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1.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448590

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the transcriptomic differences between patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and controls. PATIENTS AND METHODS: RNA was extracted from cardiac tissue flash frozen at therapeutic surgical septal myectomy for 106 patients with HCM and 39 healthy donor hearts. Expression profiling of 37,846 genes was performed using the Illumina Human HT-12v3 Expression BeadChip. All patients with HCM were genotyped for pathogenic variants causing HCM. Technical validation was performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blot. This study was started on January 1, 1999, and final analysis was completed on April 20, 2020. RESULTS: Overall, 22% of the transcriptome (8443 of 37,846 genes) was expressed differentially between HCM and control tissues. Analysis by genotype revealed that gene expression changes were similar among genotypic subgroups of HCM, with only 4% (1502 of 37,846) to 6% (2336 of 37,846) of the transcriptome exhibiting differential expression between genotypic subgroups. The qRT-PCR confirmed differential expression in 92% (11 of 12 genes) of tested transcripts. Notably, in the context of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the transcript for angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), a negative regulator of the angiotensin system, was the single most up-regulated gene in HCM (fold-change, 3.53; q-value =1.30×10-23), which was confirmed by qRT-PCR in triplicate (fold change, 3.78; P=5.22×10-4), and Western blot confirmed greater than 5-fold overexpression of ACE2 protein (fold change, 5.34; P=1.66×10-6). CONCLUSION: More than 20% of the transcriptome is expressed differentially between HCM and control tissues. Importantly, ACE2 was the most up-regulated gene in HCM, indicating perhaps the heart's compensatory effort to mount an antihypertrophic, antifibrotic response. However, given that the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) uses ACE2 for viral entry, this 5-fold increase in ACE2 protein may confer increased risk for COVID-19 manifestations and outcomes in patients with increased ACE2 transcript expression and protein levels in the heart.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32414597

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To categorize and assess the functional significance of anomalous papillary muscles in patients undergoing surgical management of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: We reviewed the records of operations for obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and identified 73 patients with an anomalous papillary muscle. Anomalous papillary muscles inserting directly into the body of the anterior mitral valve leaflet were classified as type I, those with both direct insertion into the body of the leaflet and attachment to the free edge of the anterior leaflet were categorized as type II, and anomalous papillary muscles inserting into the free edge of the anterior leaflet were grouped as type III. Additionally, we investigated detection rates by preoperative transthoracic echocardiography, intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The mean age of patients was 51.9 ± 12.3 years, and 49.3% were male. The anomalous papillary muscle was classified as type I in 31.5% of patients, type II in 35.6%, and type III in 32.9%. Only type I and type II anomalous papillary muscles contributed to left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The anomalous papillary muscle was detected on preoperative transthoracic echocardiography in 11% of patients and by intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in 27.4% of patients. No anomalous papillary muscles were identified on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. All patients underwent septal myectomy with or without (n = 34) associated excision of the anomalous papillary muscle. Excision of the papillary muscles was more common in patients with type I and II (76.4% and 80.8%, respectively) when compared with type III (4.2%). Ten patients underwent mitral valve repair, and 1 patient had mitral valve replacement. CONCLUSIONS: Papillary muscle abnormalities are important findings in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy but are not identified preoperatively in the majority of patients. Recognition of anomalous papillary muscles intraoperatively and understanding of the morphologic subtypes are critical to adequate gradient relief and preservation of mitral valve function. The optimum approach involves a transaortic extended septal myectomy associated with the resection of the anomalous papillary muscles in patients with type I and II anatomy.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387779

RESUMO

We hypothesized that tricuspid valve regurgitation was associated with increased risk of mortality after pericardiectomy for constrictive pericarditis. We reviewed the records of 518 patients who received pericardiectomy for constrictive pericarditis between January 2000 and December 2016. We excluded cases of radiation induced constrictive pericarditis, tuberculous-related constrictive pericarditis, and concomitant tricuspid valve intervention. Patients were classified according to preoperative transthoracic echocardiography tricuspid regurgitation grade: none/trivial in 276 (53%) patients, mild in 191 (37%), and moderate/severe in 51 (10%). A multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to determine an association between tricuspid valve regurgitation grade and mortality. Primary endpoint of this study was mortality. Median patient age was 62 years (interquartile range 51-69), sex was male in 409 (79%) patients, and left ventricular ejection fraction was 60% (54-65). Clinical follow-up was obtained in all patients at a median of 7.6 years (3.6-11.3). Kaplan-Meier estimates of mortality were 10.6% at 1 year, 23.5% at 5 years, and 39.0% at 10 years. Multivariable analysis demonstrated increased mortality risk with mild tricuspid valve regurgitation vs none/trivial (hazard ratio 1.64; 95% confidence interval 1.11-2.43; P = 0.012) and moderate/severe tricuspid valve regurgitation vs none/trivial (hazard ratio 2.27; 95% confidence interval 1.39-3.69; P = 0.001). These findings were independent of right ventricular function. Tricuspid valve regurgitation is a common and clinically important comorbidity in patients operated with pericardiectomy for constrictive pericarditis. Mild or greater tricuspid valve regurgitation is associated with an increased risk of mortality following operation.

