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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35286754

RESUMO

Deciphering the plastic (i.e., nonheritable) changes induced by human control over wild animals in the archeological record is challenging. Previous studies detected morphological markers associated with captivity in the cranium, mandible, and calcaneus of adult wild boar (Sus scrofa) but the developmental trajectories leading up to these changes during ontogeny remain unknown. To assess the impact of growth in a captive environment on morphological structures during postnatal ontogeny, we used an experimental approach focusing on the same three structures and taxon. We investigated the form and size differences of captive-reared and wild-caught wild boar during growth using three-dimensional landmark-based geometric morphometrics. Our results provide evidence of an influence of captivity on the morphology of craniomandibular structures, as wild specimens are smaller than captive individuals at similar ages. The food resources inherent to anthropogenic environments may explain some of the observed differences between captive-reared and wild specimens. The calcaneus presents a different contrasted pattern of plasticity as captive and wild individuals differ in terms of form but not in terms of size. The physically more constrained nature of the calcaneus and the direct influence of mobility reduction on this bone may explain these discrepancies. These results provide new methodological perspectives for bioarchaeological approaches as they imply that the plastic mark of captivity can be observed in juvenile specimens in the same way it has been previously described in adults.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7248, 2021 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903755

RESUMO

The coexistence of closely-related species in sympatry is puzzling because ecological niche proximity imposes strong competition and reproductive interference. A striking example is the widespread wing pattern convergence of several blue-banded Morpho butterfly species with overlapping ranges of distribution. Here we perform a series of field experiments using flying Morpho dummies placed in a natural habitat. We show that similarity in wing colour pattern indeed leads to interspecific territoriality and courtship among sympatric species. In spite of such behavioural interference, demographic inference from genomic data shows that sympatric closely-related Morpho species are genetically isolated. Mark-recapture experiments in the two most closely-related species unravel a strong temporal segregation in patrolling activity of males. Such divergence in phenology reduces the costs of reproductive interference while simultaneously preserving the benefits of convergence in non-reproductive traits in response to common ecological pressures. Henceforth, the evolution of multiple traits may favour species diversification in sympatry by partitioning niche in different dimensions.


Assuntos
Borboletas/genética , Especiação Genética , Simpatria , Animais , Mimetismo Biológico , Borboletas/classificação , Corte , Ecossistema , Masculino , Isolamento Reprodutivo , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Territorialidade , Asas de Animais
3.
Science ; 374(6571): 1158-1162, 2021 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822295

RESUMO

The diversity of flying animals suggests that countless combinations of flight morphologies and behaviors have evolved with specific lifestyles, thereby exploiting diverse aerodynamic mechanisms. How morphology, flight behavior, and aerodynamic properties together diversify with contrasting ecology remains to be elucidated. We studied the adaptive codivergence in wing shape, flight behavior, and aerodynamic efficiency among Morpho butterflies living in different forest strata by combining high-speed videography in the field with morphometric analyses and aerodynamic modeling. By comparing canopy and understory species, we show that adaptation to an open canopy environment resulted in increased glide efficiency. Moreover, this enhanced glide efficiency was achieved by different canopy species through distinct combinations of flight behavior, wing shape, and aerodynamic mechanisms, highlighting the multiple pathways of adaptive evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Borboletas/anatomia & histologia , Borboletas/fisiologia , Voo Animal , Florestas , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Borboletas/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Seleção Genética
4.
J Evol Biol ; 34(10): 1592-1607, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449944

