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1.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 57(1): 21-28, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331191

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a relationship exists between the aesthetic scores given to photographic records of the nasolabial region of patients with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and the 5-Year Olds' Index scores of study models for the same participants. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: University of Bristol Dental Hospital, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with nonsyndromic UCLP previously enrolled in the Cleft Care UK (CCUK) Study. METHODS: The CCUK participants, who had both study models and photographs (frontal and worm's eye view), were identified and their records retrieved. These were rated by 2 consultants and 2 senior registrars in orthodontics. The 5-Year Olds' Index was used to score the study models, and at a separate sitting, a 5-point Likert scale was used to score the cropped frontal and worm's eye view photographs of the same children. The results were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients and Cohen κ. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlation between the aesthetic scores of the photographic views and the concordant 5-Year Olds' Index scores of the study models. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient scores showed very poor agreement between the photographic views and their concordant study models. The level of inter- and intra-rater reliability was strongest when scoring the study models. CONCLUSIONS: There was no agreement between the scores given to various photographic views and their corresponding study models. Scoring the study models using the 5-Year Olds' Index was the most reliable outcome measure for this age-group.

2.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 56(2): 248-256, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750571

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Can we reliably discriminate severity within the existing categories of the 5-Year-Olds' Index? DESIGN: Retrospective method comparison and development study. SETTING: School of Oral and Dental Science, University of Bristol. METHODS: Dental study models of 5-year-olds with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) were collected from the archives of 2 national cleft surveys (n = 351). One hundred randomly selected models were ranked to construct the modified 5-Year-Olds' Index and also scored using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Reliability testing was performed on 51 study models. Visual analogue scale scores were used to aid statistical analysis and investigate the reliability of a VAS for outcome measurement. The modified 5-Year-Olds' Index was then applied to 198 study models of 5-year-olds with UCLP. RESULTS: The modified 5-Year-Olds' Index showed excellent intra and interexaminer agreement (intraclass correlation > 0.94) and good discrimination of severity. When applied to the Cleft Care UK participants (n = 198), the modified 5-Year-Olds' Index showed good discrimination of severity within the better categories (groups 1-3) of the 5-Year-Olds' Index. Visual analogue Scale scores resulted in unacceptable variation between measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The new modified 5-Year-Olds' Index is a reliable method of assessing outcomes at 5 years of age and showed improved discriminatory power between the "better" outcome categories than the original 5-Year-Olds' Index. A VAS was found to be unsuitable for assessing outcome at 5 years of age for children with UCLP.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Pré-Escolar , Arco Dental , Modelos Dentários , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Arch Dis Child ; 103(4): 356-362, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29097368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We used national data to study differences in academic achievement between 5-year-old children with an isolated oral cleft and the general population. We also assessed differences by cleft type. METHODS: Children born in England with an oral cleft were identified in a national cleft registry. Their records were linked to databases of hospital admissions (to identify additional anomalies) and educational outcomes. Z-scores (signed number of SD actual score is above national average) were calculated to make outcome scores comparable across school years and across six assessed areas (personal development, communication and language, maths, knowledge of world, physical development andcreative development). RESULTS: 2802 children without additional anomalies, 5 years old between 2006 and 2012, were included. Academic achievement was significantly below national average for all six assessed areas with z-scores ranging from -0.24 (95% CI -0.32 to -0.16) for knowledge of world to -0.31 (-0.38 to -0.23) for personal development. Differences were small with only a cleft lip but considerably larger with clefts involving the palate. 29.4% of children were documented as having special education needs (national rate 9.7%), which varied according to cleft type from 13.2% with cleft lip to 47.6% with bilateral cleft lip and palate. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with national average, 5-year-old children with an isolated oral cleft, especially those involving the palate, have significantly poorer academic achievement across all areas of learning. These outcomes reflect results of modern surgical techniques and multidisciplinary approach. Children with a cleft may benefit from extra academic support when starting school.


