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2.
J Hypertens ; 38(10): 1948-1954, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890270

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Women with a history of preeclampsia are at risk of developing hypertension as well as ischemic heart disease. Identification of women at the highest risk is important to initiate preventive strategies. We investigated whether high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) levels are associated with a history of early-onset preeclampsia, and with hypertension in these high-risk women. METHODS: Approximately 9-10 years after pregnancy, hs-cTnI levels were measured for 339 women of the Preeclampsia Risk Evaluation in FEMales cohort, consisting of 177 women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and 162 women with a previous uncomplicated index pregnancy. Associations were analyzed using several statistical tests and linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The median hs-cTnI levels (IQR) were 2.50 ng/l (2.30) in women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and 2.35 ng/l (2.50) in women without a history of preeclampsia, P = 0.53. Among women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia, the hs-cTnI levels were higher in women who were hypertensive compared with their normotensive counterparts (medians 2.60 versus 2.30; P = 0.03). In addition, blood pressure levels increased with increasing hs-cTnI levels. CONCLUSION: We did not find a difference in hs-cTnI levels between women with and without a history of early-onset preeclampsia. Nonetheless, hs-cTnI levels were statistically significantly higher in current hypertensive women with a history of preeclampsia compared with their normotensive counterparts. Therefore, hs-cTnI levels might improve risk prediction for women at the highest risk of cardiovascular disease.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14061, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32820187

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension are two major risk factors leading to heart failure and cardiovascular damage. Lowering blood sugar by the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin provides cardiac protection. We established a new rat model that develops both inducible diabetes and genetic hypertension and investigated the effect of empagliflozin treatment to test the hypothesis if empagliflozin will be protective in a heart failure model which is not based on a primary vascular event. The transgenic Tet29 rat model for inducible diabetes was crossed with the mRen27 hypertensive rat to create a novel model for heart failure with two stressors. The diabetic, hypertensive heart failure rat (mRen27/tetO-shIR) were treated with empagliflozin (10 mg/kg/d) or vehicle for 4 weeks. Cardiovascular alterations were monitored by advanced speckle tracking echocardiography, gene expression analysis and immunohistological staining. The novel model with increased blood pressure und higher blood sugar levels had a reduced survival compared to controls. The rats develop heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Empagliflozin lowered blood sugar levels compared to vehicle treated animals (182.3 ± 10.4 mg/dl vs. 359.4 ± 35.8 mg/dl) but not blood pressure (135.7 ± 10.3 mmHg vs. 128.2 ± 3.8 mmHg). The cardiac function was improved in all three global strains (global longitudinal strain - 8.5 ± 0.5% vs. - 5.5 ± 0.6%, global radial strain 20.4 ± 2.7% vs. 8.8 ± 1.1%, global circumferential strain - 11.0 ± 0.7% vs. - 7.6 ± 0.8%) and by increased ejection fraction (42.8 ± 4.0% vs. 28.2 ± 3.0%). In addition, infiltration of macrophages was decreased by treatment (22.4 ± 1.7 vs. 32.3 ± 2.3 per field of view), despite mortality was not improved. Empagliflozin showed beneficial effects on cardiovascular dysfunction. In this novel rat model of combined hypertension and diabetes, the improvement in systolic and diastolic function was not secondary to a reduction in left ventricular mass or through modulation of the afterload, since blood pressure was not changed. The mRen27/tetO-shIR strain should provide utility in separating blood sugar from blood pressure-related treatment effects.