RESUMO

Assessing the relative importance of geographical and ecological drivers of evolution is paramount to understand the diversification of species and traits at the macroevolutionary scale. Here, we use an integrative approach, combining phylogenetics, biogeography, ecology and quantified phenotypes to investigate the drivers of both species and phenotypic diversification of the iconic Neotropical butterfly genus Morpho. We generated a time-calibrated phylogeny for all known species and inferred historical biogeography. We fitted models of time-dependent (accounting for rate heterogeneity across the phylogeny) and paleoenvironment-dependent diversification (accounting for global effect on the phylogeny). We used geometric morphometrics to assess variation of wing size and shape across the tree and investigated their dynamics of evolution. We found that the diversification of Morpho is best explained when considering variable diversification rates across the tree, possibly associated with lineages occupying different microhabitat conditions. First, a shift from understory to canopy was characterized by an increased speciation rate partially coupled with an increasing rate of wing shape evolution. Second, the occupation of dense bamboo thickets accompanying a major host-plant shift from dicotyledons towards monocotyledons was associated with a simultaneous diversification rate shift and an evolutionary 'jump' of wing size. Our study points to a diversification pattern driven by punctuational ecological changes instead of a global driver or biogeographic history.


Assuntos
Borboletas , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Borboletas/genética , Especiação Genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Asas de Animais
5.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 355, 2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triatomine control campaigns have traditionally consisted of spraying the inside of houses with pyrethroid insecticides. However, exposure to sublethal insecticide doses after the initial application is a common occurrence and may have phenotypic consequences for survivors. Here, using Triatoma infestans (the main vector of Chagas disease in the Southern Cone of South America) as a model species, we quantified the effects of exposure to a sublethal dose of pyrethroid insecticide on wing morphology. We tested if the treatment (i) induced a plastic effect (change in the character mean); (ii) altered environmental canalisation (higher individual variation within genotypes); (iii) altered genetic canalisation (higher variation among genotypes); and (iv) altered developmental stability (higher fluctuating asymmetry [FA]). METHODS: Each of 25 full-sib families known to be susceptible to pyrethroid insecticides were split in two groups: one to be treated with a sublethal dose of deltamethrin (insecticide-treated group) and the other to be treated with pure acetone (control group). Wings of the emerging adults were used in a landmark-based geometric morphometry analysis to extract size and shape measurements. Average differences among treatments were measured. Levels of variation among families, among individuals within families and among sides within individuals were computed and compared among treatments. RESULTS: Wing size and shape were affected by a sublethal dose of deltamethrin. The treated insects had larger wings and a more variable wing size and shape than control insects. For both wing size and shape, genetic variation was higher in treated individuals. Individual variations and variations in FA were also greater in deltamethrin-treated insects than in control ones for all full-sib families; however, the patterns of shape variation associated with genetic variation, individual variation and FA were different. CONCLUSIONS: Insects exposed to a sublethal dose of deltamethrin presented larger, less symmetrical and less canalised wings. The insecticide treatment jointly impaired developmental stability and genetic and environmental canalisation. The divergent patterns of shape variation suggest that the related developmental buffering processes differed at least partially. The morphological modifications induced by a single sublethal exposure to pyrethroids early in life may impinge on subsequent flight performance and consequently affect the dynamics of house invasion and reinfestation, and the effectiveness of triatomine control operations.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Triatoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Triatoma/fisiologia , Asas de Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Doença de Chagas/prevenção & controle , Doença de Chagas/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Triatoma/genética , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia
6.
J Anat ; 239(2): 489-497, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33713426

RESUMO

The domestication process is associated with substantial phenotypic changes through time. However, although morphological integration between biological structures is purported to have a major influence on the evolution of new morphologies, little attention has been paid to the influence of domestication on the magnitude of integration. Here, we assessed the influence of constraints associated with captivity, considered as one of the crucial first steps in the domestication process, on the integration of cranial and mandibular structures. We investigated the craniomandibular integration in Western European Sus scrofa using three-dimensional (3D) landmark-based geometric morphometrics. Our results suggest that captivity is associated with a lower level of integration between the cranium and the mandible. Plastic responses to captivity can thus affect the magnitude of integration of key functional structures. These findings underline the critical need to develop integration studies in the context of animal domestication to better understand the processes accountable for the set-up of domestic phenotypes through time.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Crânio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino
7.
J Evol Biol ; 34(2): 284-295, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33119141

