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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 804: 150091, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution exposure has been associated with higher mortality risk in numerous studies. We assessed potential variability in the magnitude of this association for non-accidental, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, and lung cancer mortality in a country-wide administrative cohort by exposure assessment method and by adjustment for geographic subdivisions. METHODS: We used the Belgian 2001 census linked to population and mortality register including nearly 5.5 million adults aged ≥30 (mean follow-up: 9.97 years). Annual mean concentrations for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), black carbon (BC) and ozone (O3) were assessed at baseline residential address using two exposure methods; Europe-wide hybrid land use regression (LUR) models [100x100m], and Belgium-wide interpolation-dispersion (RIO-IFDM) models [25x25m]. We used Cox proportional hazards models with age as the underlying time scale and adjusted for various individual and area-level covariates. We further adjusted main models for two different area-levels following the European Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS); NUTS-1 (n = 3), or NUTS-3 (n = 43). RESULTS: We found no consistent differences between both exposure methods. We observed most robust associations with lung cancer mortality. Hazard Ratios (HRs) per 10 µg/m3 increase for NO2 were 1.060 (95%CI 1.042-1.078) [hybrid LUR] and 1.040 (95%CI 1.022-1.058) [RIO-IFDM]. Associations with non-accidental, respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease mortality were generally null in main models but were enhanced after further adjustment for NUTS-1 or NUTS-3. HRs for non-accidental mortality per 5 µg/m3 increase for PM2.5 for the main model using hybrid LUR exposure were 1.023 (95%CI 1.011-1.035). After including random effects HRs were 1.044 (95%CI 1.033-1.057) [NUTS-1] and 1.076 (95%CI 1.060-1.092) [NUTS-3]. CONCLUSION: Long-term air pollution exposure was associated with higher lung cancer mortality risk but not consistently with the other studied causes. Magnitude of associations varied by adjustment for geographic subdivisions, area-level socio-economic covariates and less by exposure assessment method.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/análise , Poluição do Ar/estatística & dados numéricos , Censos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/toxicidade
2.
Environ Res ; : 112159, 2021 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Temperature may trigger the risk of suicide, however, the extent and shape of the associations show geographical variation. Here, we investigate the short-term effects of temperature on suicide deaths occurring in Brussels between January 1st, 2002 and December 31st, 2011. METHODS: We conducted a bidirectional time-stratified case-crossover study with cases being suicide deaths occurring among Brussels residents aged 5 years or older. Cases were matched by day of the week with control days from the same month and year. The exposure was the daily average temperature measured at the Uccle station (Brussels) and obtained from the Belgian Royal Meteorological Institute. We combined conditional logistic regression with distributed lag non-linear models (DLNM) to obtain one week (lag 0-6) cumulative risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the effects of moderate and extreme cold (5th and 1st percentiles of temperature, respectively) and moderate and extreme heat (95th and 99th percentiles of temperature, respectively), relative to the median temperature. RESULTS: In total, 1891 suicide deaths were included. The median temperature was 11.6 °C, moderate and extreme cold temperatures were 0 and -3.1 °C, respectively, and moderate and extreme high temperatures were 20.9 and 24.4 °C, respectively. The cumulative risk of suicide mortality was almost twice higher among lags 0 to 6 for both moderate and extreme heat, relative to the period median temperature (e.g. moderate heat RR = 1.80 CI:1.27-2.54). No statistically significant associations were observed for cold temperatures. CONCLUSIONS: In Brussels, a western European city with temperate climate, high temperatures may trigger suicide deaths up to one week later. In the context of climate change, adaptation strategies must take into consideration the effects of temperature on mental health.

