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1.
Nat Genet ; 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659325

RESUMO

Aortic calcification is an important independent predictor of future cardiovascular events. We performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis to determine SNPs associated with the extent of abdominal aortic calcification (n = 9,417) or descending thoracic aortic calcification (n = 8,422). Two genetic loci, HDAC9 and RAP1GAP, were associated with abdominal aortic calcification at a genome-wide level (P < 5.0 × 10-8). No SNPs were associated with thoracic aortic calcification at the genome-wide threshold. Increased expression of HDAC9 in human aortic smooth muscle cells promoted calcification and reduced contractility, while inhibition of HDAC9 in human aortic smooth muscle cells inhibited calcification and enhanced cell contractility. In matrix Gla protein-deficient mice, a model of human vascular calcification, mice lacking HDAC9 had a 40% reduction in aortic calcification and improved survival. This translational genomic study identifies the first genetic risk locus associated with calcification of the abdominal aorta and describes a previously unknown role for HDAC9 in the development of vascular calcification.

2.
Neurobiol Aging ; 84: 158-165, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629114

RESUMO

Commonly observed in older community persons, dilated perivascular spaces (dPVSs) are thought to represent an emerging MRI marker of cerebral small vessel disease, but their clinical significance is uncertain. We examined the longitudinal relationship of dPVS burden with risk of incident stroke, ischemic stroke, and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the 3C-Dijon population-based study (N = 1678 participants, mean age 72.7 ± 4.1 years) using Cox regression. dPVS burden was studied as a global score and according to dPVS location (basal ganglia, white matter, hippocampus, brainstem) at the baseline. During a mean follow-up of 9.1 ± 2.6 years, 66 participants suffered an incident stroke. Increasing global dPVS burden was associated with a higher risk of any incident stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24; 95% CI, [1.06-1.45]) and of incident ICH (HR, 3.12 [1.78-5.47]), adjusting for sex and intracranial volume. Association with ICH remained significant after additionally adjusting for vascular risk factors and for other cerebral small vessel disease MRI markers. High dPVS burden in basal ganglia and hippocampus, but not in white matter or brainstem, were associated with higher risk of any stroke and ICH.

4.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424497

RESUMO

AIMS: Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a poorly understood disease that predominantly affects women during middle-life, with features that include stenosis, aneurysm and dissection of medium-large arteries. Recently, plasma proteomics has emerged as an important means to understand cardiovascular diseases. Our objectives were: (1) To characterize plasma proteins and determine if any exhibit differential abundance in FMD subjects versus matched healthy controls; (2) To leverage these protein data to conduct systems analyses to provide biologic insights on FMD, and explore if this could be developed into a blood-based FMD test. METHODS AND RESULTS: Females with 'multifocal' FMD and matched healthy controls underwent clinical phenotyping, dermal biopsy and blood draw. Using dual-capture proximity-extension-assay and nuclear magnetic resonance-spectroscopy, we evaluated plasma levels of 981 proteins and 31 lipid sub-classes, respectively. In a discovery cohort (Ncases=90, Ncontrols=100), we identified 105 proteins and 16 lipid sub-classes (predominantly triglycerides and fatty acids) with differential plasma abundance in FMD cases versus controls. In an independent cohort (Ncases=23, Ncontrols=28), we successfully validated 37 plasma proteins and 10 lipid sub-classes with differential abundance. Among these, 5/37 proteins exhibited genetic control and Bayesian analyses identified 3 of these as potential upstream drivers of FMD. In a third cohort (Ncases=506, Ncontrols=876) the genetic locus of one of these upstream disease drivers, CD2-associated protein (CD2AP), was independently validated as being associated with risk of having FMD (OR = 1.36; P = 0.0003). Immune-fluorescence staining identified that CD2AP is expressed by the endothelium of medium-large arteries. Finally, machine learning trained on the discovery cohort was used to develop a test for FMD. When independently applied to the validation cohort, the test showed a c-statistic of 0.73 and sensitivity of 78.3%. CONCLUSIONS: FMD exhibits a plasma proteogenomic and lipid signature that includes potential causative disease drivers, and which holds promise for developing a blood-based test for this disease. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a poorly understood disease with no specific therapies, which can cause stenosis, aneurysm and dissection of medium-large arteries. At present, FMD is usually diagnosed by imaging studies, and screening for this disease can be challenging. We performed a 'reverse-translational' clinical study leveraging plasma and DNA samples from FMD patients and healthy matched controls to better understand this disease. We found that FMD patients exhibit a plasma proteogenomic signature that includes promising disease candidates. While further development will be required, our proof-of-concept analyses suggest that it may also be possible to develop a blood-based test for FMD.