RESUMO

Species interactions such as mimicry can promote trait convergence but disentangling this effect from those of shared ecology, evolutionary history, and niche conservatism is often challenging. Here by focusing on wing colour pattern variation within and between three butterfly species living in sympatry in a large proportion of their range, we tested the effect of species interactions on trait diversification. These butterflies display a conspicuous iridescent blue coloration on the dorsal side of their wings and a cryptic brownish colour on the ventral side. Combined with an erratic and fast flight, these colour patterns increase the difficulty of capture by predators and contribute to the high escape abilities of these butterflies. We hypothesize that, beyond their direct contribution to predator escape, these wing patterns can be used as signals of escape abilities by predators, resulting in positive frequency-dependent selection favouring convergence in wing pattern in sympatry. To test this hypothesis, we quantified dorsal wing pattern variations of 723 butterflies from the three species sampled throughout their distribution, including sympatric and allopatric situations and compared the phenotypic distances between species, sex and localities. We detected a significant effect of localities on colour pattern, and higher inter-specific resemblance in sympatry as compared to allopatry, consistent with the hypothesis of local convergence of wing patterns. Our results provide support to the existence of escape mimicry in the wild and stress the importance of estimating trait variation within species to understand trait variation between species, and to a larger extent, trait diversification at the macro-evolutionary scale.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Borboletas/genética , Pigmentação/genética , Simpatria , Animais , América Central , Feminino , Masculino , Filogeografia , América do Sul
8.
J Evol Biol ; 33(7): 942-956, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255231

RESUMO

Hybridization can generate novel phenotypes distinct from those of parental lineages, a phenomenon known as transgressive trait variation. Transgressive phenotypes might negatively or positively affect hybrid fitness, and increase available variation. Closely related species of Heliconius butterflies regularly produce hybrids in nature, and hybridization is thought to play a role in the diversification of novel wing colour patterns despite strong stabilizing selection due to interspecific mimicry. Here, we studied wing phenotypes in first- and second-generation hybrids produced by controlled crosses between either two co-mimetic species of Heliconius or between two nonmimetic species. We quantified wing size, shape and colour pattern variation and asked whether hybrids displayed transgressive wing phenotypes. Discrete traits underlain by major-effect loci, such as the presence or absence of colour patches, generate novel phenotypes. For quantitative traits, such as wing shape or subtle colour pattern characters, hybrids only exceed the parental range in specific dimensions of the morphological space. Overall, our study addresses some of the challenges in defining and measuring phenotypic transgression for multivariate traits and our data suggest that the extent to which transgressive trait variation in hybrids contributes to phenotypic diversity depends on the complexity and the genetic architecture of the traits.


Assuntos
Mimetismo Biológico/genética , Borboletas/genética , Hibridização Genética , Pigmentação/genética , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Borboletas/anatomia & histologia , Fenótipo
9.
Ecol Evol ; 10(7): 3178-3188, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273979

RESUMO

Phenotypic plasticity is an important mechanism allowing adaptation to new environments and as such it has been suggested to facilitate biological invasions. Under this assumption, invasive populations are predicted to exhibit stronger plastic responses than native populations. Drosophila suzukii is an invasive species whose males harbor a spot on the wing tip. In this study, by manipulating developmental temperature, we compare the phenotypic plasticity of wing spot size of two invasive populations with that of a native population. We then compare the results with data obtained from wild-caught flies from different natural populations. While both wing size and spot size are plastic to temperature, no difference in plasticity was detected between native and invasive populations, rejecting the hypothesis of a role of the wing-spot plasticity in the invasion success. In contrast, we observed a remarkable stability in the spot-to-wing ratio across temperatures, as well as among geographic populations. This stability suggests either that the spot relative size is under stabilizing selection, or that its variation might be constrained by a tight developmental correlation between spot size and wing size. Our data show that this correlation was lost at high temperature, leading to an increased variation in the relative spot size, particularly marked in the two invasive populations. This suggests: (a) that D. suzukii's development is impaired by hot temperatures, in agreement with the cold-adapted status of this species; (b) that the spot size can be decoupled from wing size, rejecting the hypothesis of an absolute constraint and suggesting that the wing color pattern might be under stabilizing (sexual) selection; and (c) that such sexual selection might be relaxed in the invasive populations. Finally, a subtle but consistent directional asymmetry in spot size was detected in favor of the right side in all populations and temperatures, possibly indicative of a lateralized sexual behavior.