11.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to describe opioid prescribing after hospitalization for elective cardiac operation, to identify factors associated with increased opioid prescriptions, and to develop procedure-specific opioid prescribing guidelines. METHODS: We analyzed data from all adults (≥18 years) undergoing elective cardiac operation for acquired heart disease from July 2014 to March 2017 at 3 affiliated hospitals. Opioid prescription data were abstracted and converted to morphine milligram equivalents (MME). Multivariable logistic regression was performed with the outcome of top-quartile prescriptions. RESULTS: There were 4145 study patients after exclusion of preoperative opioid users (10.5%). Mean ± SD patient age was 63.9 ± 13.2 years, and 68.4% (n = 2835) were male. The operation was the first in 87.3% (3617); the most common operative approach was sternotomy in 91.0% (n = 3773), followed by robot-assisted operation in 4.6% (n = 192). The majority of patients, 72.7%, received an opioid prescription at hospital dismissal, with a median opioid prescription of 200 MME (interquartile range 0 to 375 MME; range 0 to 6400 MME). This varied by hospital, with medians of 150, 450, and 600 MME (P < .001). On multivariable analysis, the factor with greatest association with top-quartile opioid prescription was hospital (odds ratio, 57.2, highest vs lowest; 95% confidence interval, 40.2-81.4; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Significant variation in opioid prescribing practices after cardiac operation was observed. The primary driver was hospital-centric as opposed to patient specific. Opioid prescribing guidelines were established to standardize posthospital pain management.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173099

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The phenomenon of systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve (MV) was discovered 50 years ago, but to date only a few studies have identified risk factors for SAM following mitral repair. There are limited data on the necessity of surgical reintervention on the MV once SAM is discovered by intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. We sought to identify predictors of SAM in a large cohort of consecutive patients, assess the rate of early reintervention on the MV to address SAM, and follow the progression of SAM postdischarge. METHODS: Analysis of electronically stored echocardiographic exams of adults who underwent MV repair in a recent decade. RESULTS: Following MV repair, the incidence of SAM immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass was 13% (98 of 761 patients). Multivariable analysis revealed several preoperative risk factors of SAM development and progression, including a lower ratio of anterior to posterior leaflets heights, younger age, lower end-systolic left ventricular volume, presence of bileaflet prolapse, and male sex. SAM was managed conservatively in 91 patients (93%) and surgically in 7 patients (7%). In a majority of patients (70 of 98 patients [71%]) SAM resolved before hospital discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Transesophageal echocardiography findings associated with SAM were excessive height of posterior to anterior mitral leaflet, smaller left ventricular end-systolic volume, and bileaflet prolapse. Conservative management of SAM was usually successful, and persistent hemodynamically significant SAM was uncommon. Prophylactic modification of the surgical technique to avoid SAM seems unnecessary for all but those at highest risk for developing SAM.

13.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(3): 521-525, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32138879

RESUMO

Severe coronary artery disease is associated with disproportionately increased risks of death in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. There is a paucity of data on the long-term effect of coronary revascularization at the time of myectomy. Between January 1, 1961, and October 31, 2017, 2913 adult patients underwent transaortic septal myectomy at Mayo Clinic. Concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was performed in 246 (8.4%). We compared baseline characteristics of patients who underwent septal myectomy with and without CABG and assessed the effect of surgical revascularization on the risk of all-cause mortality. Patients who underwent concomitant CABG were older (median [interquartile range], 66.3 [59.8-72.1] years vs 54.4 [43.5-64.8] years; P<.0001) and more likely to be male (63.0% vs 54.2%; P=.008) than those who did not undergo coronary revascularization at operation. There was no significant difference in preoperative left ventricular outflow tract gradients (55 [25-81] mm Hg vs 58 [25-88] mm Hg; P=.116). Overall operative mortality (≤30 days after surgery) was 1.0% and higher in patients who underwent concomitant CABG (2.2% vs 0.8%; P=.048). In multivariable analysis (n=2641), factors independently associated with mortality included concomitant CABG (hazard ratio [95% CI], 1.89 [1.39-2.58]; P<.0001), older age at operation (per interquartile range increase, 2.79 [1.95-3.98]; P<.0001), atrial fibrillation (1.46 [1.11-1.92]; P=.006), diabetes (1.45 [1.04-2.04]; P=.031), higher body mass index (change from 0.95 to 0.5 quantile, 1.95 [1.46-2.59]; P<.0001), and surgery performed earlier in the study period (2.02 [1.31-3.11]; P=.001). In conclusion, obstructive coronary artery disease severe enough to prompt concomitant CABG at the time of septal myectomy is an important risk factor for late mortality.