5.
Brain ; 142(10): 3176-3189, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430377

RESUMO

Intracerebral haemorrhage and small vessel ischaemic stroke (SVS) are the most acute manifestations of cerebral small vessel disease, with no established preventive approaches beyond hypertension management. Combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of these two correlated diseases may improve statistical power to detect novel genetic factors for cerebral small vessel disease, elucidating underlying disease mechanisms that may form the basis for future treatments. Because intracerebral haemorrhage location is an adequate surrogate for distinct histopathological variants of cerebral small vessel disease (lobar for cerebral amyloid angiopathy and non-lobar for arteriolosclerosis), we performed GWAS of intracerebral haemorrhage by location in 1813 subjects (755 lobar and 1005 non-lobar) and 1711 stroke-free control subjects. Intracerebral haemorrhage GWAS results by location were meta-analysed with GWAS results for SVS from MEGASTROKE, using 'Multi-Trait Analysis of GWAS' (MTAG) to integrate summary data across traits and generate combined effect estimates. After combining intracerebral haemorrhage and SVS datasets, our sample size included 241 024 participants (6255 intracerebral haemorrhage or SVS cases and 233 058 control subjects). Genome-wide significant associations were observed for non-lobar intracerebral haemorrhage enhanced by SVS with rs2758605 [MTAG P-value (P) = 2.6 × 10-8] at 1q22; rs72932727 (P = 1.7 × 10-8) at 2q33; and rs9515201 (P = 5.3 × 10-10) at 13q34. In the GTEx gene expression library, rs2758605 (1q22), rs72932727 (2q33) and rs9515201 (13q34) are significant cis-eQTLs for PMF1 (P = 1 × 10-4 in tibial nerve), NBEAL1, FAM117B and CARF (P < 2.1 × 10-7 in arteries) and COL4A2 and COL4A1 (P < 0.01 in brain putamen), respectively. Leveraging S-PrediXcan for gene-based association testing with the predicted expression models in tissues related with nerve, artery, and non-lobar brain, we found that experiment-wide significant (P < 8.5 × 10-7) associations at three genes at 2q33 including NBEAL1, FAM117B and WDR12 and genome-wide significant associations at two genes including ICA1L at 2q33 and ZCCHC14 at 16q24. Brain cell-type specific expression profiling libraries reveal that SEMA4A, SLC25A44 and PMF1 at 1q22 and COL4A1 and COL4A2 at 13q34 were mainly expressed in endothelial cells, while the genes at 2q33 (FAM117B, CARF and NBEAL1) were expressed in various cell types including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and neurons. Our cross-phenotype genetic study of intracerebral haemorrhage and SVS demonstrates novel genome-wide associations for non-lobar intracerebral haemorrhage at 2q33 and 13q34. Our replication of the 1q22 locus previous seen in traditional GWAS of intracerebral haemorrhage, as well as the rediscovery of 13q34, which had previously been reported in candidate gene studies with other cerebral small vessel disease-related traits strengthens the credibility of applying this novel genome-wide approach across intracerebral haemorrhage and SVS.