10.
11.
R Soc Open Sci ; 7(1): 191577, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218976

RESUMO

Phenotypic plasticity has been repeatedly suggested to facilitate adaptation to new environmental conditions, as in invasions. Here, we investigate this possibility by focusing on the worldwide invasion of Drosophila suzukii: an invasive species that has rapidly colonized all continents over the last decade. This species is characterized by a highly developed ovipositor, allowing females to lay eggs through the skin of ripe fruits. Using a novel approach based on the combined use of scanning electron microscopy and photogrammetry, we quantified the ovipositor size and three-dimensional shape, contrasting invasive and native populations raised at three different developmental temperatures. We found a small but significant effect of temperature and geographical origin on the ovipositor shape, showing the occurrence of both geographical differentiation and plasticity to temperature. The shape reaction norms are in turn strikingly similar among populations, suggesting very little difference in shape plasticity among invasive and native populations, and therefore rejecting the hypothesis of a particular role for the plasticity of the ovipositor in the invasion success. Overall, the ovipositor shape seems to be a fairly robust trait, indicative of stabilizing selection. The large performance spectrum rather than the flexibility of the ovipositor would thus contribute to the success of D. suzukii worldwide invasion.

12.
J Exp Biol ; 222(Pt 16)2019 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371404

RESUMO

Flying insects frequently experience wing damage during their life. Such irreversible alterations of wing shape affect flight performance and ultimately fitness. Insects have been shown to compensate for wing damage through various behavioural adjustments, but the importance of damage location over the wings has scarcely been studied. Using natural variation in wing damage, we tested how the loss of different wing parts affects flight performance. We quantified flight performance in two species of large butterflies, Morpho helenor and Morpho achilles, caught in the wild and displaying large variation in the extent and location of wing damage. We artificially generated more severe wing damage in our sample to contrast natural versus higher magnitude wing loss. Wing shape alteration across our sample was quantified using geometric morphometrics to test the effect of different damage distributions on flight performance. Our results show that impaired flight performance clearly depends on damage location over the wings, pointing to a relative importance of different wing parts for flight. A deteriorated forewing leading edge most critically affected flight performance, specifically decreasing flight speed and the proportion of gliding flight. In contrast, the most frequent natural damage, deteriorated wing margin, had no detectable effect on flight behaviour. Damage located on the hindwings - although having a limited effect on flight - was associated with reduced flight height, suggesting that the forewings and hindwings play different roles in butterfly flight. By contrasting harmless and deleterious consequences of various types of wing damage, our study highlights different selective regimes acting on morphological variations of butterfly wings.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Borboletas/anatomia & histologia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Feminino , Voo Animal , Masculino
13.
Curr Opin Insect Sci ; 35: 34-40, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325807

RESUMO

The role phenotypic plasticity might play in adaptation to the ongoing climate changes is unclear. Plasticity allows for the production of a diversity of intra-generational responses, whose inter-generational evolutionary consequences are difficult to predict. In this article, we review theory and empirical studies addressing this question in insects by considering three scenarios. The first scenario corresponds to adaptive plasticity that should lead to slow or no evolution. The second scenario is the case of non-adaptive phenotypic plasticity to new environmental conditions that should lead either to extinction or, on the contrary, to rapid evolutionary change. The third scenario deals with how plasticity alters the variance selection acts upon. These scenarios are then discussed by highlighting examples of empirical studies on insects. We conclude that more studies are needed to better understand the relationship between phenotypic plasticity and evolutionary processes in insects.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Mudança Climática , Insetos/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Animais , Insetos/genética
14.
Front Genet ; 10: 64, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809244