16.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 34(6): 1446-1456, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Assess outcomes after intraoperative plasma transfusion in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective study of adult cardiac surgical between 2011 and 2015. Relationships between plasma transfusion volume, coagulation test values, and a primary outcome of early postoperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion were assessed via multivariable regression analyses. Secondary outcomes included hospital mortality, intensive care unit and hospital-free days, intraoperative RBCs, estimated blood loss, and reoperation for bleeding. SETTING: Academic tertiary referral center. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1,794 patients received intraoperative plasma transfusions during the study period. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Higher plasma transfusion volumes were associated with worse clinical outcomes, with each 1-unit increase being associated with greater odds for postoperative RBCs [odds ratio (OR) 1.12 (confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.20); p = 0.002], intraoperative [OR 1.85 (CI 1.69-2.03); p < 0.001], and fewer hospital-free days [mean -0.20 (-0.39, -0.01); p = 0.04]. Each 0.1 increase in pretransfusion International Normalized Ratio (INR) was associated with increased odds of postoperative and intraoperative RBCs, reoperation for bleeding, and fewer intensive care unit and hospital-free days. For given plasma volumes, patients achieving greater reduction in elevated pretransfusion INR values experienced more favorable outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In patients undergoing cardiac surgery who received intraoperative plasma transfusion, higher plasma transfusion volumes were associated with inferior clinical outcomes. Higher pretransfusion INR values also were associated with worse outcomes; however, those achieving a greater degree of INR correction after plasma transfusion demonstrated more favorable outcomes. Prospective studies related to plasma transfusion are needed to address this important topic.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the outcomes of transcatheter coronary artery fistula (CAF) closure and to identify anatomic/procedural factors that may impact outcomes. BACKGROUND: Due to the rarity of CAF, reported experience with transcatheter closure remains limited and anatomic and procedural factors that may lead to unsuccessful closure, complications, or recanalization of CAF are unclear. METHODS: All patients who underwent transcatheter CAF closure at Mayo Clinic from 1997 to 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. CAF anatomic characteristics, procedural techniques, and clinical/angiographic outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 45 patients underwent transcatheter closure of 56 CAFs. The most commonly used devices were embolization coils in 40 (71.4%) CAFs, vascular occluders in 10 (17.8%), or covered stent in 2 (3.6%). Acute procedural success with no or trivial residual flow occurred in 50 (89.3%) CAFs. Residual flow was small in three (5.4%) and large in three (5.4%). Eight (17.8%) patients had complications, including device migration in three, intracranial hemorrhage from anticoagulation in one, and myocardial infarction (MI) in four. MI was a result of covered stent thrombosis or stagnation of flow after closure of large distal CAF. Twenty-two patients with 27 CAFs had follow-up angiography after successful index procedure at median time of 423 (IQ 97-1348) days. Of these, 23 (85.2%) had no/trace flow and 4 had large flow from recanalization. CONCLUSIONS: Transcatheter CAF closure is associated with a favorable acute procedural success and complication rate in selected patients. Procedural success and risk for complication are highly dependent on CAF anatomy and closure technique.

18.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 109(5): 1626-1627, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982442
20.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 109(2): 452-457, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376377

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data regarding results of surgical management of myocardial bridging. Our objective was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of unroofing procedures in patients with myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery who had chest pain refractory to medical therapy. METHODS: Among 274 adult patients diagnosed with myocardial bridging at our institution (1996-2017), 71 underwent surgical intervention. To understand the potential benefit of unroofing, we excluded patients with concomitant operations for other diagnoses or known obstructive coronary disease. The study included 35 patients with preoperative chest pain and isolated LAD coronary artery bridging who underwent surgical unroofing. We analyzed recurrent symptoms, postoperative medication use, and mortality. RESULTS: Mean age was 48.2 ± 11.2 years (18 men [51%]). All patients underwent preoperative coronary angiography. Endothelial dysfunction in the LAD coronary artery bridged segment was confirmed in 20 of 24 patients (83%). Mean cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp times were 47.6 ± 29.8 minutes and 33.7 ± 22.2 minutes, respectively. Median lengths of hospital and intensive care unit stay were 5 days and 1 day, respectively. During follow-up (median, 31 months; 95% confidence interval, 18-49) there were no cardiac-related deaths, and 22 patients (63%) reported no chest pain. Among 13 symptomatic patients, 10 underwent postoperative noninvasive testing, which was negative for ischemia in all cases. CONCLUSIONS: Myocardial unroofing can be performed safely in patients with chest pain and isolated LAD coronary artery myocardial bridging. However, patients should be aware of the potential for recurrent nonischemic chest pain and continued medical therapy despite relief of coronary compression.

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