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2.
Gigascience ; 10(1)2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The main goal of this collaborative effort is to provide genome-wide data for the previously underrepresented population in Eastern Europe, and to provide cross-validation of the data from genome sequences and genotypes of the same individuals acquired by different technologies. We collected 97 genome-grade DNA samples from consented individuals representing major regions of Ukraine that were consented for public data release. BGISEQ-500 sequence data and genotypes by an Illumina GWAS chip were cross-validated on multiple samples and additionally referenced to 1 sample that has been resequenced by Illumina NovaSeq6000 S4 at high coverage. RESULTS: The genome data have been searched for genomic variation represented in this population, and a number of variants have been reported: large structural variants, indels, copy number variations, single-nucletide polymorphisms, and microsatellites. To our knowledge, this study provides the largest to-date survey of genetic variation in Ukraine, creating a public reference resource aiming to provide data for medical research in a large understudied population. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the genetic diversity of the Ukrainian population is uniquely shaped by evolutionary and demographic forces and cannot be ignored in future genetic and biomedical studies. These data will contribute a wealth of new information bringing forth a wealth of novel, endemic and medically related alleles.

3.
Cell ; 184(2): 404-421.e16, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357445

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has high relapse and low 5-year survival rates. Single-cell profiling in relapsed HCC may aid in the design of effective anticancer therapies, including immunotherapies. We profiled the transcriptomes of ∼17,000 cells from 18 primary or early-relapse HCC cases. Early-relapse tumors have reduced levels of regulatory T cells, increased dendritic cells (DCs), and increased infiltrated CD8+ T cells, compared with primary tumors, in two independent cohorts. Remarkably, CD8+ T cells in recurrent tumors overexpressed KLRB1 (CD161) and displayed an innate-like low cytotoxic state, with low clonal expansion, unlike the classical exhausted state observed in primary HCC. The enrichment of these cells was associated with a worse prognosis. Differential gene expression and interaction analyses revealed potential immune evasion mechanisms in recurrent tumor cells that dampen DC antigen presentation and recruit innate-like CD8+ T cells. Our comprehensive picture of the HCC ecosystem provides deeper insights into immune evasion mechanisms associated with tumor relapse.

4.
J Hepatol ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common type of biliary tract cancer, but the molecular mechanisms involved in gallbladder carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. In this study, we applied integrative genomics approaches to characterize GBC and explore molecular subtypes associated with patient survival. METHODS: We profiled the mutational landscape of GBC tumors (whole-exome sequencing on 92, targeted sequencing on 98, in total 190 patients). In a subset (n=45), we interrogated the matched transcriptomes, DNA methylomes and somatic copy number alterations. We explored molecular subtypes identified through clustering tumors by genes whose expression were associated with survival in 47 tumors and validated subtypes on 34 publicly available GBC cases. RESULTS: Exome analysis revealed TP53 was the most mutated gene. The overall mutation rate was low (median 0.82 Mut/Mb). APOBEC-mediated mutational signatures were more common in tumors with higher mutational burden. Aflatoxin-related signatures tended to be highly clonal (present in ≥50% of cancer cells). Transcriptome-wide survival association analysis revealed a 95-gene signature that stratified all GBC patients into three subtypes that suggested an association with overall survival post-resection. The two poor-survival subtypes were associated with adverse clinicopathologic features (advanced stage, pN1, pM1), immunosuppressive microenvironments (myeloid-derived suppressor cell accumulation, extensive desmoplasia, hypoxia) and T cell dysfunction, while the good-survival subtype showed the opposite features. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that the tumor microenvironment and immune profiles could play an important role in gallbladder carcinogenesis and should be evaluated in future clinical studies, along with mutational profiles.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277433

