ambulatory patients with HFrEF, post-SNB, the resting estimated SBV decreased by 532 ± 264 ml/70 kg (p < 0.001). Post-SNB, with exercise, there was no decrease of estimated SBV out of proportion to baseline effects (p = 0.661). CONCLUSIONS: The estimated SBV is higher in decompensated than in ambulatory heart failure. SNB reduced the estimated SBV in decompensated and ambulatory heart failure. The reduction in estimated SBV was maintained throughout exercise. (Splanchnic Nerve Anesthesia in Heart Failure, NCT02669407; Abdominal Nerve Blockade in Chronic Heart Failure, NCT03453151).

10.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(5): 522-531, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760037

RESUMO

Importance: It is unclear how New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class compares with patient-reported outcomes among patients with heart failure (HF) in contemporary US clinical practice. Objective: To characterize longitudinal changes and concordance between NYHA class and the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Overall Summary Score (KCCQ-OS), and their associations with clinical outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included 2872 US outpatients with chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction across 145 practices enrolled in the CHAMP-HF registry between December 2015 and October 2017. All patients had complete NYHA class and KCCQ-OS data at baseline and 12 months. Longitudinal changes and correlations between the 2 measure were examined. Multivariable models landmarked at 12 months evaluated associations between improvement in NYHA and KCCQ-OS from baseline to 12 months with clinical outcomes occurring from months 12 through 24. Statistical analyses were performed from March to August 2020. Exposure: Change in health status, as defined by 12-month change in NYHA class or KCCQ-OS. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause mortality, HF hospitalization, and mortality or HF hospitalization. Results: In total, 2872 patients were included in this analysis (median [interquartile range] age, 68 [59-75] years; 872 [30.4%] were women; and 2156 [75.1%] were of White race). At baseline, 312 patients (10.9%) were NYHA class I, 1710 patients (59.5%) were class II, 804 patients (28.0%) were class III, and 46 patients (1.6%) were class IV. For KCCQ-OS, 1131 patients (39.4%) scored 75 to 100 (best health status), 967 patients (33.7%) scored 50 to 74, 612 patients (21.3%) scored 25 to 49, and 162 patients (5.6%) scored 0 to 24 (worst health status). At 12 months, 1002 patients (34.9%) had a change in NYHA class (599 [20.9%] with improvement; 403 [14.0%] with worsening) and 2158 patients (75.1%) had a change of 5 or more points in KCCQ-OS (1388 [48.3%] with improvement; 770 [26.8%] with worsening). The most common trajectory for NYHA class was no change (1870 [65.1%]), and the most common trajectory for KCCQ-OS was an improvement of at least 10 points (1047 [36.5%]). After adjustment, improvement in NYHA class was not associated with subsequent clinical outcomes, whereas an improvement of 5 or more points in KCCQ-OS was independently associated with decreased mortality (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.44-0.80; P < .001) and mortality or HF hospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.59-0.89; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: Findings of this cohort study suggest that, in contemporary US clinical practice, compared with NYHA class, KCCQ-OS is more sensitive to clinically meaningful changes in health status over time. Changes in KCCQ-OS may have more prognostic value than changes in NYHA class.

11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(7): e018696, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759546

RESUMO

Background Regional patient characteristics, care quality, and outcomes may differ based on a variety of factors among patients hospitalized for heart failure (HF). Regional disparities in outcomes of cardiovascular disease have been suggested across various regions in the United States. This study examined whether there are significant differences by region in quality of care and short-term outcomes of hospitalized patients with HF across the United States. Methods and Results We examined regional demographics, quality measures, and short-term outcomes across 4 US Census Bureau regions in patients hospitalized with HF and enrolled in the GWTG-HF (Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure) registry from 2010 to 2016. Differences in length of stay and mortality by region were examined with multivariable logistic regression. The study included 423 333 patients hospitalized for HF in 488 hospitals. Patients in the Northeast were significantly older. Completion of achievement measures, with few exceptions, were met with similar frequency across regions. Multivariable analysis demonstrated significantly lower in-hospital mortality in the Midwest compared with the Northeast (hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.51-0.8; P<0.00001). The length of stay varied significantly by region with a significantly higher risk-adjusted length of stay in the Northeast compared with other regions. Conclusions Although we did not find any substantial differences by region in quality of care in patients hospitalized for HF, risk-adjusted inpatient mortality was found to be lower in the Midwest compared with the Northeast, and may be secondary to unmeasured differences in patient characteristics, and to longer length of stay in the Northeast.

