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2.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 9(11): 786-798, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619105

RESUMO

Up to 50% of the people who have died from COVID-19 had metabolic and vascular disorders. Notably, there are many direct links between COVID-19 and the metabolic and endocrine systems. Thus, not only are patients with metabolic dysfunction (eg, obesity, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and diabetes) at an increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 but also infection with SARS-CoV-2 might lead to new-onset diabetes or aggravation of pre-existing metabolic disorders. In this Review, we provide an update on the mechanisms of how metabolic and endocrine disorders might predispose patients to develop severe COVID-19. Additionally, we update the practical recommendations and management of patients with COVID-19 and post-pandemic. Furthermore, we summarise new treatment options for patients with both COVID-19 and diabetes, and highlight current challenges in clinical management.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Gerenciamento Clínico , Doenças Metabólicas/epidemiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/terapia , Doenças Metabólicas/terapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/terapia
3.
Diabetes Care ; 44(11): 2589-2625, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34593612

RESUMO

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) convened a writing group to develop a consensus statement on the management of type 1 diabetes in adults. The writing group has considered the rapid development of new treatments and technologies and addressed the following topics: diagnosis, aims of management, schedule of care, diabetes self-management education and support, glucose monitoring, insulin therapy, hypoglycemia, behavioral considerations, psychosocial care, diabetic ketoacidosis, pancreas and islet transplantation, adjunctive therapies, special populations, inpatient management, and future perspectives. Although we discuss the schedule for follow-up examinations and testing, we have not included the evaluation and treatment of the chronic microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes as these are well-reviewed and discussed elsewhere. The writing group was aware of both national and international guidance on type 1 diabetes and did not seek to replicate this but rather aimed to highlight the major areas that health care professionals should consider when managing adults with type 1 diabetes. Though evidence-based where possible, the recommendations in the report represent the consensus opinion of the authors.

4.
Diabetologia ; 64(12): 2609-2652, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590174

RESUMO

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) convened a writing group to develop a consensus statement on the management of type 1 diabetes in adults. The writing group has considered the rapid development of new treatments and technologies and addressed the following topics: diagnosis, aims of management, schedule of care, diabetes self-management education and support, glucose monitoring, insulin therapy, hypoglycaemia, behavioural considerations, psychosocial care, diabetic ketoacidosis, pancreas and islet transplantation, adjunctive therapies, special populations, inpatient management and future perspectives. Although we discuss the schedule for follow-up examinations and testing, we have not included the evaluation and treatment of the chronic microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes as these are well-reviewed and discussed elsewhere. The writing group was aware of both national and international guidance on type 1 diabetes and did not seek to replicate this but rather aimed to highlight the major areas that healthcare professionals should consider when managing adults with type 1 diabetes. Though evidence-based where possible, the recommendations in the report represent the consensus opinion of the authors. Graphical abstract.

6.
World J Diabetes ; 12(6): 868-882, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34168734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implementation of new diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are still a subject of debate, mostly due to concerns regarding the effects on the number of women diagnosed with GDM and the risk profile of the women newly diagnosed. AIM: To estimate the impact of the World Health Organization (WHO) 2013 criteria compared with the WHO 1999 criteria on the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus as well as to determine the diagnostic accuracy for detecting adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a single center Dutch cohort of 3338 women undergoing a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test where the WHO 1999 criteria to diagnose GDM were clinically applied. Women were categorized into four groups: non-GDM by both criteria, GDM by WHO 1999 only (excluded from GDM), GDM by WHO 2013 only (newly diagnosed) and GDM by both criteria. We compared maternal characteristics, pregnancy outcomes and likelihood ratios for adverse pregnancy outcomes. RESULTS: Retrospectively applying the WHO 2013 criteria increased the cohort incidence by 13.1%, from 19.3% to 32.4%. Discordant diagnoses occurred in 21.3%; 4.1% would no longer be labelled as GDM, and 17.2% were newly diagnosed. Compared to the non-GDM group, women newly diagnosed were older, had higher rates of obesity, higher diastolic blood pressure and higher rates of caesarean deliveries. Their infants were more often delivered preterm, large-for-gestational-age and were at higher risk of a 5 min Apgar score < 7. Women excluded from GDM were older and had similar pregnancy outcomes compared to the non-GDM group, except for higher rates of shoulder dystocia (4.3% vs 1.3%, P = 0.015). Positive likelihood ratios for adverse outcomes in all groups were generally low, ranging from 0.54 to 2.95. CONCLUSION: Applying the WHO 2013 criteria would result in a substantial increase in GDM diagnoses. Newly diagnosed women are at increased risk for pregnancy adverse outcomes. This risk, however, seems to be lower than those identified by the WHO 1999 criteria. This could potentially influence the treatment effect that can be achieved in this group. Evidence on treatment effects in newly diagnosed women is urgently needed.