Assuntos
Sucesso Acadêmico , Fenda Labial/psicologia , Fissura Palatina/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 54(1): 80-89, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26752135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess grommet insertion practice in the first 5 years of life among children with an orofacial cleft in England. DESIGN: Analysis of national administrative data of hospital admissions. SETTING: National Health Service hospitals, England. PATIENTS: Patients born between 1997 and 2005 who underwent surgical cleft repair. INTERVENTION: Children receiving grommets before the age of 5 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: The proportion of children receiving grommets before the age of 5 years, the timing of the first grommet insertion, and the proportion of children having repeat grommet insertions were examined according to cleft type, the absence or presence of additional anomalies, socioeconomic deprivation, and region of residence. RESULTS: The study included 8,269 children. Before the age of 5 years, 3,015 (36.5%) children received grommets. Of these, 33.2% received their first grommets at primary cleft repair and 33.3% underwent multiple grommet insertion procedures. The most common age for the first procedure was between 6 and 12 months. Children with a cleft affecting the palate were more likely to receive grommets than children with a cleft lip alone (45.5% versus 4.5%). Grommet insertion practice also varied according to year of birth, absence or presence of additional anomalies, socioeconomic deprivation, and region of residence. CONCLUSION: Grommets practice in children with a cleft appears to vary according to their clinical characteristics. The differences in practice observed according to deprivation and region of residence need to be further explored.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/complicações , Fissura Palatina/complicações , Ventilação da Orelha Média/estatística & dados numéricos , Otite Média com Derrame/etiologia , Otite Média com Derrame/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (6): CD002281, 2014 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24934383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Removing dental plaque may play a key role maintaining oral health. There is conflicting evidence for the relative merits of manual and powered toothbrushing in achieving this. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2003, and previously updated in 2005. OBJECTIVES: To compare manual and powered toothbrushes in everyday use, by people of any age, in relation to the removal of plaque, the health of the gingivae, staining and calculus, dependability, adverse effects and cost. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 23 January 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 23 January 2014), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 23 January 2014) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 23 January 2014). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of at least four weeks of unsupervised powered toothbrushing versus manual toothbrushing for oral health in children and adults. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Random-effects models were used provided there were four or more studies included in the meta-analysis, otherwise fixed-effect models were used. Data were classed as short term (one to three months) and long term (greater than three months). MAIN RESULTS: Fifty-six trials met the inclusion criteria; 51 trials involving 4624 participants provided data for meta-analysis. Five trials were at low risk of bias, five at high and 46 at unclear risk of bias.There is moderate quality evidence that powered toothbrushes provide a statistically significant benefit compared with manual toothbrushes with regard to the reduction of plaque in both the short term (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.50 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.70 to -0.31); 40 trials, n = 2871) and long term (SMD -0.47 (95% CI -0.82 to -0.11; 14 trials, n = 978). These results correspond to an 11% reduction in plaque for the Quigley Hein index (Turesky) in the short term and 21% reduction long term. Both meta-analyses showed high levels of heterogeneity (I(2) = 83% and 86% respectively) that was not explained by the different powered toothbrush type subgroups.With regard to gingivitis, there is moderate quality evidence that powered toothbrushes again provide a statistically significant benefit when compared with manual toothbrushes both in the short term (SMD -0.43 (95% CI -0.60 to -0.25); 44 trials, n = 3345) and long term (SMD -0.21 (95% CI -0.31 to -0.12); 16 trials, n = 1645). This corresponds to a 6% and 11% reduction in gingivitis for the Löe and Silness index respectively. Both meta-analyses showed high levels of heterogeneity (I(2) = 82% and 51% respectively) that was not explained by the different powered toothbrush type subgroups.The number of trials for each type of powered toothbrush varied: side to side (10 trials), counter oscillation (five trials), rotation oscillation (27 trials), circular (two trials), ultrasonic (seven trials), ionic (four trials) and unknown (five trials). The greatest body of evidence was for rotation oscillation brushes which demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in plaque and gingivitis at both time points. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Powered toothbrushes reduce plaque and gingivitis more than manual toothbrushing in the short and long term. The clinical importance of these findings remains unclear. Observation of methodological guidelines and greater standardisation of design would benefit both future trials and meta-analyses.Cost, reliability and side effects were inconsistently reported. Any reported side effects were localised and only temporary.