RESUMO

The genetic architecture of skull shape has been extensively studied in mice and the results suggest a highly polygenic and additive basis. In contrast few studies have explored the genetic basis of the skull variability. Canalization and developmental stability are the two components of phenotypic robustness. They have been proposed to be emergent properties of the genetic networks underlying the development of the trait itself, but this hypothesis has been rarely tested empirically. Here we use outbred mice to investigate the genetic architecture of canalization of the skull shape by implementing a genome-wide marginal epistatic test on 3D geometric morphometric data. The same data set had been used previously to explore the genetic architecture of the skull mean shape and its developmental stability. Here, we address two questions: (1) Are changes in mean shape and changes in shape variance associated with the same genomic regions? and (2) Do canalization and developmental stability rely on the same loci and genetic architecture and do they involve the same patterns of shape variation? We found that unlike skull mean shape, among-individual shape variance and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) show a total lack of additive effects. They are both associated with complex networks of epistatic interactions involving many genes (protein-coding and regulatory elements). Remarkably, none of the genomic loci affecting mean shape contribute these networks despite their enrichment for genes involved in craniofacial variation and diseases. We also found that the patterns of shape FA and individual variation are largely similar and rely on similar multilocus epistatic genetic networks, suggesting that the processes channeling variation within and among individuals are largely common. However, the loci involved in these two networks are completely different. This in turn underlines the difference in the origin of the variation at these two levels, and points at buffering processes that may be specific to each level.

15.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 94(4): 1261-1281, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793489

RESUMO

Butterflies display extreme variation in wing shape associated with tremendous ecological diversity. Disentangling the role of neutral versus adaptive processes in wing shape diversification remains a challenge for evolutionary biologists. Ascertaining how natural selection influences wing shape evolution requires both functional studies linking morphology to flight performance, and ecological investigations linking performance in the wild with fitness. However, direct links between morphological variation and fitness have rarely been established. The functional morphology of butterfly flight has been investigated but selective forces acting on flight behaviour and associated wing shape have received less attention. Here, we attempt to estimate the ecological relevance of morpho-functional links established through biomechanical studies in order to understand the evolution of butterfly wing morphology. We survey the evidence for natural and sexual selection driving wing shape evolution in butterflies, and discuss how our functional knowledge may allow identification of the selective forces involved, at both the macro- and micro-evolutionary scales. Our review shows that although correlations between wing shape variation and ecological factors have been established at the macro-evolutionary level, the underlying selective pressures often remain unclear. We identify the need to investigate flight behaviour in relevant ecological contexts to detect variation in fitness-related traits. Identifying the selective regime then should guide experimental studies towards the relevant estimates of flight performance. Habitat, predators and sex-specific behaviours are likely to be major selective forces acting on wing shape evolution in butterflies. Some striking cases of morphological divergence driven by contrasting ecology involve both wing and body morphology, indicating that their interactions should be included in future studies investigating co-evolution between morphology and flight behaviour.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Borboletas/anatomia & histologia , Borboletas/genética , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 15169, 2018 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30310103

RESUMO

Human activities can generate a wide variety of direct and indirect effects on animals, which can manifest as environmental and genetic stressors. Several phenotypic markers have been proposed as indicators of these stressful conditions but have displayed contrasting results, depending, among others, on the phenotypic trait measured. Knowing the worldwide decline of multiple bumblebee species, it is important to understand these stressors and link them with the drivers of decline. We assessed the impact of several stressors (i.e. natural toxin-, parasite-, thermic- and inbreeding- stress) on both wing shape and size and their variability as well as their directional and fluctuating asymmetries. The total data set includes 650 individuals of Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Overall wing size and shape were affected by all the tested stressors. Except for the sinigrin (e.g. glucosinolate) stress, each stress implies a decrease of wing size. Size variance was affected by several stressors, contrary to shape variance that was affected by none of them. Although wing size directional and fluctuating asymmetries were significantly affected by sinigrin, parasites and high temperatures, neither directional nor fluctuating shape asymmetry was significantly affected by any tested stressor. Parasites and high temperatures led to the strongest phenotype modifications. Overall size and shape were the most sensitive morphological traits, which contrasts with the common view that fluctuating asymmetry is the major phenotypic marker of stress.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Abelhas/anatomia & histologia , Abelhas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Asas de Animais/anatomia & histologia , Análise de Variância , Animais
18.
PLoS Genet ; 14(7): e1007498, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995890