7.
J Clin Med ; 10(11)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072487

RESUMO

In patients with diabetes, metabolic disorders disturb the physiological balance of coagulation and fibrinolysis, leading to a prothrombotic state characterized by platelet hypersensitivity, coagulation disorders and hypofibrinolysis. Hyperglycemia and insulin resistance cause changes in platelet number and activation, as well as qualitative and/or quantitative modifications of coagulatory and fibrinolytic factors, resulting in the formation of fibrinolysis-resistant clots in patients with diabetes. Other coexisting factors like hypoglycemia, obesity and dyslipidemia also contribute to coagulation disorders in patients with diabetes. Management of the prothrombotic state includes antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapies for diabetes patients with either a history of cardiovascular disease or prone to a higher risk of thrombus generation, but current guidelines lack recommendations on the optimal antithrombotic treatment for these patients. Metabolic optimizations like glucose control, lipid-lowering, and weight loss also improve coagulation disorders of diabetes patients. Intriguing, glucose-lowering drugs, especially cardiovascular beneficial agents, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and sodium glucose co-transporter inhibitors, have been shown to exert direct anticoagulation effects in patients with diabetes. This review focuses on the most recent progress in the development and management of diabetes related prothrombotic state.

8.
HPB (Oxford) ; 23(11): 1722-1731, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001452

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding long-term quality of life and exocrine and endocrine insufficiency after pancreatic surgery for premalignant and benign (non-pancreatitis) disease are lacking. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included patients ≥3 years after pancreatoduodenectomy or left pancreatectomy in six Dutch centers (2006-2016). Outcomes were measured with the EQ-5D-5L, the EORTC QLQ-C30, an exocrine and endocrine pancreatic insufficiency questionnaire, and PAID20. RESULTS: Questionnaires were completed by 153/183 patients (response rate 84%, median follow-up 6.3 years). Surgery related complaints were reported by 72/153 patients (47%) and 13 patients (8.4%) would not undergo this procedure again. The VAS (EQ-5D-5L) was 76 ± 17 versus 82 ± 0.4 in the general population (p < 0.001). The mean global health status (QLQ-C30) was 78 ± 17 versus 78 ± 17, p = 1.000. Fatigue, insomnia, and diarrhea were clinically relevantly worse in patients. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency was reported by 62 patients (41%) with relieve of symptoms by enzyme supplementation in 48%. New-onset diabetes mellitus was present in 22 patients (14%). The median PAID20 score was 6.9/20 (IQR 2.5-17.8). CONCLUSION: Although generic quality of life after pancreatic resection for pre-malignant and benign disease was similar to the general population and diabetes-related distress was low, almost half suffered from a range of symptoms highlighting the need for long-term counseling.

10.
Diabetes Care ; 44(3): 836-838, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397767

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the performance and safety of a bihormonal (insulin and glucagon) artificial pancreas (AP) in adults with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this outpatient, randomized, crossover trial, 2-week fully closed loop glucose control (AP therapy) was compared with 2-week open loop control (patient's normal insulin pump therapy with a glucose sensor if they had one). RESULTS: A total of 23 patients were included in the analysis. Time in range (70-180 mg/dL [3.9-10 mmol/L]) was significantly higher during closed loop (median 86.6% of time [interquartile range 84.9-88.5]) compared with open loop (53.9% [49.7-67.2]; P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Compared with insulin pump therapy, the bihormonal AP provided superior glucose control, without meal or exercise announcements, and was safe in adults with type 1 diabetes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Pâncreas Artificial , Adulto , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina , Pacientes Ambulatoriais
12.
Angiology ; 72(5): 434-441, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33380161