6.
JAMA Neurol ; 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31180460

RESUMO

Importance: Previous genome-wide association studies of common variants identified associations for Alzheimer disease (AD) loci evident only among individuals with particular APOE alleles. Objective: To identify APOE genotype-dependent associations with infrequent and rare variants using whole-exome sequencing. Design, Setting, and Participants: The discovery stage included 10 441 non-Hispanic white participants in the Alzheimer Disease Sequencing Project. Replication was sought in 2 independent, whole-exome sequencing data sets (1766 patients with AD, 2906 without AD [controls]) and a chip-based genotype imputation data set (8728 patients with AD, 9808 controls). Bioinformatics and functional analyses were conducted using clinical, cognitive, neuropathologic, whole-exome sequencing, and gene expression data obtained from a longitudinal cohort sample including 402 patients with AD and 647 controls. Data were analyzed between March 2017 and September 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Score, Firth, and sequence kernel association tests were used to test the association of AD risk with individual variants and genes in subgroups of APOE ε4 carriers and noncarriers. Results with P ≤ 1 × 10-5 were further evaluated in the replication data sets and combined by meta-analysis. Results: Among 3145 patients with AD and 4213 controls lacking ε4 (mean [SD] age, 83.4 [7.6] years; 4363 [59.3.%] women), novel genome-wide significant associations were obtained in the discovery sample with rs536940594 in AC099552 (odds ratio [OR], 88.0; 95% CI, 9.08-852.0; P = 2.22 × 10-7) and rs138412600 in GPAA1 (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.44-2.2; meta-P = 7.81 × 10-8). GPAA1 was also associated with expression in the brain of GPAA1 (ß = -0.08; P = .03) and its repressive transcription factor, FOXG1 (ß = 0.13; P = .003), and global cognition function (ß = -0.53; P = .009). Significant gene-wide associations (threshold P ≤ 6.35 × 10-7) were observed for OR8G5 (P = 4.67 × 10-7), IGHV3-7 (P = 9.75 × 10-16), and SLC24A3 (P = 2.67 × 10-12) in 2377 patients with AD and 706 controls with ε4 (mean [SD] age, 75.2 [9.6] years; 1668 [54.1%] women). Conclusions and Relevance: The study identified multiple possible novel associations for AD with individual and aggregated rare variants in groups of individuals with and without APOE ε4 alleles that reinforce known and suggest additional pathways leading to AD.

7.
Cereb Cortex ; 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240317

RESUMO

Exposures to life stressors accumulate across the lifespan, with possible impact on brain health. Little is known, however, about the mechanisms mediating age-related changes in brain structure. We use a lifespan sample of participants (n = 21 251; 4-97 years) to investigate the relationship between the thickness of cerebral cortex and the expression of the glucocorticoid- and the mineralocorticoid-receptor genes (NR3C1 and NR3C2, respectively), obtained from the Allen Human Brain Atlas. In all participants, cortical thickness correlated negatively with the expression of both NR3C1 and NR3C2 across 34 cortical regions. The magnitude of this correlation varied across the lifespan. From childhood through early adulthood, the profile similarity (between NR3C1/NR3C2 expression and thickness) increased with age. Conversely, both profile similarities decreased with age in late life. These variations do not reflect age-related changes in NR3C1 and NR3C2 expression, as observed in 5 databases of gene expression in the human cerebral cortex (502 donors). Based on the co-expression of NR3C1 (and NR3C2) with genes specific to neural cell types, we determine the potential involvement of microglia, astrocytes, and CA1 pyramidal cells in mediating the relationship between corticosteroid exposure and cortical thickness. Therefore, corticosteroids may influence brain structure to a variable degree throughout life.

8.
Stroke ; 50(8): 2231-2233, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221053

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- Intracranial artery dissection can eventually lead to subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage. Little is known about the clinical features and risks associated with extracranial vertebral artery dissection that extends intracranially. The clinical and imaging characteristics of extracranial vertebral artery dissection (eVAD) with (e+iVAD) or without (eVAD) intracranial extension were analyzed. Methods- The frequency of ischemic events, including ischemic strokes and transient ischemic attacks, was compared between e+iVAD and eVAD patients from a monocentric cohort study. Results- Among 328 patients with cervical artery dissection, vertebral artery dissection was diagnosed in 153 individuals. Twenty-nine patients had e+iVAD (19%) and 124 patients had only eVAD (81%). Cardiovascular risk factors did not differ between these 2 groups, but ischemic events were more frequent in patients with e+iVAD than in patients with eVAD (86% versus 48%, P=0.0002). Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurred in 1 patient with e+iVAD and in 9 with eVAD (6% versus 3%, P=0.53). Intracranial extension was an independent factor associated with ischemic stroke at admission (odds ratio, 6.43; 95% CI, -1.96 to 21.08; P=0.002) after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and imaging findings. Conclusions- In a large cohort of patients with vertebral artery dissection, intracranial extension of the vessel dissection appears associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke.