12.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(2): e007034, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients stabilized during hospitalization for acute decompensated heart failure (HF), initiation of sacubitril/valsartan compared with enalapril decreased the risk of cardiovascular death or rehospitalization for HF without increasing the risk of adverse events. It is unknown whether potentially high-risk subpopulations have a similar risk-benefit profile. METHODS: PIONEER-HF (Comparison of Sacubitril/Valsartan Versus Enalapril on Effect on NT-proBNP [N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide] in Patients Stabilized From an Acute HF Episode) was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of in-hospital initiation of sacubitril/valsartan (n=440) versus enalapril (n=441) in patients stabilized during hospitalization for acute decompensated HF. The composite of cardiovascular death or rehospitalization for HF was adjudicated. Safety outcomes included worsening renal function, symptomatic hypotension, and hyperkalemia. We evaluated heterogeneity in the effect of sacubitril/valsartan on these efficacy and safety outcomes in selected subgroups of clinical concern: patients with baseline systolic blood pressure ≤118 mm Hg (median; n=448), baseline NT-proBNP >2701 pg/mL (median; n=395), estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/minute per 1.73 m2 (n=455), ≥1 additional hospitalization for HF within the prior year (n=343), admission to the ICU during the index hospitalization (n=96), inotrope use during the index hospitalization (n=68), and severe congestion (n=219). RESULTS: The relative risk reduction in cardiovascular death or rehospitalization for HF with sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril was consistent across all high-risk subgroups (P interaction=non-significant [NS] for each). The risks of worsening renal function, symptomatic hypotension, and hyperkalemia with sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril were also consistent in each high- versus low-risk subgroup (P interaction=NS for each). CONCLUSIONS: In high-risk subpopulations admitted for acute decompensated HF, treatment with sacubitril/valsartan after initial stabilization conferred a consistent reduction in cardiovascular death or rehospitalization for HF and was well tolerated.

13.
Am Heart J ; 235: 149-157, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Revascularization of ischemic cardiomyopathy by coronary artery bypass grafting has been shown to improve survival among patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤35%, but the role of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in this context is incompletely described. This study sought to evaluate the effect of PCI on mortality and hospitalization among patients with stable coronary artery disease and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis comparing PCI with medical therapy among patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy in the Veterans Affairs Health Administration. Patients with angiographic evidence of 1 or more epicardial stenoses amenable to PCI and LVEF ≤35% were included in the analysis. Outcome data were determined by VA and non-VA data sources on mortality and hospital admission. RESULTS: From 2008 through 2015, a study sample of 4,628 patients was identified, of which 1,322 patients underwent ad hoc PCI. Patients were followed to a maximum of 3 years. Propensity score weighted landmark analysis was used to evaluate the primary and secondary outcomes. The primary outcome of all-cause mortality was significantly lower in the PCI cohort compared with medical therapy (21.6% vs 30.0%, P <.001). The secondary outcome of all-cause rehospitalization or death was also lower in the PCI cohort (76.5% vs 83.8%, P <.001). CONCLUSIONS: In this retrospective analysis of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy with coronary artery disease amenable to PCI and LVEF ≤35%, revascularization by PCI was associated with decreased all-cause mortality and decreased all-cause death or rehospitalization.