RESUMO

The assessment of flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is widely used to quantify endothelial function. Historically, FMD was determined at 60 seconds post-cuff deflation. We investigated whether FMD would be more accurate if determined at maximum dilatory peak (MDP) than at 60 seconds in healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We studied 95 healthy and 72 subjects with T2DM and assessed FMD at MDP, 60 and 90 seconds. Twenty-four healthy and 12 subjects with T2DM underwent a repeat FMD after 28 days. In healthy subjects, FMD at MDP was higher than at 60 and 90 seconds, with mean difference MDP versus 60 seconds 1.14% (95% CI: 0.6-1.7); P < .0001 and MDP versus 90 seconds 1.9% (95% CI: 1.3-2.5) with similar results in T2DM, that is, 1.0% (95% CI: 0.1-1.9) and 2.3% (95% CI: 1.3-3.2), respectively. Intraindividual variability was lowest with MDP compared with 60 and 90 seconds, that is, 15.0 versus 23.2% and 40.0%, respectively, resulting in a more than 2-fold reduction in necessary sample size. In healthy subjects and subjects with T2DM, assessment of FMD using MDP results in a more accurate and precise assessment leading to a substantial reduction in sample size.


Assuntos
Artéria Braquial/diagnóstico por imagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico por imagem , Angiopatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Vasodilatação , Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/etiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Tamanho da Amostra , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 23(4): 961-970, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33336850

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ADO09 with insulin lispro (Lispro) and separate subcutaneous injections of human insulin and pramlintide (Ins&Pram) in 24 subjects with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: At three dosing visits, participants received single doses of ADO09, Ins&Pram or Lispro immediately before eating a standardized mixed meal together with 1 g of acetaminophen, which was used as a surrogate marker to evaluate the kinetics of gastric emptying. Premeal blood glucose was adjusted to 126 mg/dL ± 10% by means of insulin and glucose infusions. The insulin dose was 7.5 U and the pramlintide dose was 45 µg. Blood glucose, glucagon and acetaminophen concentrations were assessed as pharmacodynamic endpoints; insulin and pramlintide concentrations were analysed as pharmacokinetic endpoints, and safety and tolerability were assessed. RESULTS: Compared with Lispro, ADO09 reduced postprandial blood glucose (ppBG) excursions by more than 95% in the first hour postmeal (mean ± SD ∆AUC BG 0-1 h: 1.4 ± 9.9 mg*h/dL vs. 43.5 ± 15.3 mg*h/dL; p < .0001). Maximum ppBG was significantly improved with ADO09 (∆BGmax 87.0 ± 35.5 mg/dL) versus both Lispro (109.2 ± 31.1 mg/dL; p = .0133) and Ins&Pram (109.4 ± 44.3 mg/dL; p = .0357). Gastric emptying with ADO09 was similar to Ins&Pram and significantly slower than with Lispro. All treatments were well tolerated and both adverse events and hypoglycaemic events were rare during the meal test procedure. CONCLUSION: ADO09 was well tolerated and markedly reduced ppBG compared with Lispro. ADO09 formulation was generally similar to the separate administration of insulin and pramlintide, except for a better BG level in the 4-8 h interval postmeal. These positive results warrant further investigations with ADO09.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Polipeptídeo Amiloide das Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Glicemia , Estudos Cross-Over , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes , Insulina , Insulina Lispro , Período Pós-Prandial
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33023896

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sex differences in cardiometabolic risk factors and their management in type 2 diabetes (T2D) have not been fully identified. Therefore, we aimed to examine differences in cardiometabolic risk factor levels, pharmacological treatment and achievement of risk factor control between women and men with T2D. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the Dutch Diabetes Pearl cohort were used (n=6637, 40% women). Linear and Poisson regression analyses were used to examine sex differences in cardiometabolic risk factor levels, treatment, and control. RESULTS: Compared with men, women had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) (mean difference 1.79 kg/m2 (95% CI 1.49 to 2.08)), while no differences were found in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Women had lower diastolic blood pressure (-1.94 mm Hg (95% CI -2.44 to -1.43)), higher total cholesterol (TC) (0.44 mmol/L (95% CI 0.38 to 0.51)), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (0.26 mmol/L (95% CI 0.22 to 0.31)), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) sex-standardized (0.02 mmol/L (95% CI 0.00 to 0.04)), and lower TC:HDL ratio (-0.29 (95% CI -0.36 to -0.23)) and triglycerides (geometric mean ratio 0.91 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.98)). Women had a 16% higher probability of being treated with antihypertensive medication in the presence of high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and elevated SBP than men (relative risk 0.84 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.98)), whereas no sex differences were found for glucose-lowering medication and lipid-modifying medication. Among those treated, women were less likely to achieve treatment targets of HbA1c (0.92 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.98)) and LDL-c (0.89 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.92)) than men, while no differences for SBP were found. CONCLUSIONS: In this Dutch T2D population, women had a slightly different cardiometabolic risk profile compared with men and a substantially higher BMI. Women had a higher probability of being treated with antihypertensive medication in the presence of high CVD risk and elevated SBP than men, and were less likely than men to achieve treatment targets for HbA1c and LDL levels.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Caracteres Sexuais
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33123893