RESUMO

Western South America was one of the worldwide cradles of civilization. The well-known Inca Empire was the tip of the iceberg of an evolutionary process that started 11,000 to 14,000 years ago. Genetic data from 18 Peruvian populations reveal the following: 1) The between-population homogenization of the central southern Andes and its differentiation with respect to Amazonian populations of similar latitudes do not extend northward. Instead, longitudinal gene flow between the northern coast of Peru, Andes, and Amazonia accompanied cultural and socioeconomic interactions revealed by archeology. This pattern recapitulates the environmental and cultural differentiation between the fertile north, where altitudes are lower, and the arid south, where the Andes are higher, acting as a genetic barrier between the sharply different environments of the Andes and Amazonia. 2) The genetic homogenization between the populations of the arid Andes is not only due to migrations during the Inca Empire or the subsequent colonial period. It started at least during the earlier expansion of the Wari Empire (600 to 1,000 years before present). 3) This demographic history allowed for cases of positive natural selection in the high and arid Andes vs. the low Amazon tropical forest: in the Andes, a putative enhancer in HAND2-AS1 (heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 2 antisense RNA1, a noncoding gene related to cardiovascular function) and rs269868-C/Ser1067 in DUOX2 (dual oxidase 2, related to thyroid function and innate immunity) genes and, in the Amazon, the gene encoding for the CD45 protein, essential for antigen recognition by T and B lymphocytes in viral-host interaction.

6.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 642, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144666

RESUMO

The liver and gallbladder are among the most important internal organs derived from the endoderm, yet the development of the liver and gallbladder in the early embryonic stages is not fully understood. Using a transgenic Foxa2eGFP reporter mouse line, we performed single-cell full-length mRNA sequencing on endodermal and hepatic cells isolated from ten embryonic stages, ranging from E7.5 to E15.5. We identified the embryonic liver developmental trajectory from gut endoderm to hepatoblasts and characterized the transcriptome of the hepatic lineage. More importantly, we identified liver primordium as the nascent hepatic progenitors with both gut and liver features and documented dynamic gene expression during the epithelial-hepatic transition (EHT) at the stage of liver specification during E9.5-11.5. We found six groups of genes switched on or off in the EHT process, including diverse transcripitional regulators that had not been previously known to be expressed during EHT. Moreover, we identified and revealed transcriptional profiling of gallbladder primordium at E9.5. The present data provides a high-resolution resource and critical insights for understanding the liver and gallbladder development.

7.
BMC Med Genomics ; 13(1): 165, 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148256

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare, often-aggressive neoplasm of the adrenal cortex, with a 14-17 month median overall survival. We asked whether tumors from patients with advanced or metastatic ACC would offer clues as to putative genes that might have critical roles in disease progression or in more aggressive disease biology. METHODS: We conducted comprehensive genomic and expression analyses of ACCs from 43 patients, 30 female, and 42 from metastatic sites, including deep sequencing, copy number analysis, mRNA expression and microRNA arrays. RESULTS: Copy number gains and losses were similar to that previously reported for ACC. We identified a median mutation rate of 3.38 per megabase (Mb). The mutational signature was characterized by a predominance of C > T, C > A and T > C transitions. Only cancer genes TP53 (26%) and beta-catenin (CTNNB1, 14%) were mutated in more than 10% of samples. The TCGA-identified putative cancer genes MEN1 and PRKAR1A were found in low frequency-4.7 and 2.3%, respectively. The majority of the mutations were in genes not implicated in the etiology or maintenance of cancer. Specifically, amongst the 38 genes that were mutated in more than 9% of samples, only four were represented in Tier 1 of the 576 COSMIC Cancer Gene Census (CCGC). Thus, 82% of genes found to have mutations likely have no role in the etiology or biology of ACC; while the role of the other 18%, if any, remains to be proven. Finally, the transcript length for the 38 most frequently mutated genes in ACC is statistically longer than the average of all coding genes, raising the question of whether transcript length in part determined mutation probability. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the mutational and expression profiles of advanced and metastatic tumors are very similar to those from newly diagnosed patients-with very little in the way of genomic aberration to explain differences in biology. With relatively low mutation rates, few major oncogenic drivers, and loss of function mutations in several epigenetic regulators, an epigenetic basis for ACC may be postulated and serve as the basis for future studies.