3.
Biometrics ; 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694627

RESUMO

The Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has increased mortality in countries worldwide. To evaluate the impact of the pandemic on mortality, the use of excess mortality rather than reported COVID-19 deaths has been suggested. Excess mortality, however, requires estimation of mortality under nonpandemic conditions. Although many methods exist to forecast mortality, they are either complex to apply, require many sources of information, ignore serial correlation, and/or are influenced by historical excess mortality. We propose a linear mixed model that is easy to apply, requires only historical mortality data, allows for serial correlation, and down-weighs the influence of historical excess mortality. Appropriateness of the linear mixed model is evaluated with fit statistics and forecasting accuracy measures for Belgium and the Netherlands. Unlike the commonly used 5-year weekly average, the linear mixed model is forecasting the year-specific mortality, and as a result improves the estimation of excess mortality for Belgium and the Netherlands.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444557

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the trends in chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis mortality, and the associated socioeconomic inequalities, in nine European cities and urban areas before and after the onset of the 2008 financial crisis. METHODS: This is an ecological study of trends in three periods of time: two before (2000-2003 and 2004-2008), and one after (2009-2014) the onset of the economic crisis. The units of analysis were the geographical areas of nine cities or urban areas in Europe. We analysed chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis standardised mortality ratios, smoothing them with a hierarchical Bayesian model by each city, area, and sex. An ecological regression model was fitted to analyse the trends in socioeconomic inequalities, and included the socioeconomic deprivation index, the period, and their interaction. RESULTS: In general, chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis mortality rates were higher in men than in women. These rates decreased in all cities during the financial crisis, except among men in Athens (rates increased from 8.50 per 100,000 inhabitants during the second period to 9.42 during the third). Socioeconomic inequalities in chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis mortality were found in six cities/metropolitan areas among men, and in four among women. Finally, in the periods studied, such inequalities did not significantly change. However, among men they increased in Turin and Barcelona and among women, several cities had lower inequalities in the third period. CONCLUSIONS: There are geographical socioeconomic inequalities in chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis mortality, mainly among men, that did not change during the 2008 financial crisis. These results should be monitored in the long term.


Assuntos
Recessão Econômica , Cirrose Hepática , Teorema de Bayes , Cidades , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha
5.
SSM Popul Health ; 13: 100740, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598526

RESUMO

Socioeconomic inequalities in disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) exist across all European countries, yet the driving determinants of these differences are not completely known. We calculated the impact on educational inequalities in DFLE of equalizing the distribution of eight risk factors for mortality and disability using register-based mortality data and survey data from 15 European countries for individuals between 35 and 80 years old. From the selected risk factors, the ones that contribute the most to the educational inequalities in DFLE are low income, high body-weight, smoking (for men), and manual occupation of the father. Potentially large reductions in inequalities can be achieved in Eastern European countries, where educational inequalities in DFLE are also the largest.