9.
Brain ; 142(4): 1009-1023, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859180

RESUMO

We report a composite extreme phenotype design using distribution of white matter hyperintensities and brain infarcts in a population-based cohort of older persons for gene-mapping of cerebral small vessel disease. We demonstrate its application in the 3C-Dijon whole exome sequencing (WES) study (n = 1924, nWESextremes = 512), with both single variant and gene-based association tests. We used other population-based cohort studies participating in the CHARGE consortium for replication, using whole exome sequencing (nWES = 2,868, nWESextremes = 956) and genome-wide genotypes (nGW = 9924, nGWextremes = 3308). We restricted our study to candidate genes known to harbour mutations for Mendelian small vessel disease: NOTCH3, HTRA1, COL4A1, COL4A2 and TREX1. We identified significant associations of a common intronic variant in HTRA1, rs2293871 using single variant association testing (Pdiscovery = 8.21 × 10-5, Preplication = 5.25 × 10-3, Pcombined = 4.72 × 10-5) and of NOTCH3 using gene-based tests (Pdiscovery = 1.61 × 10-2, Preplication = 3.99 × 10-2, Pcombined = 5.31 × 10-3). Follow-up analysis identified significant association of rs2293871 with small vessel ischaemic stroke, and two blood expression quantitative trait loci of HTRA1 in linkage disequilibrium. Additionally, we identified two participants in the 3C-Dijon cohort (0.4%) carrying heterozygote genotypes at known pathogenic variants for familial small vessel disease within NOTCH3 and HTRA1. In conclusion, our proof-of-concept study provides strong evidence that using a novel composite MRI-derived phenotype for extremes of small vessel disease can facilitate the identification of genetic variants underlying small vessel disease, both common variants and those with rare and low frequency. The findings demonstrate shared mechanisms and a continuum between genes underlying Mendelian small vessel disease and those contributing to the common, multifactorial form of the disease.

10.
J Neurol ; 266(6): 1383-1388, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904955

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Simultaneous dissection of three or four cervical arteries rarely occurs. As a result, limited information is available on clinical characteristics, underlying causes, treatment, and outcome of these patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of individual patient data on triple and quadruple cervical artery dissection (CeAD). We included all cases for whom, at minimum, data on age, sex and affected cervical arteries were available. RESULTS: Out of 1396 publications identified in the initial search, 52 were included, with data available on 96 patients. Mean age was 42 years and 66% were women. 63% had triple CeAD. The most common manifestations were headache (69%), neck pain (44%), motor deficit (36%), and Horner syndrome (34%). 57% had an ischemic stroke, in the majority of these patients the stroke was confined to the vascular territory of a single artery. 83% were managed medically (antiplatelets or anticoagulants) and 11% underwent endovascular treatment. An underlying disease or triggering event was identified in 71%, most commonly trauma (35%, cervical manipulative therapy in 13%), infection (18%), fibromuscular dysplasia (16%), and hereditary connective tissue disorder (8%). In-hospital mortality was 1%. 80% of patients had a good functional outcome (mRS 0-1) at follow-up. Two recurrences (3%) were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Triple or quadruple CeAD mostly affected young women, and underlying disease or triggering event could be identified in more than two-thirds of patients. Less than two-thirds of triple or quadruple CeAD patients suffered ischemic stroke. Most patients were managed medically and the majority had a favorable outcome.