9.
FEBS Lett ; 2020 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978974

RESUMO

Members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily translocate a broad spectrum of chemically diverse substrates. While their eponymous ATP-binding cassette in the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) is highly conserved, their transmembrane domains (TMDs) forming the translocation pathway exhibit distinct folds and topologies, suggesting that during evolution the ancient motor domains were combined with different transmembrane mechanical systems to orchestrate a variety of cellular processes. In recent years, it has become increasingly evident that the distinct TMD folds are best suited to categorize the multitude of ABC transporters. We therefore propose a new ABC transporter classification that is based on structural homology in the TMDs.

10.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1406, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of death in low- and middle-income countries. Self-collection testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) is an alternative form of cervical cancer screening that can be completed privately and at home. Understanding how the use of HPV testing influences follow-up care in low-resourced settings is crucial before broad implementation. This study aimed to identify if access to self-collection HPV testing impacts participation in established cervical cancer screening programs among women in two rural communities in Guatemala. METHODS: A cohort of 956 women was recruited in 2016 and followed for 2 years for the HPV Multiethnic Study (HPV MES). At baseline, women answered a questionnaire assessing cervical cancer screening history and were offered self-collection HPV testing. Women were re-contacted yearly to determine receipt of additional screening. Statistical changes in screening behavior before and throughout study participation, stratified by self-collection status, were assessed using McNemar pair tests for proportions. Alluvial plots were constructed to depict changes in individual screening behavior. The odds of changes in Pap-compliance (screened in past 3 years), given collection status, were assessed using multivariate logistic regressions. RESULTS: Reported screening rates increased 2 years after enrollment compared to rates reported for the 3 years before study entry among women who collected a sample (19.1% increase, p < 0.05), received results of their test (22.1% increase, p < 0.05), and received positive (24.2% increase, p < 0.1) or negative results (21.7% increase, p < 0.05). However, most increases came from one community, with minimal changes in the other. The adjusted odds of becoming Pap compliant were higher for women who collected a sample vs. did not (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 0.64, 3.40), received their result vs. did not (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.52, 3.02), and received a positive result vs. negative (OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 0.63, 16.10). CONCLUSIONS: Participation in self-collection HPV testing campaigns may increase likelihood of involvement in screening programs. However, results varied between communities, and reporting of screening histories was inconsistent. Future work should identify what community-specific factors promote success in HPV testing programs and focus on improving education on existing cervical cancer interventions.

11.
Oncogene ; 39(39): 6172-6189, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820253

RESUMO

Androgen receptor (AR), is a transcription factor and a member of a hormone receptor superfamily. AR plays a vital role in the progression of prostate cancer and is a crucial target for therapeutic interventions. While the majority of advanced-stage prostate cancer patients will initially respond to the androgen deprivation, the disease often progresses to castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Interestingly, CRPC tumors continue to depend on hyperactive AR signaling and will respond to potent second-line antiandrogen therapies, including bicalutamide (CASODEX®) and enzalutamide (XTANDI®). However, the progression-free survival rate for the CRPC patients on antiandrogen therapies is only 8-19 months. Hence, there is a need to understand the mechanisms underlying CRPC progression and eventual treatment resistance. Here, we have leveraged next-generation sequencing and newly developed analytical methodologies to evaluate the role of AR signaling in regulating the transcriptome of prostate cancer cells. The genomic and pharmacologic stimulation and inhibition of AR activity demonstrates that AR regulates alternative splicing within cancer-relevant genes. Furthermore, by integrating transcriptomic data from in vitro experiments and in prostate cancer patients, we found that a significant number of AR-regulated splicing events are associated with tumor progression. For example, we found evidence for an inadvertent AR-antagonist-mediated switch in IDH1 and PL2G2A isoform expression, which is associated with a decrease in overall survival of patients. Mechanistically, we discovered that the epithelial-specific splicing regulators (ESRP1 and ESRP2), flank many AR-regulated alternatively spliced exons. And, using 2D invasion assays, we show that the inhibition of ESRPs can suppress AR-antagonist-driven tumor invasion. Our work provides evidence for a new mechanism by which AR alters the transcriptome of prostate cancer cells by modulating alternative splicing. As such, our work has important implications for CRPC progression and development of resistance to treatment with bicalutamide and enzalutamide.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32784501