14.
Am Heart J ; 235: 82-96, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), or angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA), and beta-blockers (ßB) are underutilized. It is unknown if patients with and without comorbidities have similar ACEi/ARB/ARNI, MRA, and ßB prescription patterns. METHODS: Baseline data from the CHAMP-HF (Change the Management of Patients with Heart Failure) registry were categorized by history of atrial fibrillation, asthma/chronic lung disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and depression. Using multivariate hierarchical logistic models, associations of ACEi/ARB/ARNI, MRA and ßB medication use and dose by comorbidities were assessed after adjusting for patient characteristics. RESULTS: Of 4,815 HFrEF patients from 152 CHAMP-HF sites, ACEi/ARB/ARNI use was lower in patients with more comorbidities, and generally, MRA use was low and ßB use was high. In adjusted analyses, patients with HFrEF and comorbid obstructive sleep apnea, vs. without, were more likely to be prescribed ARNI (OR [95% CI]: 1.25 [1.00, 1.55]); P = .047 and MRA (1.31 [1.11, 1.55]); P = .002 and less likely to be prescribed ACEi (0.74 [0.63, 0.88]); P < .001. Patients with atrial fibrillation, vs. without, were less likely to receive ACEi/ARB (0.82 [0.71, 0.95]); P = .006 and any study medication (0.81 [0.67, 0.97]); P = .020. Comorbid lung disease and history of depression were not associated with HFrEF prescriptions. CONCLUSIONS: Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade therapy prescription and dose varied by comorbidity status, but ßB therapy did not. In quality efforts, leaders need to consider use and dosing of prescriptions in light of prevalent comorbidities.

15.
J Card Fail ; 27(3): 327-337, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is increasingly used as a life-saving therapy for patients with cardiovascular collapse, but identifying patients unlikely to benefit remains a challenge. METHODS AND RESULTS: We created the RESCUE registry, a retrospective, observational registry of adult patients treated with VA-ECMO between January 2007 and June 2017 at 3 high-volume centers (Columbia University, Duke University, and Washington University) to describe short-term patient outcomes. In 723 patients treated with VA-ECMO, the most common indications for deployment were postcardiotomy shock (31%), cardiomyopathy (including acute heart failure) (26%), and myocardial infarction (17%). Patients frequently suffered in-hospital complications, including acute renal dysfunction (45%), major bleeding (41%), and infection (33%). Only 40% of patients (n = 290) survived to discharge, with a minority receiving durable cardiac support (left ventricular assist device [n = 48] or heart transplantation [n = 7]). Multivariable regression analysis identified risk factors for mortality on ECMO as older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.42) and female sex (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.02-2.02) and risk factors for mortality after decannulation as higher body mass index (OR 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01-1.35) and major bleeding while on ECMO support (OR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.23-2.99). CONCLUSIONS: Despite contemporary care at high-volume centers, patients treated with VA-ECMO continue to have significant in-hospital morbidity and mortality. The optimization of outcomes will require refinements in patient selection and improvement of care delivery.

16.
JACC Heart Fail ; 9(1): 28-38, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to evaluate the association of heart failure hospitalization (HFH) with guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT) prescribing patterns among patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). BACKGROUND: HFH represents an important opportunity to titrate GDMT among patients with HFrEF. METHODS: The CHAMP-HF (Change the Management of Patients With Heart Failure) registry is a prospective registry of adults with HFrEF (ejection fraction ≤40%). Using data from the CHAMP-HF registry (N = 4,365), adjusted time-to-event models were created to study the association of HFH with GDMT prescribing patterns. RESULTS: HFH (compared with no HFH) was positively associated with initiation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, beta-blocker, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA). HFH positively associated with dose escalation of ACE inhibitor/ARB (probability ratio: 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36 to 2.16) and MRA (probability ratio: 8.71, 95% CI: 4.19 to 18.10). In those on prior therapy, HFH was associated with discontinuation and de-escalation of all classes of GDMT. ACE inhibitor/ARB, angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, beta-blocker, and MRA de-escalation/discontinuation after HFH was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality with hazard ratios of 3.82 (95% CI: 2.42 to 6.03), 4.76 (95% CI: 2.06 to 11.03), 2.94 (95% CI: 2.04 to 4.25), and 4.81 (95% CI: 2.61 to 8.87), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: HFH positively associated with changes in GDMT, including initiation, dose escalation, discontinuation, and dose de-escalation. De-escalation/discontinuation of GDMT after HFH associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality. Educational endeavors are needed to ensure GDMT is not inappropriately held in the setting of HFH. For those in whom GDMT must be held/decreased, improvement tools at discharge and post-discharge titration clinics may help ensure lifesaving GDMT regimens remain optimized.