12.
Stroke ; 50(2): 298-304, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30661490

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- We sought to explore the effect of genetic imbalance on functional outcome after ischemic stroke (IS). Methods- Copy number variation was identified in high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray data of IS patients from the CADISP (Cervical Artery Dissection and Ischemic Stroke Patients) and SiGN (Stroke Genetics Network)/GISCOME (Genetics of Ischaemic Stroke Functional Outcome) networks. Genetic imbalance, defined as total number of protein-coding genes affected by copy number variations in an individual, was compared between patients with favorable (modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2) and unfavorable (modified Rankin Scale score of ≥3) outcome after 3 months. Subgroup analyses were confined to patients with imbalance affecting ohnologs-a class of dose-sensitive genes, or to those with imbalance not affecting ohnologs. The association of imbalance with outcome was analyzed by logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, stroke subtype, stroke severity, and ancestry. Results- The study sample comprised 816 CADISP patients (age 44.2±10.3 years) and 2498 SiGN/GISCOME patients (age 67.7±14.2 years). Outcome was unfavorable in 122 CADISP and 889 SiGN/GISCOME patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increased genetic imbalance was associated with less favorable outcome in both samples (CADISP: P=0.0007; odds ratio=0.89; 95% CI, 0.82-0.95 and SiGN/GISCOME: P=0.0036; odds ratio=0.94; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98). The association was independent of age, sex, stroke severity on admission, stroke subtype, and ancestry. On subgroup analysis, imbalance affecting ohnologs was associated with outcome (CADISP: odds ratio=0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.95 and SiGN/GISCOME: odds ratio=0.93; 95% CI, 0.89-0.98) whereas imbalance without ohnologs lacked such an association. Conclusions- Increased genetic imbalance was associated with poorer functional outcome after IS in both study populations. Subgroup analysis revealed that this association was driven by presence of ohnologs in the respective copy number variations, suggesting a causal role of the deleterious effects of genetic imbalance.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Dosagem de Genes , Adulto , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/reabilitação , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Seguimentos , Duplicação Gênica , Genótipo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Circulation ; 139(2): 295-298, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30615506
14.
Nat Genet ; 51(1): 51-62, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578418

RESUMO

In this trans-ethnic multi-omic study, we reinterpret the genetic architecture of blood pressure to identify genes, tissues, phenomes and medication contexts of blood pressure homeostasis. We discovered 208 novel common blood pressure SNPs and 53 rare variants in genome-wide association studies of systolic, diastolic and pulse pressure in up to 776,078 participants from the Million Veteran Program (MVP) and collaborating studies, with analysis of the blood pressure clinical phenome in MVP. Our transcriptome-wide association study detected 4,043 blood pressure associations with genetically predicted gene expression of 840 genes in 45 tissues, and mouse renal single-cell RNA sequencing identified upregulated blood pressure genes in kidney tubule cells.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Adolescente , Animais , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Túbulos Renais/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
15.
Lancet Respir Med ; 7(3): 227-238, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527956