RESUMO

(1) Background: The hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway is a key regulator of embryonic patterning, tissue regeneration, stem cell renewal, and cancer growth. The smoothened (SMO) protein regulates the HH signaling pathway and has demonstrated oncogenic activity. (2) Methods: To clarify the role of the HH signaling pathway in tumorigenesis, the expression profile of key HH signaling molecules, including SMO, PTCH1, GLI1, GLI2, and GLI3, were determined in 33 cancer cell lines and normal prostate cells and tissues. We performed a computational analysis of the upstream region of the SMO gene to identify the regulatory elements. (3) Results: Three potential CpG islands and several putative SMO promoter elements were identified. Luciferase reporter assays mapped key SMO promoter elements, and functional binding sites for SP1, AP1, CREB, and AP-2α transcription factors in the core SMO promoter region were confirmed. A hypermethylated SMO promoter was identified in several cancer cell lines suggesting an important role for epigenetic silencing of SMO expression in certain cancer cells. (4) Discussion: These results have important implications for our understanding of regulatory mechanisms controlling HH pathway activity and the molecular basis of SMO gene function. Moreover, this study may prove valuable for future research aimed at producing therapeutic downregulation of SMO expression in cancer cells.

13.
ASAIO J ; 66(8): 960-965, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740359

RESUMO

Tunneled central venous catheters (TCVCs) are colonized by Gram-positive organisms and form biofilm. Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a Gram-positive cell wall component that can be measured in serum. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize LTA concentrations in hemodialysis (HD) patients with TCVCs compared to other access types and to evaluate biofilm morphology and microbiology in TCVCs removed by clinical decision. The study enrolled patients with TCVCs (18), grafts (19), and fistulas (18). Blood samples were collected before HD, at 30 minutes, 2 hours, and end of HD. Catheters removed by clinical decision were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for biofilm morphology, and portions of the catheter were cultured. LTA was detectable in all samples and concentrations increased significantly in all access types during HD (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Patients with TCVCs that had a >30% increase in LTA concentration from baseline also had the greatest rate of increase (slope) compared to grafts and fistulas (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively). Catheters removed by clinical decision (n = 7) and examined by SEM had deposition of fibrin. Cultures revealed polymicrobial colonization. TCVCs had the highest rate of increase of LTA during HD. Further studies to determine the source of LTA in patients with AVG and AVF are warranted.