4.
J Hypertens ; 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618885

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Women with a history of preeclampsia are at risk of developing hypertension as well as ischemic heart disease. Identification of women at the highest risk is important to initiate preventive strategies. We investigated whether high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) levels are associated with a history of early-onset preeclampsia, and with hypertension in these high-risk women. METHODS: Approximately 9-10 years after pregnancy, hs-cTnI levels were measured for 339 women of the Preeclampsia Risk Evaluation in FEMales cohort, consisting of 177 women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and 162 women with a previous uncomplicated index pregnancy. Associations were analyzed using several statistical tests and linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The median hs-cTnI levels (IQR) were 2.50 ng/l (2.30) in women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia and 2.35 ng/l (2.50) in women without a history of preeclampsia, P = 0.53. Among women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia, the hs-cTnI levels were higher in women who were hypertensive compared with their normotensive counterparts (medians 2.60 versus 2.30; P = 0.03). In addition, blood pressure levels increased with increasing hs-cTnI levels. CONCLUSION: We did not find a difference in hs-cTnI levels between women with and without a history of early-onset preeclampsia. Nonetheless, hs-cTnI levels were statistically significantly higher in current hypertensive women with a history of preeclampsia compared with their normotensive counterparts. Therefore, hs-cTnI levels might improve risk prediction for women at the highest risk of cardiovascular disease.

5.
Hypertension ; 76(3): 901-909, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32507044

RESUMO

Pregnancy-induced hypertension is a severe pregnancy complication, increasing risk of long-term cardiovascular disease in mothers and offspring. We hypothesized that maternal blood pressure in pregnancy associated with offspring blood pressure; that the associations were sex-specific; and that maternal circulating placental angiogenic markers (PlGF [placental growth factor] and sFlt-1 [soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1]) mediated this relationship. We analyzed data from 2434 women and 2217 children from the Odense Child Cohort, a prospective Danish cohort study. Offspring blood pressure trajectory from 4 months to 5 years was highly associated to maternal first, second, and third trimester blood pressure, and mean blood pressure in pregnancy, independent of maternal and offspring covariates. There were offspring sex-specific associations: Girls from mothers in the highest quartile of first and third trimester blood pressure had significantly higher systolic blood pressure at 5 years than the rest of the cohort (mean difference±SEM: 1.81±0.59 and 2.11±0.59 mm Hg, respectively, all P<0.01); whereas boys had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure at 5 years (mean difference±SEM: 1.11±0.45 and 1.03±0.45, respectively, all P<0.05). Concentrations of PlGF at gestational week 28 correlated inversely to maternal gestational blood pressure trajectory, independent of the diagnosis of pregnancy-induced hypertension, adjusted ß coefficients (95% CI) for predicting systolic blood pressure (SBP): -3.18 (-4.66 to -1.70) mm Hg, for predicting diastolic blood pressure (DBP): -2.48 (-3.57 to -1.40) mm Hg. In conclusion, maternal gestational blood pressure predicted offspring blood pressure trajectory until 5 years in a sex-differential manner. Furthermore, subtle alterations in blood pressure in early pregnancy preceded hypertension or preeclampsia, and PlGF was a mediator of cardiovascular health in pregnancy.

6.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 25: 1839-1853, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32472760

RESUMO

Overactivation of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is one of the main pathophysiological features in the evolution of chronic heart failure (CHF). The (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) represents an important player in a tissue renin-angiotensin system (tissue RAS), which mediates tissue injury through fibrosis and hypertrophy of the affected organs in CHF patients. In our study we used plasma samples from 556 elderly subjects with CHF and 198 healthy participants in order to evaluate prognostic and diagnostic potential of s(P)RR in setting of CHF. The patients with CHF showed significantly higher plasma levels of s(P)RR than the healthy volunteers (p=0.0005). We observed association between higher s(P)RR plasma concentrations and lower left ventricular ejection fraction and higher degree of left ventricular dilatation on baseline echocardiography examination of the CHF patients. Elderly CHF patients with higher baseline s(P)RR plasma concentration were at same risk for death, stroke and hospitalization due to heart failure worsening at mean follow-up from forty-eight months in comparison to low s(P)RR counterparts.