RESUMO

In Drosophila, ubiquitous expression of a short Cyclin G isoform generates extreme developmental noise estimated by fluctuating asymmetry (FA), providing a model to tackle developmental stability. This transcriptional cyclin interacts with chromatin regulators of the Enhancer of Trithorax and Polycomb (ETP) and Polycomb families. This led us to investigate the importance of these interactions in developmental stability. Deregulation of Cyclin G highlights an organ intrinsic control of developmental noise, linked to the ETP-interacting domain, and enhanced by mutations in genes encoding members of the Polycomb Repressive complexes PRC1 and PR-DUB. Deep-sequencing of wing imaginal discs deregulating CycG reveals that high developmental noise correlates with up-regulation of genes involved in translation and down-regulation of genes involved in energy production. Most Cyclin G direct transcriptional targets are also direct targets of PRC1 and RNAPolII in the developing wing. Altogether, our results suggest that Cyclin G, PRC1 and PR-DUB cooperate for developmental stability.


Assuntos
Ciclina G/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Núcleo Celular/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cromatina/metabolismo , Ciclina G/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/fisiologia , Masculino , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 1/genética , Ligação Proteica/genética , Regulação para Cima , Asas de Animais/embriologia
19.
J Exp Biol ; 221(Pt 13)2018 07 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29987053

RESUMO

Phenotypic plasticity has been proposed as a mechanism that facilitates the success of biological invasions. In order to test the hypothesis of an adaptive role for plasticity in invasions, particular attention should be paid to the relationship between the focal plastic trait, the environmental stimulus and the functional importance of the trait. The Drosophila wing is particularly amenable to experimental studies of phenotypic plasticity. Wing morphology is known for its plastic variation under different experimental temperatures, but this plasticity has rarely been investigated in a functional context of flight. Here, we investigate the effect of temperature on wing morphology and flight in the invasive pest species Drosophila suzukii Although the rapid invasion of both Europe and North America was most likely facilitated by human activities, D. suzukii is also expected to disperse actively. By quantifying wing morphology and individual flight trajectories of flies raised under different temperatures, we tested whether (1) invasive populations of D. suzukii show higher phenotypic plasticity than their native counterparts, and (2) wing plasticity affects flight parameters. Developmental temperature was found to affect both wing morphology and flight parameters (in particular speed and acceleration), leaving open the possibility of an adaptive value for wing plasticity. Our results show no difference in phenotypic plasticity between invasive and native populations, rejecting a role for wing plasticity in the invasion success.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Drosophila/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Temperatura , Asas de Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Espécies Introduzidas , Masculino
20.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 538, 2018 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323201

RESUMO

The detection of anatomical landmarks in bioimages is a necessary but tedious step for geometric morphometrics studies in many research domains. We propose variants of a multi-resolution tree-based approach to speed-up the detection of landmarks in bioimages. We extensively evaluate our method variants on three different datasets (cephalometric, zebrafish, and drosophila images). We identify the key method parameters (notably the multi-resolution) and report results with respect to human ground truths and existing methods. Our method achieves recognition performances competitive with current existing approaches while being generic and fast. The algorithms are integrated in the open-source Cytomine software and we provide parameter configuration guidelines so that they can be easily exploited by end-users. Finally, datasets are readily available through a Cytomine server to foster future research.


Assuntos
Pesos e Medidas Corporais/métodos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Algoritmos , Animais , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/normas , Drosophila , Humanos , Software , Peixe-Zebra
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