14.
Cancer Res ; 80(18): 3803-3809, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32631904

RESUMO

Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 displays substantial sequence variation; four HPV16 lineages (A, B, C, and D) have been described as well as multiple sublineages. To identify molecular events associated with HPV16 carcinogenesis, we evaluated viral variation, the integration of HPV16, and somatic mutation in 96 cervical cancer samples from Guatemala. A total of 65% (62/96) of the samples had integrated HPV16 sequences and integration was associated with an earlier age of diagnosis and premenopausal disease. HPV16 integration sites were broadly distributed in the genome, but in one tumor, HPV16 integrated into the promoter of the IFN regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) gene, which plays an important role in the regulation of the IFN response to viral infection. The HPV16 D2 and D3 sublineages were found in 23% and 30% of the tumors, respectively, and were significantly associated with adenocarcinoma. D2-positive tumors had a higher rate of integration, earlier age of diagnosis, and a lower rate of somatic mutation, whereas D3-positive tumors were less likely to integrate, had later age of diagnosis, and exhibited a higher rate of somatic mutation. In conclusion, Guatemalan cervical tumors have a high frequency of very high-risk HPV16 D2 and D3 sublineages harboring distinct histology, which may help guide future therapeutic strategies to target the tumor and reduce recurrence. SIGNIFICANCE: This study details the biological and molecular properties of the most pathogenic forms of HPV16, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In Guatemala, cirrhosis is among the 10 leading causes of death, and mortality rates have increased lately. The reasons for this heavy burden of disease are not clear as the prevalence of prominent risk factors, such as hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and heavy alcohol consumption, appears to be low. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure, however, appears to be high, and thus could be associated with the high burden of cirrhosis. Whether AFB1 increases the risk of cirrhosis in the absence of viral infection, however, is not clear. DESIGN: Cirrhosis cases (n=100) from two major referral hospitals in Guatemala City were compared with controls (n=200) from a cross-sectional study. Logistic regression was used to estimate the ORs and 95% CIs of cirrhosis and quintiles of AFB1 in crude and adjusted models. A sex-stratified analysis was also conducted. RESULTS: The median AFB1 level was significantly higher among the cases (11.4 pg/mg) than controls (5.11 pg/mg). In logistic regression analyses, higher levels of AFB1 was associated with cirrhosis (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, OR: 11.55; 95% CI 4.05 to 32.89). No attenuation was observed with adjustment by sex, ethnicity, hepatitis B virus status, and heavy alcohol consumption. A significantly increasing trend in association was observed in both models (p trend <0.01). Additionally, the cirrhosis-AFB1 association was more prominent among men. CONCLUSIONS: The current study found a significant positive association between AFB1 exposure and cirrhosis. Mitigation of AFB1 exposure and a better understanding of additional risk factors may be important to reduce the burden of cirrhosis in Guatemala.

16.
Cell Res ; 30(11): 1024-1042, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686767

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an aggressive malignancy with extremely skewed ethnic and geographic distributions. Increasing evidence indicates that targeting the tumor microenvironment (TME) represents a promising therapeutic approach in NPC, highlighting an urgent need to deepen the understanding of the complex NPC TME. Here, we generated single-cell transcriptome profiles for 7581 malignant cells and 40,285 immune cells from fifteen primary NPC tumors and one normal sample. We revealed malignant signatures capturing intratumoral transcriptional heterogeneity and predicting aggressiveness of malignant cells. Diverse immune cell subtypes were identified, including novel subtypes such as CLEC9A+ dendritic cells (DCs). We further revealed transcriptional regulators underlying immune cell diversity, and cell-cell interaction analyses highlighted promising immunotherapeutic targets in NPC. Moreover, we established the immune subtype-specific signatures, and demonstrated that the signatures of macrophages, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), CLEC9A+ DCs, natural killer (NK) cells, and plasma cells were significantly associated with improved survival outcomes in NPC. Taken together, our findings represent a unique resource providing in-depth insights into the cellular heterogeneity of NPC TME and highlight potential biomarkers for anticancer treatment and risk stratification, laying a new foundation for precision therapies in NPC.