7.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 319(1): F1-F7, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463729

RESUMO

Albuminuria in the pathological range is a significant predictor of preeclampsia. In healthy persons, high normal urinary albumin predicts a later incidence of hypertension and is associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure. We hypothesized that in pregnancy urinary albumin in the normal range associates with blood pressure through activation of distal Na+ reabsorption and renal salt retention by plasma factors cofiltered with albumin. We analyzed 24-h urine collections and plasma samples from gestational week 29 of 560 pregnant women from the Odense Child Cohort, a Danish population-based cohort. Plasma and urinary aldosterone were measured by ELISA. Plasma and urinary Na+, K+, Cl-, and creatinine were also determined. Predictive values of urinary albumin were assessed by linear mixed, multiple, and Cox regression analyses. Primary outcomes were blood pressure and renal electrolyte handling. Twenty-four-hour urinary albumin excretion at gestational week 29 associated with gestational blood pressure trajectory, with adjusted ß coefficients (95% confidence intervals) for each 10-fold increase in urinary albumin as follows: 5.71 (1.60 to 9.81) mmHg for systolic blood pressure and 4.39 (1.41 to 7.38) mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. Urinary albumin was inversely associated with fractional excretion rates of Na+, K+, and Cl-, with adjusted ß coefficients (95% confidence intervals) for each 10-fold increase in urine albumin as follows: -0.25 (-0.35 to -0.14), -5.06 (-6.81 to -3.30), and -0.28 (-0.41 to -0.15), respectively. In conclusion, at gestational week 29, urinary albumin excretion in the normal range associated with blood pressure and renal electrolyte handling independent of potential confounders.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Rim/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Valores de Referência , Adulto Jovem
8.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 21: 23-29, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361394

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Women with a previous hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (HDP: gestational hypertension and preeclampsia) have increased long-term cardiovascular disease risk. Recent meta-analyses show adverse levels of non-invasive functional and structural cardiovascular risk markers such as pulse wave velocity (PWV), heart-rate adjusted augmentation index (AIx75), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and reactive hyperemia index (RHI) after HDPs, and suggest using these for cardiovascular risk stratification. However, it is not known if a previous HDP predict levels of these markers beyond classical cardiovascular risk factors. Study design and main outcome measures. We assessed PWV, AIx75, CIMT, RHI, classical cardiovascular risk factors, and pregnancy characteristics in 221 women 1 year postpartum (controls: 95, previous HDP: 126). Uni- and multi- variate regression analysis were conducted to assess associations between previous HDP and PWV, AIx75, CIMT or RHI. We adjusted for classical cardiovascular risk factors and pregnancy characteristics. A p-level < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: PWV was associated with previous HDP on univariate analysis. This effect was confounded by blood pressure and not significant after adjustment. We found no significant associations between AIx75, RHI, CIMT, and a previous HDP, neither before nor after adjustments. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between a previous HDP and PWV, AIx75, CIMT, or RHI 1 year postpartum can largely be explained by adverse levels of classical cardiovascular risk markers in women with a previous HDP. Women with previous HDP should receive primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, but PWV, AIx75, CIMT or RHI are unlikely to aid in cardiovascular risk stratification 1 year postpartum.

10.
Hypertension ; 75(6): 1513-1522, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336238

RESUMO

Preeclampsia, a hypertensive pregnancy disorder, links to increased long-term maternal cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk is further increased with early-onset preeclampsia (EPE) and delivery of a growth-restricted child. We hypothesized that circulating biomarkers associated with CVD risk differed between preeclampsia subtypes and controls. We compared EPE; n=37, delivery

11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(3)2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050556

RESUMO

Several studies have shown that women with a preeclamptic pregnancy exhibit an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Animal models are essential to investigate the causes of this increased risk and have the ability to assess possible preventive and therapeutic interventions. Using the latest technologies such as speckle tracking echocardiography (STE), it is feasible to map subclinical changes in cardiac diastolic and systolic function as well as structural changes of the maternal heart. The aim of this work is to compare cardiovascular changes in an established transgenic rat model with preeclampsia-like pregnancies with findings from human preeclamptic pregnancies by STE. The same algorithms were used to evaluate and compare the changes in echoes of human and rodents. Parameters of functionality such as global longitudinal strain (animal -23.54 ± 1.82% vs. -13.79 ± 0.57%, human -20.60 ± 0.47% vs. -15.45 ± 1.55%) as well as indications of morphological changes such as relative wall thickness (animal 0.20 ± 0.01 vs. 0.25 ± 0.01, human 0.34 ± 0.01 vs. 0.40 ± 0.02) are significantly altered in both species after preeclamptic pregnancies. Thus, the described rat model simulates the human situation quite well and is a valuable tool for future investigations regarding cardiovascular changes. STE is a unique technique that can be applied in animal models and humans with a high potential to uncover cardiovascular maladaptation and subtle pathologies.