Assuntos
Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar/efeitos adversos , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar/economia , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Placa Dentária/complicações , Doenças da Gengiva/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Doenças Periodontais/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Escovação Dentária/métodos
6.
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 24(3): 200-8, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23962045

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with clefts have an increased tendency for dental anomalies and caries. AIM: To determine the pattern of hospital admissions for dental treatment during primary dentition among children with clefts. DESIGN: Cohort study based on Hospital Episode Statistics, an administrative database of all admissions to National Health Service hospitals in England. Patients born alive between 1997 and 2003 who had both a cleft diagnosis and cleft repair were included. The number of hospital admissions for surgical removal of teeth, simple extraction of teeth, and restoration of teeth before the age of seven was examined. RESULTS: Eight hundred and fifty-eight hospital admissions for dental treatment among 6551 children (<7 year) with a cleft were identified. 66.4% of admissions were primarily for caries and 95.6% involved extractions. 11.4% of children had at least one admission for dental treatment. The presence of additional anomalies, having a more severe cleft type, and living in relatively deprived areas increased the risk of hospital admission. CONCLUSIONS: Factors increasing the risk of hospital admission among cleft children should be taken into account when planning services. Efforts to reduce the number of hospital admissions should be focused on disease prevention, particularly among those most at risk of caries.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/terapia , Fissura Palatina/terapia , Hospitalização , Admissão do Paciente , Doenças Estomatognáticas/terapia , Criança , Fenda Labial/complicações , Fissura Palatina/complicações , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra , Humanos , Classe Social , Doenças Estomatognáticas/complicações
7.
Arch Dis Child ; 98(12): 970-4, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23968774

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse hospital admissions in the first 2 years of life among children with cleft lip and/or palate in England. DESIGN: Analysis of national administrative data of hospital admissions. SETTING: National Health Service hospitals. PATIENTS: Patients born alive between 1997 and 2008 who underwent surgical cleft repair. OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of admissions, including the birth episode, and days spent in hospital were examined. Children were analysed according to cleft type and whether or not they had additional congenital anomalies. RESULTS: 10 892 children were included. In their first 2 years, children without additional anomalies (n=8482) had on average 3.2 admissions and 13.2 days in hospital, which varied from 2.6 admissions and 9.2 days with cleft lip to 4.7 admissions and 19.7 days with bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP). Children with additional anomalies (n=2410) had on average 6.7 admissions and 51.4 days in hospital, which varied from 6.4 admissions and 48.5 days with cleft palate to 8.8 admissions and 67.5 days with BCLP. The mean number and duration of cleft-related admissions was similar in children without (1.6 admissions and 6.4 days) and in those with additional anomalies (1.5 admissions and 8.5 days). 35.2% of children without additional anomalies had at least one emergency admission, whereas the corresponding figure was 67.3% with additional anomalies. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of hospital care in the first 2 years of life varied according to cleft type and presence of additional anomalies. However, cleft-specific hospital care did not differ between children with and without additional anomalies.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 12: 148, 2012 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22682355

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 1998, a process of centralisation was initiated for services for children born with a cleft lip or palate in the UK. We studied the timing of this process in England according to its impact on the number of hospitals and surgeons involved in primary surgical repairs. METHODS: All live born patients with a cleft lip and/or palate born between April 1997 and December 2008 were identified in Hospital Episode Statistics, the database of admissions to English National Health Service hospitals. Children were included if they had diagnostic codes for a cleft as well as procedure codes for a primary surgical cleft repair. Children with codes indicating additional congenital anomalies or syndromes were excluded as their additional problems could have determined when and where they were treated. RESULTS: We identified 10,892 children with a cleft. 21.0% were excluded because of additional anomalies or syndromes. Of the remaining 8,606 patients, 30.4% had a surgical lip repair only, 41.7% a palate repair only, and 28.0% both a lip and palate repair. The number of hospitals that carried out these primary repairs reduced from 49 in 1997 to 13, with 11 of these performing repairs on at least 40 children born in 2008. The number of surgeons responsible for repairs reduced from 98 to 26, with 22 performing repairs on at least 20 children born in 2008. In the same period, average length of hospital stay reduced from 3.8 to 3.0 days for primary lip repairs, from 3.8 to 3.3 days for primary palate repairs, and from 4.6 to 2.6 days for combined repairs with no evidence for a change in emergency readmission rates. The speed of centralisation varied with the earliest of the nine regions completing it in 2001 and the last in 2007. CONCLUSIONS: Between 1998 and 2007, cleft services in England were centralised. According to a survey among patients' parents, the quality of cleft care improved in the same period. Surgical care became more consistent with current recommendations. However, key outcomes, including facial appearance and speech, can only be assessed many years after the initial surgical treatment.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Hospitais Especializados/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Médicos Regionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Plástica/normas , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Fenda Labial/classificação , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/classificação , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Aconselhamento , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Hospitais Especializados/tendências , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirurgia Plástica/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (6): CD008050, 2011 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21678372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Secondary alveolar bone grafting has been widely used to reconstruct alveolar cleft. However, there is still some controversy. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness and safety of different secondary bone grafting methods. SEARCH STRATEGY: The final electronic and handsearches were carried out on 11 February 2011, and included the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. All the Chinese professional journals in the oral and dental field were handsearched and conference proceedings consulted. There was no language or time restriction. SELECTION CRITERIA: Only randomized clinical trials were selected. Patients with the diagnosis of cleft lip and alveolar process only, unilateral cleft lip and palate and bilateral cleft lip and palate involving the alveolar process and greater than 5 years of age were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies independently. Disagreement between the two review authors was resolved by discussion in the review team. The first authors of the included studies were contacted for additional information, if necessary. MAIN RESULTS: Two of 582 potential studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. One trial compared alveolar bone grafting using artificial materials (InFuse bone graft substitute impregnated with BMP-2) with a traditional iliac graft. The other trial investigated the application of fibrin glue to the bone graft. Both trials were small with 21 and 27 patients and were assessed as being at high risk of bias. Any apparent differences between the interventions for outcomes in either study must therefore be treated with great caution and are not highlighted here. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Due to the high level of risk of bias in the two included trials there is insufficient evidence to conclude that one intervention is superior to another.