17.
Am Heart J ; 2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-discharge mortality following hospitalization for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) has remained high and unchanged over the past two decades, despite effective therapies for HFrEF. We aimed to explore whether these patterns could in part be explained by changes in longitudinal risk profile and HF severity over time. METHODS: Among patients hospitalized for HF in the GWTG-HF registry from 1/2005 to 12/2018 with available data, we evaluated GWTG-HF and ADHERE risk scores, observing in-hospital mortality per-year. The risk profiles and outcomes were described overall and by subgroups based on ejection fraction (EF), diabetes mellitus (DM), sex, and age. RESULTS: Overall, 335,735 patients were included (50% HFrEF, 46% DM, 48% female, mean age 74 years). In-hospital mortality increased by 2.0% per year from 2005-2018. There was no significant change in mean GWTG-HF risk score overall or when stratified by EF groups (p=0.46 HFrEF, p=0.26 HF mid-range EF [HFmrEF], and p=0.72 HF preserved EF [HFpEF]), age, sex, or presence of DM. The observed/expected ratio based on the GWTG-HF risk score was 0.93 (0.91-0.96), 0.83 (0.77-0.90), 0.92 (0.89-95) for HFrEF, HFmrEF, and HFpEF, respectively. Similar findings were seen when risk was assessed using ADHERE risk score. CONCLUSIONS: There were no significant changes in average risk profiles among hospitalized HF patients over the study duration. These data do not support the notion that worsening risk profile explains the lack of improved outcomes despite therapeutic advances, underscoring the importance of aggressive implementation of guideline-recommended therapies and investigation of novel treatments.

18.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; : CIRCOUTCOMES120007094, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction may improve survival and other cardiovascular outcomes. METHODS: We constructed a decision-analytic Markov model to estimate the costs and benefits of catheter ablation and medical management in patients with symptomatic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%) and atrial fibrillation over a lifetime horizon. Evidence from the published literature informed the model inputs, including clinical effectiveness data from meta-analyses. Probabilistic and deterministic sensitivity analyses were performed. A 3% discount rate was applied to both future costs and benefits. The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio assessed from the US health care sector perspective. RESULTS: Catheter ablation was associated with 6.47 (95% CI, 5.89-6.93) quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and a total cost of $105 657 (95% CI, $55 311-$191 934; 2018 US dollars), compared with 5.30 (95% CI, 5.20-5.39) QALYs and $63 040 (95% CI, $37 624-$102 260) for medical management. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for catheter ablation compared with medical management was $38 496 (95% CI, $5583-$117 510) per QALY gained. Model inputs with the greatest variation on incremental cost-effectiveness ratio estimates were the cost of ablation and the effect of catheter ablation on mortality reduction. When assuming a more conservative estimate of the treatment effect of catheter ablation on mortality (hazard ratio of 0.86), the estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $74 403 per QALY gained. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100 000 per QALY gained, atrial fibrillation ablation was found to be economically favorable compared with medical management in 95% of simulations. CONCLUSIONS: Catheter ablation in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients and atrial fibrillation may be considered economically attractive at current benchmarks for societal willingness-to-pay in the United States.