Assuntos
Ecocardiografia/métodos , Coração/fisiopatologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
13.
Cardiovasc Res ; 116(5): 1059-1070, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241148

RESUMO

AIMS: B-cell lymphoma/leukaemia 10 (Bcl10) is a member of the CARMA-Bcl10-MALT1 signalosome, linking angiotensin (Ang) II, and antigen-dependent immune-cell activation to nuclear factor kappa-B signalling. We showed earlier that Bcl10 plays a role in Ang II-induced cardiac fibrosis and remodelling, independent of blood pressure. We now investigated the role of Bcl10 in Ang II-induced renal damage. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bcl10 knockout mice (Bcl10 KO) and wild-type (WT) controls were given 1% NaCl in the drinking water and Ang II (1.44 mg/kg/day) for 14 days. Additionally, Bcl10 KO or WT kidneys were transplanted onto WT mice that were challenged by the same protocol for 7 days. Kidneys of Ang II-treated Bcl10 KO mice developed less fibrosis and showed fewer infiltrating cells. Nevertheless, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (Ngal) and kidney injury molecule (Kim)1 expression was higher in the kidneys of Ang II-treated Bcl10 KO mice, indicating exacerbated tubular damage. Furthermore, albuminuria was significantly higher in Ang II-treated Bcl10 KO mice accompanied by reduced glomerular nephrin expression and podocyte number. Ang II-treated WT mice transplanted with Bcl10 KO kidney showed more albuminuria and renal Ngal, compared to WT- > WT kidney-transplanted mice, as well as lower podocyte number but similar fibrosis and cell infiltration. Interestingly, mice lacking Bcl10 in the kidney exhibited less Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy than controls. CONCLUSION: Bcl10 has multi-faceted actions in Ang II-induced renal damage. On the one hand, global Bcl10 deficiency ameliorates renal fibrosis and cell infiltration; on the other hand, lack of renal Bcl10 aggravates albuminuria and podocyte damage. These data suggest that Bcl10 maintains podocyte integrity and renal function.

14.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 318(2): R256-R262, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721604

RESUMO

Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by new-onset hypertension that usually occurs in the third trimester of pregnancy and is associated with oxidative stress and angiotensin II type 1 receptor agonistic autoantibodies (AT1-AAs). Inhibition of the AT1-AAs in the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat, a model of PE, attenuates hypertension and many other characteristics of PE. We have previously shown that mitochondrial oxidative stress (mtROS) is a newly described PE characteristic exhibited by the RUPP rat that contributes to hypertension. However, the factors that cause mtROS in PE or RUPP are unknown. Thus, the objective of the current study is to use pharmacologic inhibition of AT1-AAs to examine their role in mtROS in the RUPP rat model of PE. AT1-AA inhibition in RUPP rats was achieved by administration of an epitope-binding peptide ('n7AAc'). Female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following two groups: RUPP and RUPP + AT1-AA inhibition (RUPP + 'n7AAc'). On day 14 of gestation (GD), RUPP surgery was performed; 'n7AAc' peptide (2 µg/µL) was administered by miniosmotic pumps in a subset of RUPP rats; and on GD19, sera, placentas, and kidneys were collected. mitochondrial respiration and mtROS were measured in isolated mitochondria using the Oxygraph 2K and fluorescent microplate reader, respectively. Placental and renal mitochondrial respiration and mtROS were improved in RUPP + 'n7AAc' rats compared with RUPP controls. Moreover, endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) treated with RUPP + 'n7AAc' sera exhibited less mtROS compared with those treated with RUPP sera. Overall, our findings suggest that AT1-AA signaling is one stimulus of mtROS during PE.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/tratamento farmacológico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/imunologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Rim/imunologia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/fisiopatologia , Mitocôndrias/imunologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pré-Eclâmpsia/imunologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
15.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 33(8): 1377-1384, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173595