RESUMO

Understanding of gustatory coding helps to predict, and perhaps even modulate the ingestive decision circuitry, especially when eating behaviour becomes dysfunctional. Preclinical research demonstrated that glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is locally synthesized in taste bud cells in the tongue and that GLP-1 receptor exists on the gustatory nerves in close proximity to GLP-1 containing taste bud cells. In humans, the tongue has not yet been addressed as clinically relevant target for GLP-1 based therapies. The primary aim of the current review was to elaborate on the role of GLP- 1 in mammalian gustatory system, in particular in the perception of sweet. Secondly, we aimed to explore what modulates gustatory coding and whether the GLP-1 based therapies might be involved in regulation of taste perception. We performed a series of PubMed, Medline and Embase databases systemic searches. The Population-Intervention-Comparison-Outcome (PICO) framework was used to identify interventional studies. Based on the available data, GLP-1 is specifically involved in the perception of sweet. Aging, diabetes and obesity are characterized by diminished taste and sweet perception. Calorie restriction and bariatric surgery are associated with a diminished appreciation of sweet food. GLP-1 receptor agonists (RAs) modulate food preference, yet its modulatory potential in gustatory coding is currently unknown. Future studies should explore whether GLP-1 RAs modulate taste perception to the extent that changes of food preference and consumption ensue.

16.
United European Gastroenterol J ; 8(8): 865-877, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with a very high lifetime risk of developing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; for example, hereditary pancreatitis and main-duct or mixed-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, may wish to discuss prophylactic total pancreatectomy but strategies to do so are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To develop a shared decision-making programme for prophylactic total pancreatectomy using decision tables. METHODS: Focus group meetings with patients were used to identify relevant questions. Systematic reviews were performed to answer these questions. RESULTS: The first tables included hereditary pancreatitis and main-duct or mixed-type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. No studies focused on prophylactic total pancreatectomy in these groups. In 52 studies (3570 patients), major morbidity after total pancreatectomy was 25% and 30-day mortality was 6%. After minimally invasive total pancreatectomy (seven studies, 35 patients) this was, respectively, 13% and 0%. Exocrine insufficiency-related symptoms occurred in 33%. Quality of life after total pancreatectomy was slightly lower compared with the general population. CONCLUSION: The decision tables can be helpful for discussing prophylactic total pancreatectomy with individuals at high risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/prevenção & controle , Tomada de Decisão Compartilhada , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Pancreatectomia/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Profiláticos/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/epidemiologia , Progressão da Doença , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/etiologia , Humanos , Pancreatectomia/métodos , Ductos Pancreáticos/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Pancreatite Crônica/epidemiologia , Pancreatite Crônica/patologia , Pancreatite Crônica/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Profiláticos/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 8(6): 546-550, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334646

RESUMO

Diabetes is one of the most important comorbidities linked to the severity of all three known human pathogenic coronavirus infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Patients with diabetes have an increased risk of severe complications including Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome and multi-organ failure. Depending on the global region, 20-50% of patients in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic had diabetes. Given the importance of the link between COVID-19 and diabetes, we have formed an international panel of experts in the field of diabetes and endocrinology to provide some guidance and practical recommendations for the management of diabetes during the pandemic. We aim to briefly provide insight into potential mechanistic links between the novel coronavirus infection and diabetes, present practical management recommendations, and elaborate on the differential needs of several patient groups.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , COVID-19 , Comorbidade , Contraindicações de Medicamentos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência de Múltiplos Órgãos/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/fisiopatologia , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Clin Med ; 9(3)2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131527