6.
Environ Int ; 148: 106365, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33444880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that residing close to green space reduce mortality rates. We investigated the relationship between long-term exposure to residential green space and non-accidental and cardio-respiratory mortality. METHODS: We linked the Belgian 2001 census to population and mortality register follow-up data (2001-2011) among adults aged 30 years and older residing in the five largest urban areas in Belgium (n = 2,185,170 and mean follow-up time 9.4 years). Residential addresses were available at baseline. Exposure to green space was defined as 1) surrounding greenness (2006) [normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI2)] within buffers of 300 m, 500 m, and 1000 m; 2) surrounding green space (2006) [Urban Atlas (UA) and CORINE Land Cover (CLC)] within buffers of 300 m, 500 m, and 1000 m; and 3) perceived neighborhood green space (2001). Cox proportional hazards models with age as the underlying time scale were used to probe into cause-specific mortality (non-accidental, respiratory, COPD, cardiovascular, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and cerebrovascular). Models were adjusted for several sociodemographic variables (age, sex, marital status, country of birth, education level, employment status, and area mean income). We further adjusted our main models for annual mean (2010) values of ambient air pollution (PM2.5, PM10, NO2 and BC, one at a time), and we additionally explored potential mediation with the aforementioned pollutants. RESULTS: Higher degrees of residential green space were associated with lower rates of non-accidental and respiratory mortality. In fully adjusted models, hazard ratios (HR) per interquartile range (IQR) increase in NDVI 500 m buffer (IQR: 0.24) and UA 500 m buffer (IQR: 0.31) were 0.97 (95%CI 0.96-0.98) and 0.99 (95%CI 0.98-0.99) for non-accidental mortality, and 0.95 (95%CI 0.93-0.98) and 0.97 (95%CI 0.96-0.99) for respiratory mortality. For perceived neighborhood green space, HRs were 0.93 (95%CI 0.92-0.94) and 0.94 (95%CI 0.91-0.98) for non-accidental and respiratory mortality, respectively. The observed lower mortality risks associated with residential exposure to green space were largely independent from exposure to ambient air pollutants. CONCLUSION: We observed evidence for lower mortality risk in associations with long-term residential exposure to green space in most but not all studied causes of death in a large representative cohort for the five largest urban areas in Belgium. These findings support the importance of the availability of residential green space in urban areas.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Adulto , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Censos , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Seguimentos , Humanos , Parques Recreativos , Material Particulado
7.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(3): 527-533, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Persons with a lower socioeconomic position spend more years with disability, despite their shorter life expectancy, but it is unknown what the important determinants are. This study aimed to quantify the contribution to educational inequalities in years with disability of eight risk factors: father's manual occupation, low income, few social contacts, smoking, high alcohol consumption, high body-weight, low physical exercise and low fruit and vegetable consumption. METHODS: We collected register-based mortality and survey-based disability and risk factor data from 15 European countries covering the period 2010-14 for most countries. We calculated years with disability between the ages of 35 and 80 by education and gender using the Sullivan method, and determined the hypothetical effect of changing the prevalence of each risk factor to the prevalence observed among high educated ('upward levelling scenario'), using Population Attributable Fractions. RESULTS: Years with disability among low educated were higher than among high educated, with a difference of 4.9 years among men and 5.5 years among women for all countries combined. Most risk factors were more prevalent among low educated. We found the largest contributions to inequalities in years with disability for low income (men: 1.0 year; women: 1.4 year), high body-weight (men: 0.6 year; women: 1.2 year) and father's manual occupation (men: 0.7 year; women: 0.9 year), but contributions differed by country. The contribution of smoking was relatively small. CONCLUSIONS: Disadvantages in material circumstances (low income), circumstances during childhood (father's manual occupation) and high body-weight contribute to inequalities in years with disability.


Assuntos
Pessoas com Deficiência , Expectativa de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
Environ Res ; 191: 110032, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32814106

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Living in green areas has been associated with several health benefits; however, the available evidence on such benefits for hypertension is still limited. This study aimed to investigate and compare the association between residential exposure to greenspace and hypertension in Barcelona, Spain and Brussels, Belgium. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was based on data from the 2016 Barcelona Health Interview Survey (HIS) (n = 3400) and the 2013 Belgian HIS (n = 2335). Both surveys were harmonized in terms of outcomes, confounders and exposure assessment. Residential exposure to greenspace was characterized as 1) surrounding greenspace (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index 2 (MSAVI2)) across buffers of 100 m, 300 m, and 500 m; 2) surrounding green space across 300 m and 500 m buffers; and 3) Euclidean distance to the nearest green space. Our outcome was self-reported hypertension. We developed logistic regression models to evaluate the city-specific association between each greenspace measure and hypertension, adjusting for relevant covariates. RESULTS: One interquartile range (IQR) increase in residential distance to the nearest green space was associated with higher risk of hypertension in Barcelona [odds ratio (OR): 1.15; 95%CI 1.03-1.29 (IQR: 262.2)], but not in Brussels [OR: 0.95; 95%CI 0.77-1.17 (IQR: 215.2)]. Stratified analyses suggested stronger associations in older participants (≥65 years) for both cities. Findings for residential surrounding green space and greenspace were not conclusive. However, in Brussels, we found protective associations in older participants for both residential surrounding greenspace metrics [NDVI 300 m buffer OR: 0.51; 95%CI 0.32-0.81 (IQR: 0.21) and MSAVI2 300 m buffer OR: 0.51; 95%CI 0.32-0.83 (IQR: 0.18)]. We did not find any indication for the modification of our evaluated associations by sex and education level. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that living closer to greenspace could be associated with lower risk of hypertension, particularly in older age. Future research is needed to replicate our findings in other settings and shed light on potential underlying mechanism(s).