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the predictive performance of placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble FMS-like kinase 1 (sFlt-1) on birth weight and small for gestational age (SGA), in a large, population-based cohort.Methods: Women enrolled in the population-based, prospective Odense Child Cohort Study with early (GA < 20 weeks) and/or late (≥20 weeks) pregnancy blood samples (n = 1937) were included. The association between log-transformed values of the biomarkers and birth weight Z-score was studied using multivariate regression models. The prediction of SGA overall, and in women developing preeclampsia, by biomarkers was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analyses.Results: No substantial associations between early pregnancy biomarkers and SGA were seen. PlGF measured in late pregnancy demonstrated the strongest association with birth weight Z-score (adjusted ß-coefficient = 0.43 [95%CI = 0.35; 0.50]). The area under curve (AUC) for predicting SGA was higher for sFlt-1/PlGF compared to sFlt-1 (0.74 versus 0.63, p = .006) and reached excellent prediction for SGA after preeclampsia (AUC 0.94). Optimal sFlt-1/PlGF ratio cut-offs had higher negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) for SGA (cut-off > 5.0; NPV = 99.1%, PPV = 5.4%) compared to each marker individually.Conclusion: The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is a potential predictor of SGA in population-based screening, particularly when preeclampsia is also present.

16.
Hypertension ; 75(1): 202-210, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786987

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is associated with increased cardiovascular long-term risk; however, the underlying functional and structural mechanisms are unknown. We investigated maternal cardiac alterations after preeclampsia. Female rats harboring the human angiotensinogen gene [TGR(hAogen)L1623] develop a preeclamptic phenotype with hypertension and albuminuria during pregnancy when mated with male rats bearing the human renin gene [TGR(hRen)L10J] but behave physiologically normal before and after pregnancy. Furthermore, rats were treated with pravastatin. We tested the hypothesis that statins are a potential therapeutic intervention to reduce cardiovascular alterations due to simulated preeclamptic pregnancy. Although hypertension persists for only 8 days in pregnancy, former preeclampsia rats exhibit significant cardiac hypertrophy 28 days after pregnancy observed in both speckle tracking echocardiography and histological staining. In addition, fibrosis and capillary rarefaction was evident. Pravastatin treatment ameliorated the remodeling and improved cardiac output postpartum. Preeclamptic pregnancy induces irreversible structural changes of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, which can be moderated by pravastatin treatment. This pathological cardiac remodeling might be involved in increased cardiovascular risk in later life.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Pravastatina/uso terapêutico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Débito Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Período Pós-Parto , Pravastatina/farmacologia , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
17.
Biol Sex Differ ; 10(1): 58, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Placental ischemia and hypertension, characteristic features of preeclampsia, are associated with impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation and cerebral edema. However, the factors that contribute to these cerebral abnormalities are not clear. Several lines of evidence suggest that angiotensin II can impact cerebrovascular function; however, the role of the renin angiotensin system in cerebrovascular function during placental ischemia has not been examined. We tested whether the angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor contributes to impaired CBF autoregulation in pregnant rats with placental ischemia caused by surgically reducing uterine perfusion pressure. METHODS: Placental ischemic or sham operated rats were treated with vehicle or losartan from gestational day (GD) 14 to 19 in the drinking water. On GD 19, we assessed CBF autoregulation in anesthetized rats using laser Doppler flowmetry. RESULTS: Placental ischemic rats had impaired CBF autoregulation that was attenuated by treatment with losartan. In addition, we examined whether an agonistic autoantibody to the AT1 receptor (AT1-AA), reported to be present in preeclamptic women, contributes to impaired CBF autoregulation. Purified rat AT1-AA or vehicle was infused into pregnant rats from GD 12 to 19 via mini-osmotic pumps after which CBF autoregulation was assessed. AT1-AA infusion impaired CBF autoregulation but did not affect brain water content. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the impaired CBF autoregulation associated with placental ischemia is due, at least in part, to activation of the AT1 receptor and that the RAS may interact with other placental factors to promote cerebrovascular changes common to preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Circulação Cerebrovascular , Homeostase , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Placenta/irrigação sanguínea , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/fisiologia , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Losartan/farmacologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
18.
Eur J Intern Med ; 70: 60-67, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704164