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare genetic variants cause pulmonary arterial hypertension, but the contribution of common genetic variation to disease risk and natural history is poorly characterised. We tested for genome-wide association for pulmonary arterial hypertension in large international cohorts and assessed the contribution of associated regions to outcomes. METHODS: We did two separate genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a meta-analysis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. These GWAS used data from four international case-control studies across 11 744 individuals with European ancestry (including 2085 patients). One GWAS used genotypes from 5895 whole-genome sequences and the other GWAS used genotyping array data from an additional 5849 individuals. Cross-validation of loci reaching genome-wide significance was sought by meta-analysis. Conditional analysis corrected for the most significant variants at each locus was used to resolve signals for multiple associations. We functionally annotated associated variants and tested associations with duration of survival. All-cause mortality was the primary endpoint in survival analyses. FINDINGS: A locus near SOX17 (rs10103692, odds ratio 1·80 [95% CI 1·55-2·08], p=5·13 × 10-15) and a second locus in HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 (collectively referred to as HLA-DPA1/DPB1 here; rs2856830, 1·56 [1·42-1·71], p=7·65 × 10-20) within the class II MHC region were associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. The SOX17 locus had two independent signals associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (rs13266183, 1·36 [1·25-1·48], p=1·69 × 10-12; and rs10103692). Functional and epigenomic data indicate that the risk variants near SOX17 alter gene regulation via an enhancer active in endothelial cells. Pulmonary arterial hypertension risk variants determined haplotype-specific enhancer activity, and CRISPR-mediated inhibition of the enhancer reduced SOX17 expression. The HLA-DPA1/DPB1 rs2856830 genotype was strongly associated with survival. Median survival from diagnosis in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension with the C/C homozygous genotype was double (13·50 years [95% CI 12·07 to >13·50]) that of those with the T/T genotype (6·97 years [6·02-8·05]), despite similar baseline disease severity. INTERPRETATION: This is the first study to report that common genetic variation at loci in an enhancer near SOX17 and in HLA-DPA1/DPB1 is associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Impairment of SOX17 function might be more common in pulmonary arterial hypertension than suggested by rare mutations in SOX17. Further studies are needed to confirm the association between HLA typing or rs2856830 genotyping and survival, and to determine whether HLA typing or rs2856830 genotyping improves risk stratification in clinical practice or trials. FUNDING: UK NIHR, BHF, UK MRC, Dinosaur Trust, NIH/NHLBI, ERS, EMBO, Wellcome Trust, EU, AHA, ACClinPharm, Netherlands CVRI, Dutch Heart Foundation, Dutch Federation of UMC, Netherlands OHRD and RNAS, German DFG, German BMBF, APH Paris, INSERM, Université Paris-Sud, and French ANR.

16.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 268, 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518751

RESUMO

This study aims at assessing the burden of rare (minor allele frequency < 1%) predicted damaging variants in the whole exome of 92 bipolar I disorder (BD) patients and 1051 controls of French ancestry. Patients exhibiting an extreme phenotype (earlier onset and family history of mood disorder) were preferentially included to increase the power to detect an association. A collapsing strategy was used to test the overall burden of rare variants in cases versus controls at the gene level. Only protein-truncating and predicted damaging missense variants were included in the analysis. Thirteen genes exhibited p values exceeding 10-3 and could be considered as potential risk factors for BD. Furthermore, the validity of the association was supported when the Exome Aggregation Consortium database non-Finnish European population was used as controls for eight of them. Their gene products are involved in various cerebral processes, some of which were previously implicated in BD and belong to pathways implicated in the therapeutic effect of lithium, the main mood stabilizer. However, exome-wide threshold for association study was not reached, emphasizing that larger samples are needed.

17.
Stroke ; 49(12): 2822-2829, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30571417

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- The role of dietary fat on cardiovascular health and mortality remains under debate. Because the APOE is central to the transport and metabolism of lipids, we examined associations between plasma fatty acids and the risk of stroke, coronary heart disease, and mortality by APOE-ε4 genotype. Methods- We included 943 FHS (Framingham Heart Study) and 1406 3C (Three-City) Bordeaux Study participants. Plasma docosahexaenoic, linoleic, arachidonic, and palmitic fatty acids were measured at baseline by gas chromatography. All-cause stroke, ischemic stroke, coronary heart disease, and all-cause mortality events were identified prospectively using standardized protocols. Each cohort used Cox models to separately relate fatty acid levels to the risk of developing each event during ≤10 years of follow-up adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by APOE genotype (ε4 carriers versus noncarriers). We then meta-analyzed summary statistics using random-effects models. Results- On average, participants had a mean age of 74 years, 61% were women, and 21% (n=483) were APOE-ε4 carriers. Meta-analysis results showed that, only among APOE-ε4 carriers, every SD unit increase in linoleic acid was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 0.54 [95% CI, 0.38-0.78]), ischemic stroke (HR, 0.48 [95% CI, 0.33-0.71]), and all-cause mortality (HR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.57-0.85]). In contrast, every SD unit increase in palmitic acid was related to an increased risk of all-cause stroke (HR, 1.58 [95% CI, 1.16-2.17]), ischemic stroke (HR, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.26-2.45]), and coronary heart disease (HR, 1.48 [95% CI, 1.09-2.01]), also in APOE-ε4 carriers only. Results for docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid were heterogeneous between cohorts. Conclusions- These exploratory results suggest that APOE-ε4 carriers may be more susceptible to the beneficial or adverse impact of fatty acids on cardiovascular disease and mortality. In this subgroup, higher linoleic acid was protective for stroke and mortality, whereas palmitic acid was a risk factor for stroke and coronary heart disease. The mechanisms underlying these novel findings warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína E4/genética , Doença das Coronárias/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Idoso , Ácido Araquidônico/metabolismo , Fenda Labial , Doença das Coronárias/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Masculino , Mortalidade , Ácido Palmítico/metabolismo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Doenças Retinianas , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/metabolismo
18.
Ann Neurol ; 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383316