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Parques Recreativos , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(3): 253-260, mayo-jun. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-196616

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality among men and women in nine European urban areas during the recent economic crisis, and to compare the results to those from two periods before the crisis. METHOD: This is an ecological study of trends based on three time periods (2000-2003, 2004-2008 and 2009-2014). The units of analysis were the small areas of nine European urban areas. We used a composite deprivation index as a socioeconomic indicator, along with other single indicators. As a mortality indicator, we used the smoothed standardized mortality ratio, calculated using the hierarchical Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. To analyse the evolution of socioeconomic inequalities, we fitted an ecological regression model that included the socioeconomic indicator, the period of time, and the interaction between these terms. RESULTS: We observed significant inequalities in mortality among men for almost all the socioeconomic indicators, periods, and urban areas studied. However, no significant changes occurred during the period of the economic crisis. While inequalities among women were less common, there was a statistically significant increase in inequality during the crisis period in terms of unemployment and the deprivation index in Prague and Stockholm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Future analyses should also consider time-lag in the effect of crises on mortality and specific causes of death, and differential effects between genders


OBJETIVO: Analizar las desigualdades socioeconómicas en la mortalidad por todas las causas en hombres y mujeres de nueve áreas urbanas europeas durante la reciente crisis económica, y comparar los resultados con dos periodos previos a la crisis. MÉTODO: Estudio ecológico de tendencias basado en tres periodos (2000-2003, 2004-2008 y 2009-2014). Las unidades de análisis fueron las áreas pequeñas de nueve zonas urbanas europeas. Se utilizaron un índice compuesto de privación socioeconómica como indicador socioeconómico y otros indicadores simples. Como indicador de mortalidad se usó la razón de mortalidad estandarizada suavizada, calculada utilizando el modelo jerárquico bayesiano propuesto por Besag, York y Mollié. Para analizar la evolución de las desigualdades socioeconómicas se utilizó un modelo de regresión ecológico que incluía el indicador socioeconómico, el periodo y la interacción de ambos. RESULTADOS: Se observaron desigualdades significativas en la mortalidad en los hombres para casi todos los indicadores socioeconómicos, periodos y áreas urbanas. Sin embargo, no hubo cambios significativos en las desigualdades en el periodo de crisis. Aunque las desigualdades entre las mujeres fueron menos comunes, hubo un incremento significativo en las desigualdades en mortalidad en el periodo de crisis en términos de desempleo y del índice de privación en Praga y Estocolmo, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Futuros análisis deberán tener en cuenta el tiempo transcurrido entre la crisis y su efecto en la mortalidad, así como diferentes causas de mortalidad y el efecto diferencial entre géneros


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Atenção à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Mortalidade/tendências , Recessão Econômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Efeitos Acumulativos das Desigualdades em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Estudos Ecológicos , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Distribuição por Sexo
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 712: 136426, 2020 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945528

RESUMO

Green space may improve cardiovascular (CV) health, for example by promoting physical activity and by reducing air pollution, noise and heat. Socioeconomic and environmental factors may modify the health effects of green space. We examined the association between residential green space and reimbursed CV medication sales in Belgium between 2006 and 2014, adjusting for socioeconomic deprivation and air pollution. We analyzed data for 11,575 census tracts using structural equation models for the entire country and for the administrative regions. Latent variables for green space, air pollution and socioeconomic deprivation were used as predictors of CV medication sales and were estimated from the number of patches of forest, census tract relative forest cover and relative forest cover within a 600 m buffer around the census tract; annual mean concentrations of PM2.5, BC and NO2; and percentages of inhabitants that were foreign-born from lower- and mid-income countries, unemployed or had no higher education. A direct association between socioeconomic deprivation and CV medication sales [parameter estimate (95% CI): 0.26 (0.25; 0.28)] and inverse associations between CV medication sales and green space [-0.71 (-0.80; -0.61)] and air pollution [-1.62 (-1.69; -0.61)] were observed. In the regional models, the association between green space and CV medication sales was stronger in the region with relatively low green space cover (Flemish Region, standardized estimate -0.16) than in the region with high green space cover (Walloon Region, -0.10). In the highly urbanized Brussels Capital Region the association tended towards the null. In all regions, the associations between CV medication sales and socioeconomic deprivation were direct and more prominent. Our results suggest that there may be an inverse association between green space and CV medication sales, but socioeconomic deprivation was always the strongest predictor of CV medication sales.