19.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206129

RESUMO

Importance: Although kidney dysfunction and abnormalities in serum electrolyte levels are associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), the association of visit-to-visit variability in such laboratory measures with long-term outcomes is unclear. Objective: To evaluate the associations of visit-to-visit variability in indexes of kidney function (creatinine and blood urea nitrogen [BUN] levels) and serum electrolyte (sodium, chloride, and potassium) with the risk of adverse clinical outcomes among patients with chronic, stable HFpEF. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort analysis used data from the Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist (TOPCAT) trial. All participants with 3 or more serial laboratory measurements who were event free within the first 4 months of enrollment were included. Data were analyzed from March 1, 2019, to January 31, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Adjusted associations between indexes of variability in serum laboratory measurements during the first 4 months of follow-up and risk of the primary composite outcome (a composite of aborted cardiac arrest, hospitalization for heart failure, or cardiovascular death) and all-cause mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: Of the 3445 patients enrolled in the TOPCAT trial (mean [SD] age, 68-69 [10] years; 49.7%-51.5% female), 2479 (BUN) to 3195 (potassium) were analyzed, depending on availability of serial measurements. Participants with higher laboratory variability in kidney function parameters were older, had more comorbidities, and had more severe symptoms of HFpEF. Higher visit-to-visit variability in BUN (hazard ratio [HR] per 1-SD higher average successive variability [ASV], 1.21; 95% CI, 1.10-1.33) and creatinine (HR per 1-SD higher ASV, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22) were independently associated with a higher risk of the primary composite outcome as well as mortality independent of other baseline confounders, changes in kidney function, changes in medication dosages, and variability in other cardiometabolic parameters (systolic blood pressure and body mass index). The higher risk associated with greater variability in kidney function was consistent across subgroups of patients stratified by the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) at baseline (CKD: HR per 1-SD higher ASV, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.16-1.67 and no CKD: HR per 1-SD higher ASV, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.01-1.27), among placebo and spironolactone treatment arms separately (spironolactone arm: 1.30; 95% CI, 1.03-1.65 and placebo arm: HR per 1-SD higher ASV, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.04-1.56). Among serum electrolytes, variability in sodium and potassium measures were also significantly associated with a higher risk of primary composite events (sodium: HR per 1-SD higher ASV, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01-1.30 and potassium: HR per 1-SD higher ASV, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02-1.44). Conclusions and Relevance: In HFpEF, visit-to-visit variability in laboratory indexes of kidney function and serum electrolytes is common and independently associated with worse long-term clinical outcomes.

20.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185662

RESUMO

Importance: In May 2020, dapagliflozin was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the first sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), based on the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure (DAPA-HF) trial. Limited data are available characterizing the generalizability of dapagliflozin to US clinical practice. Objective: To evaluate candidacy for initiation of dapagliflozin based on the FDA label among contemporary patients with HFrEF in the US. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included 154 714 patients with HFrEF (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%) hospitalized at 406 sites in the Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) registry admitted between January 1, 2014, and September 30, 2019. Patients who left against medical advice, transferred to an acute care facility or to hospice, or had missing data were excluded. The FDA label (which excluded patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <30 mL/min/1.73 m2, those undergoing dialysis, and those with type 1 diabetes) was applied to the GWTG-HF registry sample. Data analyses were conducted from April 1 to June 30, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The proportion of patients hospitalized with HFrEF who would be candidates for dapagliflozin under the FDA label. Results: Among 154 714 patients hospitalized with HFrEF, 125 497 (81.1%; 83 481 men [66.5%]; mean [SD] age, 68 [15] years) would be candidates for dapagliflozin according to the FDA label. Across 355 sites with patients with 10 or more hospitalizations, the median proportion of candidates for dapagliflozin according to the FDA label was 81.1% (interquartile range, 77.8%-84.6%) at each site. This proportion was similar across all study years (interquartile range, 80.4%-81.7%) and was higher among those without type 2 diabetes than with type 2 diabetes (85.5% vs 75.6%). Among GWTG-HF participants, the most frequent reason for not meeting the FDA label criteria was eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 at discharge (18.5%). Among 75 654 patients with available paired admission and discharge data, 14.2% had an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 at both time points, while 3.8% developed an eGFR less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 by discharge. Although there were more older adults, women, and Black patients in the GWTG-HF registry than in the DAPA-HF trial, most clinical characteristics were qualitatively similar between the 2 groups. Compared with the DAPA-HF trial cohort, there was lower use of evidence-based HF therapies among patients in GWTG-HF. Conclusions and Relevance: These data from a large, contemporary US registry of patients hospitalized with heart failure suggest that 4 of 5 patients with HFrEF (with or without type 2 diabetes) would be candidates for initiation of dapagliflozin, supporting its broad generalizability to US clinical practice.

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