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to explore 1) the perception of stable angina (SA) - impact on quality of life (QoL) and current condition related to SA; 2) SA burden - symptoms and frequency of anginal episodes; 3) impairment attributable to SA - limitations in daily activities and impact on work; 4) characteristics that might affect the patients' perception." METHOD: a proprietary questionnaire was administered on-line to SA patients selected using a purpose-built screening program from general population panels collaborating with IQVIA in Italy, Germany, Spain, and the UK. Exploratory analyses were performed: descriptive statistics on the total sample and different stratifications (gender, age class, time since diagnosis) were provided; we used Chi-square tests to compare subgroups. RESULTS: of more than 25,000 subjects who accessed the survey, 268 were eligible and completed the questionnaire: mean age was 61 years and women accounted for 30%. Despite being treated, about 40% of patients reported that SA impacted "completely" or "very much" their QoL, 10% rated their condition as "not good", and 45.1% stated that they felt "Fair". The majority of patients were still symptomatic and many of them perceived that SA had a major impact on their working life. Women, younger patients and those with a more recent diagnosis reported a worse self-assessment of their condition, QoL and symptom burden. CONCLUSIONS: the results of our survey provide new insights on how patients with SA perceived their own health status and suggest that any patient with SA deserves a more detailed and accurate evaluation by their physicians.

19.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(21): 1522-1527, 2019 10.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634930

RESUMO

Arterial hypertension is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases, and a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. It is essential to perform the blood pressure measurement under standardized conditions in the office/clinical setting, otherwise inaccuracy of blood pressure values may lead to poor blood pressure control or misdiagnosis. Compliance with these standards by a trained observer is of crucial importance for a reliable and accurate blood pressure measurement in clinical practice. Regardless of the standardized assessment, it has to be kept in mind that available devices on the market may not measure blood pressure accurate enough. Therefore, a validated (e. g. German Hypertension League Quality Seal) blood pressure monitor should be used. Out-of-office (home and ambulatory) blood pressure measurements provide important information beyond determining resting office/clinical BP.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/normas , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Alemanha , Humanos
20.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319879791, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31600083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous preeclampsia, gestational hypertension and gestational diabetes mellitus show a firm epidemiological association to maternal cardiovascular disease risk. Cardiovascular disease risk assessment is recommended in women after these pregnancy complications, but not offered in most countries. We therefore wanted to evaluate the applicability of currently recommended cardiovascular disease risk scores for women one-year postpartum of such pregnancy complications. DESIGN AND METHODS: We tested applicability of three scoring systems, the Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) score, the Joint British Societies for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease (JBS3) score and Framingham 30 year Risk Score-Cardiovascular Disease (FRS-CVD) in 235 women one-year postpartum (controls: 94, gestational hypertension: 35, preeclampsia: 81, gestational diabetes mellitus: 25). Statistical analysis was performed with Mann-Whitney U test for continuous and Fisher's mid-corrected p and Pearson's r for dichotomous variables. A value of p < 0.050 was considered significant. RESULTS: Most women (87.7%) were below 40 years of age, rendering 10-year risk estimations recommended by American and European societies inapplicable. FRS-CVD could be assessed in all women. Significantly fewer could be assessed by the ASCVD (81.5%) and JBS3 (91.6%). All scoring systems showed small, but significant increases in risk scores for one or more of the pregnancy complication groups, but none at the risk magnitude for cardiovascular disease shown in epidemiological studies. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that ASCVD, JBS3 and FRS-CVD are inadequate in assessing cardiovascular disease risk one-year postpartum. We suggest that pregnancy complications need to be considered separately when evaluating maternal cardiovascular disease risk and need for postpartum follow-up.

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