Assuntos
Fatores Socioeconômicos , Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Bélgica , Exposição Ambiental , Material Particulado
11.
Gac Sanit ; 34(3): 253-260, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983478

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse socioeconomic inequalities in all-cause mortality among men and women in nine European urban areas during the recent economic crisis, and to compare the results to those from two periods before the crisis. METHOD: This is an ecological study of trends based on three time periods (2000-2003, 2004-2008 and 2009-2014). The units of analysis were the small areas of nine European urban areas. We used a composite deprivation index as a socioeconomic indicator, along with other single indicators. As a mortality indicator, we used the smoothed standardized mortality ratio, calculated using the hierarchical Bayesian model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. To analyse the evolution of socioeconomic inequalities, we fitted an ecological regression model that included the socioeconomic indicator, the period of time, and the interaction between these terms. RESULTS: We observed significant inequalities in mortality among men for almost all the socioeconomic indicators, periods, and urban areas studied. However, no significant changes occurred during the period of the economic crisis. While inequalities among women were less common, there was a statistically significant increase in inequality during the crisis period in terms of unemployment and the deprivation index in Prague and Stockholm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Future analyses should also consider time-lag in the effect of crises on mortality and specific causes of death, and differential effects between genders.


Assuntos
Recessão Econômica , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Mortalidade/tendências , Saúde da População Urbana/economia , Teorema de Bayes , Causas de Morte , Emprego , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Desemprego , Saúde da População Urbana/tendências
12.
Eur J Public Health ; 30(1): 92-98, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the impact of the financial crisis on inequalities in suicide mortality in European urban areas. The objective of the study was to analyse the trend in area socioeconomic inequalities in suicide mortality in nine European urban areas before and after the beginning of the financial crisis. METHODS: This ecological study of trends was based on three periods, two before the economic crisis (2000-2003, 2004-2008) and one during the crisis (2009-2014). The units of analysis were the small areas of nine European cities or metropolitan areas, with a median population ranging from 271 (Turin) to 193 630 (Berlin). For each small area and sex, we analysed smoothed standardized mortality ratios of suicide mortality and their relationship with a socioeconomic deprivation index using a hierarchical Bayesian model. RESULTS: Among men, the relative risk (RR) comparing suicide mortality of the 95th percentile value of socioeconomic deprivation (severe deprivation) to its 5th percentile value (low deprivation) were higher than 1 in Stockholm and Lisbon in the three periods. In Barcelona, the RR was 2.06 (95% credible interval: 1.24-3.21) in the first period, decreasing in the other periods. No significant changes were observed across the periods. Among women, a positive significant association was identified only in Stockholm (RR around 2 in the three periods). There were no significant changes across the periods except in London with a RR of 0.49 (95% CI: 0.35-0.68) in the third period. CONCLUSIONS: Area socioeconomic inequalities in suicide mortality did not change significantly after the onset of the crisis in the areas studied.