17.
Health Sci Rep ; 3(2): e155, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382660

RESUMO

Background and aims: Guatemala has the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the Western hemisphere. The major risk factors in Guatemala are not well characterized, but the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) appears to be low, while the prevalence of aflatoxin (AFB1) exposure appears to be high. To examine whether AFB1 may contribute to the elevated incidence of HCC in Guatemala, this study examined the frequency of the AFB1-signature mutation in the TP53 gene (R249S) as well as other somatic mutations. In addition, we assessed whether the frequency of the TP53 mutation differed by sex. Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) HCC tissues were obtained from three hospitals in Guatemala City between 2016 and 2017. In addition, tumor tissues preserved in RNAlater were also obtained. Sociodemographic and clinical information including HBV and HCV status were collected. Targeted sequencing of TP53 was performed in the FFPE samples, and a panel of 253 cancer-related genes was sequenced in the RNAlater samples. Results: Ninety-one FFPE tissues were examined, from 52 men and 39 women. Median (IQR) age at diagnosis was 62 (51-70). Among those with known HBV and HCV status, two were HBV+ and three were HCV+. Overall, 47% of the HCCs had a TP53 mutation. The AFB1-signature R249S mutation was present in 24%. No overlap between the R249S mutation and HBV+ was observed in this cohort. Among 18 RNAlater samples examined, 44% had any TP53 mutation and 33% had the R249S mutation. Other somatic mutations were identified in known HCC driver genes. Conclusions: The presence of the TP53 R249S mutation in the samples studied suggests that AFB1 may contribute to the high incidence of HCC in Guatemala. The proportion of HBV+ tumors was low, suggesting that AFB1 may be associated with HCC in the absence of concomitant HBV infection. Further investigation of AFB1 and other risk factors for HCC in Guatemala is warranted.

18.
J Clin Invest ; 130(6): 3188-3204, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125284

RESUMO

As there is growing evidence for the tumor microenvironment's role in tumorigenesis, we investigated the role of fibroblast-expressed kinases in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Using a high-throughput kinome screen combined with 3D invasion assays, we identified fibroblast-expressed PIK3Cδ (f-PIK3Cδ) as a key regulator of cancer progression. Although PIK3Cδ was expressed in primary fibroblasts derived from TNBC patients, it was barely detectable in breast cancer (BC) cell lines. Genetic and pharmacological gain- and loss-of-function experiments verified the contribution of f-PIK3Cδ in TNBC cell invasion. Integrated secretomics and transcriptomics analyses revealed a paracrine mechanism via which f-PIK3Cδ confers its protumorigenic effects. Inhibition of f-PIK3Cδ promoted the secretion of factors, including PLGF and BDNF, that led to upregulation of NR4A1 in TNBC cells, where it acts as a tumor suppressor. Inhibition of PIK3Cδ in an orthotopic BC mouse model reduced tumor growth only after inoculation with fibroblasts, indicating a role of f-PIK3Cδ in cancer progression. Similar results were observed in the MMTV-PyMT transgenic BC mouse model, along with a decrease in tumor metastasis, emphasizing the potential immune-independent effects of PIK3Cδ inhibition. Finally, analysis of BC patient cohorts and TCGA data sets identified f-PIK3Cδ (protein and mRNA levels) as an independent prognostic factor for overall and disease-free survival, highlighting it as a therapeutic target for TNBC.

19.
Mol Biol Evol ; 37(6): 1647-1656, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32128591

RESUMO

The Transatlantic Slave Trade transported more than 9 million Africans to the Americas between the early 16th and the mid-19th centuries. We performed a genome-wide analysis using 6,267 individuals from 25 populations to infer how different African groups contributed to North-, South-American, and Caribbean populations, in the context of geographic and geopolitical factors, and compared genetic data with demographic history records of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. We observed that West-Central Africa and Western Africa-associated ancestry clusters are more prevalent in northern latitudes of the Americas, whereas the South/East Africa-associated ancestry cluster is more prevalent in southern latitudes of the Americas. This pattern results from geographic and geopolitical factors leading to population differentiation. However, there is a substantial decrease in the between-population differentiation of the African gene pool within the Americas, when compared with the regions of origin from Africa, underscoring the importance of historical factors favoring admixture between individuals with different African origins in the New World. This between-population homogenization in the Americas is consistent with the excess of West-Central Africa ancestry (the most prevalent in the Americas) in the United States and Southeast-Brazil, with respect to historical-demography expectations. We also inferred that in most of the Americas, intercontinental admixture intensification occurred between 1750 and 1850, which correlates strongly with the peak of arrivals from Africa. This study contributes with a population genetics perspective to the ongoing social, cultural, and political debate regarding ancestry, admixture, and the mestizaje process in the Americas.

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