Assuntos
Processo Alveolar/cirurgia , Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Adolescente , Aumento do Rebordo Alveolar/métodos , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/uso terapêutico , Criança , Adesivo Tecidual de Fibrina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ílio/transplante , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; (12): CD004971, 2010 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21154357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Powered brushes were first introduced commercially in the 1960s. A recent systematic review suggested the superiority of certain modes of powered over manual toothbrushing for plaque and gingivitis reduction. That review did not allow for direct comparison between different modes of powered toothbrush. OBJECTIVES: To compare different modes of powered toothbrushing against each other for plaque reduction and the health of the gingivae. Other factors to be assessed were calculus and stain removal, cost, dependability and adverse effects. SEARCH STRATEGY: The following databases were searched: Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 26 July 2010); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3); MEDLINE via OVID (1950 to 26 July 2010); EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 26 July 2010); CINAHL via EBSCO (1982 to 26 July 2010). There were no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Trials were considered for inclusion with the following criteria: random allocation of participants; no compromised manual dexterity; unsupervised powered toothbrushing for at least 4 weeks. The primary outcomes were the plaque and gingivitis scores after powered toothbrush use during trial period. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data extraction was performed independently and in duplicate. The authors of trials were contacted to provide missing data where possible. The effect measure for each meta-analysis was the standardised mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the random-effects model. Potential sources of heterogeneity were assessed. MAIN RESULTS: The review included data from 15 trials with 1015 participants. Due to the dearth of trials assessing the same mode of action, no definitive conclusions can be stated regarding the superiority of one mode of powered toothbrush over any other. Only minor and transient side effects were reported. Cost, dependability were not reported. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Further trials of good quality are required to establish if any mode of action has superiority over the other modes of action for powered toothbrushes.


Assuntos
Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar , Placa Dentária/prevenção & controle , Gengivite/prevenção & controle , Escovação Dentária/instrumentação , Dispositivos para o Cuidado Bucal Domiciliar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Escovação Dentária/efeitos adversos
11.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 92(8): 643-6, 2010 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20615302

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In 1998, the Clinical Standards Advisory Group (CSAG) report demonstrated a successful radiographic outcome of 58%, for alveolar bone grafting, from 157 cases of unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) in children aged 12 years. No further national studies have assessed the current level of radiographic outcome following the re-organisation of cleft services since the recommendations from the CSAG report. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 2008, radiographic images were requested for alveolar bone grafts performed in calendar year 2006 from each of the now established UK cleft centres. A sample of 206 patients with 235 grafted sites was scored by a panel of trained assessors, following a calibration exercise, using a modified Kindelan index. Inter- and intra-observer variation was assessed. RESULTS: The overall radiographic success rate for the 2006 images assessed was 85%. There was no statistical difference for radiographic success between centres or surgeons or cleft type when defined as either a bilateral or unilateral alveolar defect for a patient. CONCLUSIONS: Alveolar bone grafting appears to have improved radiographic outcomes when compared with the CSAG report following the re-organisation of surgical services for children with cleft lip and/or palate.


Assuntos
Alveoloplastia/métodos , Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Criança , Fenda Labial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fissura Palatina/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Radiografia , Resultado do Tratamento
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