Assuntos
Recessão Econômica , Suicídio , Teorema de Bayes , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha
13.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(12): 1131-1142, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729683

RESUMO

Socioeconomic inequalities in mortality are a challenge for public health around the world, but appear to be resistant to policy-making. We aimed to identify European countries which have been more successful than others in narrowing inequalities in mortality, and the factors associated with narrowing inequalities. We collected and harmonised mortality data by educational level in 15 European countries over the last 25 years, and quantified changes in inequalities in mortality using a range of measures capturing different perspectives on inequality (e.g., 'relative' and 'absolute' inequalities, inequalities in 'attainment' and 'shortfall'). We determined which causes of death contributed to narrowing of inequalities, and conducted country- and period-fixed effects analyses to assess which country-level factors were associated with narrowing of inequalities in mortality. Mortality among the low educated has declined rapidly in all European countries, and a narrowing of absolute, but not relative inequalities was seen in many countries. Best performers were Austria, Italy (Turin) and Switzerland among men, and Spain (Barcelona), England and Wales, and Austria among women. Ischemic heart disease, smoking-related causes (men) and amenable causes often contributed to narrowing inequalities. Trends in income inequality, level of democracy and smoking were associated with widening inequalities, but rising health care expenditure was associated with narrowing inequalities. Trends in inequalities in mortality have not been as unfavourable as often claimed. Our results suggest that health care expansion has counteracted the inequalities widening effect of other influences.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Gastos em Saúde/tendências , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Mortalidade/tendências , Classe Social , Escolaridade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Lancet Public Health ; 4(10): e529-e537, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequalities in longevity have been found in all European countries. We aimed to assess which determinants make the largest contribution to these inequalities. METHODS: We did an international comparative study of inequalities in risk factors for shorter life expectancy in Europe. We collected register-based mortality data and survey-based risk factor data from 15 European countries. We calculated partial life expectancies between the ages of 35 years and 80 years by education and gender and determined the effect on mortality of changing the prevalence of eight risk factors-father with a manual occupation, low income, few social contacts, smoking, high alcohol consumption, high bodyweight, low physical exercise, and low fruit and vegetable consumption-among people with a low level of education to that among people with a high level of education (upward levelling scenario), using population attributable fractions. FINDINGS: In all countries, a substantial gap existed in partial life expectancy between people with low and high levels of education, of 2·3-8·2 years among men and 0·6-4·5 years among women. The risk factors contributing most to the gap in life expectancy were smoking (19·8% among men and 18·9% among women), low income (9·7% and 13·4%), and high bodyweight (7·7% and 11·7%), but large differences existed between countries in the contribution of risk factors. Sensitivity analyses using the prevalence of risk factors in the most favourable country (best practice scenario) showed that the potential for reducing the gap might be considerably smaller. The results were also sensitive to varying assumptions about the mortality risks associated with each risk factor. INTERPRETATION: Smoking, low income, and high bodyweight are quantitatively important entry points for policies to reduce educational inequalities in life expectancy in most European countries, but priorities differ between countries. A substantial reduction of inequalities in life expectancy requires policy actions on a broad range of health determinants. FUNDING: European Commission and Network for Studies on Pensions, Aging, and Retirement.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Peso Corporal , Dieta , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 662, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The slope (SII) and relative (RII) indices of inequality are commonly recommended to monitor health inequality policies. As an upwards shift of the educational level distribution (ELD) can be part of those policies, we examine how such a shift affects the SII, the RII and the population attributable fraction (PAF). METHODS: We simulated 632 distributions of 4 educational levels (ELs) by varying the share (p1 to p4) of each EL, with constant mortality rates (MR) and calculated the corresponding RII, SII and PAF. Second, we decomposed the effect on the three indices of a change affecting both the ELD and the MRs, into the contributions of each component. RESULTS: RIIs and SIIs sharply increase with p4 at fixed p1 values and evolve as reversed U-curves for p1 changing in complement to p4. The RII reaches a maximum, at much higher p4 values than the SII. PAFs monotonically decrease when p4 increases. CONCLUSION: If improving the educational attainment is part of a policy, an upwards shift of EL should be assessed as a progress; however the RII, and to a lesser extent the SII, frequently translate an increased EL4 share as a worsening. We warn against the use of SII and RII for monitoring inequality-tackling policies at changing socio-economic structures. Rather, we recommend to complement the assessment of changes in absolute and relative pairwise differentials, with changes in PAF and in the socio-economic group shares.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Simulação por Computador , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Arch Public Health ; 77: 6, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30815257