RESUMO

We conducted a European-only and transancestral genome-wide association meta-analysis in 72,147 stroke patients and 823,869 controls using data from UK Biobank (UKB) and the MEGASTROKE consortium. We identified an exonic polymorphism in NOS3 (rs1799983, p.Glu298Asp; p = 2.2E-8, odds ratio [OR] = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.07) and variants in an intron of COL4A1 (rs9521634; p = 3.8E-8, OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.03-1.06) and near DYRK1A (rs720470; p = 6.1E-9, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03-1.07) at genome-wide significance for stroke. Effect sizes of known stroke loci were highly correlated between UKB and MEGASTROKE. Using Mendelian randomization, we further show that genetic variation in the nitric oxide synthase-nitric oxide pathway in part affects stroke risk via variation in blood pressure. Ann Neurol 2018.

20.
JAMA Neurol ; 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422209

RESUMO

Importance: Covert vascular brain injury (VBI) is highly prevalent in community-dwelling older persons, but its clinical and therapeutic implications are debated. Objective: To better understand the clinical significance of VBI to optimize prevention strategies for the most common age-related neurological diseases, stroke and dementia. Data Source: We searched for articles in PubMed between 1966 and December 22, 2017, studying the association of 4 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of covert VBI (white matter hyperintensities [WMHs] of presumed vascular origin, MRI-defined covert brain infarcts [BIs], cerebral microbleeds [CMBs], and perivascular spaces [PVSs]) with incident stroke, dementia, or death. Study Selection: Data were taken from prospective, longitudinal cohort studies including 50 or more adults. Data Extraction and Synthesis: We performed inverse variance-weighted meta-analyses with random effects and z score-based meta-analyses for WMH burden. The significance threshold was P < .003 (17 independent tests). We complied with the Meta-analyses of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Stroke (hemorrhagic and ischemic), dementia (all and Alzheimer disease), and death. Results: Of 2846 articles identified, 94 studies were eligible, with up to 14 529 participants for WMH, 16 012 participants for BI, 15 693 participants for CMB, and 4587 participants for PVS. Extensive WMH burden was associated with higher risk of incident stroke (hazard ratio [HR], 2.45; 95% CI, 1.93-3.12; P < .001), ischemic stroke (HR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.65-3.47; P < .001), intracerebral hemorrhage (HR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.54-6.52; P = .002), dementia (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.40-2.43; P < .001), Alzheimer disease (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.22-1.84; P < .001), and death (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.69-2.36; P < .001). Presence of MRI-defined BIs was associated with higher risk of incident stroke (HR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.87-3.04; P < .001), ischemic stroke (HR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.67-2.85; P < .001), intracerebral hemorrhage (HR, 3.81; 95% CI, 1.75-8.27; P < .001), and death (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.40-1.91; P < .001). Presence of CMBs was associated with increased risk of stroke (HR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.55-2.53; P < .001), ischemic stroke (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.40-2.63; P < .001), intracerebral hemorrhage (HR, 3.82; 95% CI, 2.15-6.80; P < .001), and death (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.31-1.80; P < .001). Data on PVS were limited and insufficient to conduct meta-analyses but suggested an association of high PVS burden with increased risk of stroke, dementia, and death; this requires confirmation. Conclusions and Relevance: We report evidence that MRI markers of VBI have major clinical significance. This research prompts careful evaluation of the benefit-risk ratio for available prevention strategies in individuals with covert VBI.

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