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies demonstrated the cardioprotective properties of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in patients with diabetes or cardiac disease. We investigated whether preoperative subcutaneous liraglutide improves myocardial function after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We performed a pre-planned secondary analysis of adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery included in the GLOBE trial. Patients were randomised to receive 0.6 mg subcutaneous liraglutide on the evening before surgery and 1.2 mg after induction of anaesthesia, or matching placebo. Perioperative echocardiographic assessments, haemodynamic parameters, doses of vasoactive inotropic support and postoperative measurements of troponin, Creatine Kinase-MB , creatinine and lactate were compared between groups. RESULTS: The study population consisted of the entire intention-to-treat cohort of the GLOBE trial. In this study, 129 patients received liraglutide and 132 patients placebo. Baseline characteristics were comparable between groups. Postoperatively, 170 (65%) patients underwent echocardiography. In the liraglutide group, more patients had a normal left ventricular systolic function (68%, 59 patients) compared to placebo (53%, 44 patients), difference = 15%, 95%CI = 0-30, p = 0.049. Assessment of the right ventricle revealed no difference in function. CONCLUSIONS: Patients receiving short-term preoperative liraglutide treatment better maintained normal myocardial function after cardiac surgery. This study warrants further evaluation of the potential beneficial effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists in cardiac surgery patients.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107264

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: People with type 2 diabetes on insulin are at risk for hypoglycemia. Recurrent hypoglycemia can cause impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH), and increase the risk for severe hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of self-reported IAH and severe hypoglycemia in a Dutch nationwide cohort of people with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Observational study of The Dutch Diabetes Pearl, a cohort of people with type 2 diabetes treated in primary, secondary and tertiary diabetes care centers. The presence of IAH and the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia in the past year, defined as an event requiring external help to recover, were assessed using the validated Dutch version of the Clarke questionnaire. In addition, clinical variables were collected including age, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, ethnicity and education. RESULTS: 2350 people with type 2 diabetes on insulin were included: 59.1% men, mean age 61.1±10.4 years, mean diabetes duration 14.8±9.2 years and 79.5% on basal-bolus therapy. A total of 229 patients (9.7%) were classified as having IAH and 742 patients (31.6%) reported severe hypoglycemia. Increased odds for IAH were found with complex insulin regimens and lower odds with having a partner and body mass index ≥30 kg/m2. Severe hypoglycemia was associated with complex insulin regimens, non-Caucasian ethnicity and use of psychoactive drugs, and inversely with metformin use. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide cohort, almost one out of ten people with type 2 diabetes on insulin had IAH and >30% had a history of severe hypoglycemia in the past year.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipoglicemia/psicologia , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Insulina/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/análise , Humanos , Hipoglicemia/epidemiologia , Hipoglicemia/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Diabetes Obes Metab ; 22(4): 557-565, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749275

RESUMO

AIMS: Most cardiac surgery patients, with or without diabetes, develop perioperative hyperglycaemia, for which intravenous insulin is the only therapeutic option. This is labour-intensive and carries a risk of hypoglycaemia. We hypothesized that preoperative administration of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide reduces the number of patients requiring insulin for glycaemic control during cardiac surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, balanced (1:1), multicentre randomized, superiority trial, adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery in four Dutch tertiary hospitals were randomized to receive 0.6 mg subcutaneous liraglutide on the evening before surgery and 1.2 mg after induction of anaesthesia or matching placebo. Blood glucose was measured hourly and controlled using an insulin-bolus algorithm. The primary outcome was insulin administration for blood glucose >8.0 mmol/L in the operating theatre. Research pharmacists used centralized, stratified, variable-block, randomization software. Patients, care providers and study personnel were blinded to treatment allocation. RESULTS: Between June 2017 and August 2018, 278 patients were randomized to liraglutide (139) or placebo (139). All patients receiving at least one study drug injection were included in the intention-to-treat analyses (129 in the liraglutide group, 132 in the placebo group). In the liraglutide group, 55 (43%) patients required additional insulin compared with 80 (61%) in the placebo group and absolute difference 18% (95% confidence interval 5.9-30.0, P = 0.003). Dose and number of insulin injections and mean blood glucose were all significantly lower in the liraglutide group. We observed no difference in the incidence of hypoglycaemia, nausea and vomiting, mortality or postoperative complications. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative liraglutide, compared with placebo, reduces insulin requirements while improving perioperative glycaemic control during cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hiperglicemia , Adulto , Glicemia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Liraglutida/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
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