RESUMO

Background: Reducing socio-economic health inequalities is a public health priority, necessitating careful monitoring that should take into account changes in the population composition. We analyzed the evolution of educational inequalities in life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy at age 25 (LE25 and DFLE25) in Belgium between 2001 and 2011. Methods: The 2001 and 2011 census data were linked with the national register data for a five-year mortality follow up. Disability prevalence estimates from the health interview surveys (2001 to 2013) were used to compute DFLE according to Sullivan's method. LE25 and DFLE25 were computed by educational level (EL). Absolute differentials of LE25 and DFLE25 were calculated for each EL and for each period, as well as composite inequality indices (CII) of population-level impact of inequality. Changes over the 10-year period were then calculated for each inequality index. Results: The LE25 increased in all ELs and both genders, except in the lowest EL for women. The increase was larger in the highest EL, leading in 2011 to 6.07 and 4.58 years for the low-versus-high LE25 gaps respectively in men and women, compared to 5.19 and 3.76 in 2001, namely 17 and 22% increases. The upwards shift of the EL distribution led to a limited 7% increase of the CII among men but no change in women.The substantial increase of the DFLE25 in males with high EL (+ 4.5 years) and the decrease of the DFLE25 in women with low EL, results in a substantial increase of all considered DFLE25 inequality measures in both genders. In 2011, DFLE25 gaps were respectively 10.4 and 13.5 years in males and females compared to 6.51 and 9.30 in 2001, representing increases of 61 and 44% for the gaps, and 72 and 20% for the CII. Conclusion: The LE25 increased in all ELs, but at a higher pace in highly educated, leading to an increase in the LE25 gaps in both genders. After accounting for the upwards shift of the educational distribution, the population-level inequality index increased only for men. The DFLE25 increased only in highly educated men, and decreased in low educated women, leading to large increases of inequalities in both genders. A general plan to tackle health inequality should be set up, with particular efforts to improve the health of the low educated women.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 658: 1630-1639, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30678019

RESUMO

Urban areas in Europe are facing a range of environmental public health challenges, such as air pollution, traffic noise and road injuries. The identification and quantification of the public health risks associated with exposure to environmental conditions is important for prioritising policies and interventions that aim to diminish the risks and improve the health of the population. With this purpose in mind, the EURO-HEALTHY project used a consistent approach to assess the impact of key environmental risk factors and urban environmental determinants on public health in European metropolitan areas. A number of environmental public health indicators, which are closely tied to the physical and built environment, were identified through stakeholder consultation; data were collected from six European metropolitan areas (Athens, Barcelona, Lisbon, London, Stockholm and Turin) covering the period 2000-2014, and a health impact assessment framework enabled the quantification of health effects (attributable deaths) associated with these indicators. The key environmental public health indicators were related to air pollution and certain urban environmental conditions (urban green spaces, road safety). The air pollution was generally the highest environmental public health risk; the associated number of deaths in Athens, Barcelona and London ranged between 800 and 2300 attributable deaths per year. The number of victims of road traffic accidents and the associated deaths were lowest in the most recent year compared with previous years. We also examined the positive impacts on health associated with urban green spaces by calculating reduced mortality impacts for populations residing in areas with greater green space coverage; results in Athens showed reductions of all-cause mortality of 26 per 100,000 inhabitants for populations with benefits of local greenspace. Based on our analysis, we discuss recommendations of potential interventions that could be implemented to reduce the environmental public health risks in the European metropolitan areas covered by this study.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito , Poluição do Ar/análise , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Ruído , Cidades , Saúde Ambiental , Europa (Continente) , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Saúde Pública
18.
Eur J Public Health ; 29(1): 82-87, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29917065

RESUMO

Background: We aimed to investigate the contribution of chronic conditions to gender differences in disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) and life expectancy with disability (LED) in Belgium in 2001, 2004 and 2008. Methods: Data on disability and chronic conditions from participants of the 2001, 2004 and 2008 Health Interview Surveys in Belgium were used to estimate disability prevalence by cause using the attribution method. Disability prevalence was applied to life tables to estimate DFLE and LED using the Sullivan method. Decomposition techniques were used to assess the contribution of mortality and disability and further of causes of death and disability to gender disparities in DFLE and LED. Results: Higher LE, DFLE and LED were observed for women compared with men in all years studied. A decrease in the gender gap in LE (2001: 5.9; 2004: 5.6; 2008: 5.3) was observed in our cross-sectional approach followed by a decrease in gender differences in DFLE (2001: 1.9; 2004: 1.3; 2008: 0.5) and increase in LED (2001: 4.0; 2004: 4.4; 2008: 4.8). The higher LED in women was attributed to their lower mortality due to lung/larynx/trachea cancer, ischaemic heart diseases, and external causes (2001 and 2004) and higher disability prevalence due to musculoskeletal conditions (2008). Higher DFLE was observed in women owing to their lower mortality from lung/larynx/trachea cancer, ischaemic heart diseases, digestive cancer and chronic respiratory diseases. Conclusion: To promote healthy ageing of populations, priority should be given to reduce the LED disadvantage in women by targeting non-fatal diseases, such as musculoskeletal conditions.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Expectativa de Vida/tendências , Fatores Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Previsões , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
19.
Arch Public Health ; 76: 68, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455881

RESUMO

Background: Belgium lacks a systematic overview of health differences by occupation. This is the first study to examine self-reported health among 27 occupational groups in Belgium with a lag time of 10 years. Methods: Individual data are derived from an anonymous linkage between the 1991 and 2001 Belgian census. The total working population (25-55 years) is selected from the 1991 Belgian census. Self-reported health (1 = fair or (very) bad health; 0 = (very) good health) was obtained from the 2001 census. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyse the health of 1.5 million men and 1.0 million women by occupational group in 1991. The active sex-specific population in 1991 and 2001 was the reference group. Controls include age, activity status and housing status at the time of 2001 census. Results: Both male and female workers in physically demanding occupations were more likely to report poor health. The three occupations with the highest age-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) were extraction and building trade workers (ORmale 2.08 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 2.05-2.10; ORfemale 2.15 CI 1.93-2.40); services elementary workers (ORmale 2.06 CI 2.03-2.10; ORfemale 2.37 CI 2.34-2.41); and labourers in construction, manufacturing and transport (ORmale 1.90 CI 1.86-1.93; ORfemale 2.21 CI 2.12-2.29). Men and women in teaching, scientific, health-related and managerial positions had the lowest age-adjusted ORs for poor self-reported health. The pattern in occupational health differences remained the same after controlling for activity status and socio-economic position. Conclusions: Occupational health inequalities are apparent after a lag time of 10 years. The identification of types of workers in poor health provide valuable insights to future health promotion strategies in the Belgian workforce.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(25): 6440-6445, 2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29866829

RESUMO

Unfavorable health trends among the lowly educated have recently been reported from the United States. We analyzed health trends by education in European countries, paying particular attention to the possibility of recent trend interruptions, including interruptions related to the impact of the 2008 financial crisis. We collected and harmonized data on mortality from ca 1980 to ca 2014 for 17 countries covering 9.8 million deaths and data on self-reported morbidity from ca 2002 to ca 2014 for 27 countries covering 350,000 survey respondents. We used interrupted time-series analyses to study changes over time and country-fixed effects analyses to study the impact of crisis-related economic conditions on health outcomes. Recent trends were more favorable than in previous decades, particularly in Eastern Europe, where mortality started to decline among lowly educated men and where the decline in less-than-good self-assessed health accelerated, resulting in some narrowing of health inequalities. In Western Europe, mortality has continued to decline among the lowly and highly educated, and although the decline of less-than-good self-assessed health slowed in countries severely hit by the financial crisis, this affected lowly and highly educated equally. Crisis-related economic conditions were not associated with widening health inequalities. Our results show that the unfavorable trends observed in the United States are not found in Europe. There has also been no discernible short-term impact of the crisis on health inequalities at the population level. Both findings suggest that European countries have been successful in avoiding an aggravation of health inequalities.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Recessão Econômica/estatística & dados numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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