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1.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241148

RESUMO

AIMS: B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10 (Bcl10) is a member of the CARMA-Bcl10-MALT1 signalosome, linking angiotensin (Ang) II and antigen-dependent immune-cell activation to nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling. We showed earlier that Bcl10 plays a role in Ang II-induced cardiac fibrosis and remodeling, independent of blood pressure. We now investigated the role of Bcl10 in Ang II-induced renal damage. METHODS AND RESULTS: Bcl10 knockout mice (Bcl10 KO) and wild-type (WT) controls were given 1% NaCl in the drinking water and Ang II (1.44 mg/kg/d) for 14 days. Additionally, Bcl10 KO or WT kidneys were transplanted onto WT mice that were challenged by the same protocol for 7 days. Kidneys of Ang II-treated Bcl10 KO mice developed less fibrosis and showed fewer infiltrating cells. Nevertheless, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (Ngal) and kidney injury molecule (Kim)1 expression was higher in the kidneys of Ang II-treated Bcl10 KO mice, indicating exacerbated tubular damage. Furthermore, albuminuria was significantly higher in Ang II-treated Bcl10 KO mice accompanied by reduced glomerular nephrin expression and podocyte number. Ang II-treated WT mice transplanted with Bcl10 KO kidney showed more albuminuria and renal Ngal, compared to WT->WT kidney transplanted mice, as well as lower podocyte number but similar fibrosis and cell infiltration. Interestingly, mice lacking Bcl10 in the kidney exhibited less Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy than controls. CONCLUSIONS: Bcl10 has multi-faceted actions in Ang II-induced renal damage. On the one hand, global Bcl10 deficiency ameliorates renal fibrosis and cell infiltration; on the other hand, lack of renal Bcl10 aggravates albuminuria and podocyte damage. These data suggest that Bcl10 maintains podocyte integrity and renal function. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: The CARMA-Bcl10-MALT1 signalosome plays a pivotal role in several cell types regulating different (patho)physiological processes. For example, it links Ang II and NF-κB signaling pathways. The molecular mechanism of albuminuria upon Ang II-induced hypertension is not fully understood. Podocytes are a direct target of Ang II. We provide data that the lack of Bcl10 protects the kidney and the heart from Ang II-induced fibrosis and immune cell infiltration. Nevertheless, it aggravates albuminuria and podocyte damage independently from blood pressure. Therefore, a cell type-specific interpretation of major signaling pathway helps to better understand the pathogenesis of target organ damage.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8579, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31189936

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is a syndrome with diverse clinical presentation that currently has no cure. The apelin receptor system is a pleiotropic pathway with a potential for therapeutic targeting in preeclampsia. We established the systemic outcomes of (Pyr1)-apelin-13 administration in rats with preeclamptic features (TGA-PE, female transgenic for human angiotensinogen mated to male transgenic for human renin). (Pyr1)-apelin-13 (2 mg/kg/day) or saline was infused in TGA-PE rats via osmotic minipumps starting at day 13 of gestation (GD). At GD20, TGA-PE rats had higher blood pressure, proteinuria, lower maternal and pup weights, lower pup number, renal injury, and a larger heart compared to a control group (pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats administered vehicle). (Pyr1)-apelin-13 did not affect maternal or fetal weights in TGA-PE. The administration of (Pyr1)-apelin-13 reduced blood pressure, and normalized heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity in TGA-PE rats compared to controls. (Pyr1)-apelin-13 increased ejection fraction in TGA-PE rats. (Pyr1)-apelin-13 normalized proteinuria in association with lower renal cortical collagen deposition, improved renal pathology and lower immunostaining of oxidative stress markers (4-HNE and NOX-4) in TGA-PE. This study demonstrates improved hemodynamic responses and renal injury without fetal toxicity following apelin administration suggesting a role for apelin in the regulation of maternal outcomes in preeclampsia.

3.
Hypertension ; 74(2): 391-398, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177907

RESUMO

The mineralocorticoid aldosterone increases in plasma in healthy pregnancy along with renin and angiotensin II and plays a key role in the physiological plasma volume expansion. In mice, aldosterone contributes to an optimal fetal development by enhancing PlGF (placental growth factor) expression and trophoblast cell proliferation. In preeclampsia, there is coincident suppression of aldosterone and impaired placental development. We hypothesized that aldosterone independently contributes to placental and birth weight in humans, and high dietary sodium and low potassium intakes affect this relationship adversely. We analyzed 24-hour urine collections and plasma samples from gestational week 29 in a subsample of 569 pregnant women from the Odense Child Cohort-a Danish population-based longitudinal cohort study. Plasma and urinary aldosterone were measured by ELISA, sodium and potassium excretions by flame photometer. Predictive values of aldosterone levels and sodium and potassium intakes were assessed by multiple and Cox regression analyses. Primary outcomes were placental weight and birth weight. Secondary outcome was preeclampsia. Urinary aldosterone excretion at gestational week 29 independently contributed to placental and birth weights (adjusted ß-coefficients [95% CI], 24.50 [9.66-39.35] and 9.59 [4.57-14.61], respectively). Aldosterone levels were not associated to preeclampsia incidence. Salt intake >6 g/d was associated with development of preeclampsia (hazard ratio [95% CI], 5.68 [1.51-21.36]). At gestational week 29, urinary aldosterone excretion is an independent predictor of placental and birth weights. High salt intake is a risk factor for preeclampsia. In perspective, suppression of aldosterone in pregnancy has adverse trophic effects.

4.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 24: 1462-1476, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136991

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk later in life. Anti-GPCR autoantibodies have been shown to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether anti-GPCR autoantibodies are elevated in women with a history of early-onset preeclampsia 8-11 years postpartum, and whether they correlate with clinical outcomes. We investigated data from the Preeclampsia Risk EValuation in FEMales cohort, a retrospective matched case-control study. Anti AT1R-, beta1AR-, ETAR-, PAR1- and CXCR3- autoantibodies were determined in 485 samples by using commercially available ELISA. Women with the lowest combined levels of autoantibodies and a history of early preeclampsia had significantly higher SBP, DBP and MAP (all p<0.001) compared to the controls. The individual titer levels of autoantibodies were not different between controls and former early PE groups 8-11 years postpartum. In conclusion, regulatory autoantibodies alone are not sufficient to explain hypertension or other cardiovascular pathologic conditions, but together with other risk factors such as a previous hypertensive pregnancy, lower levels of autoantibodies are associated with increased blood pressure.

5.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 17(1): 7, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010431

RESUMO

Echocardiography is the most commonly applied technique for non-invasive assessment of cardiac function in small animals. Manual tracing of endocardial borders is time consuming and varies with operator experience. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate a novel automated two-dimensional software algorithm (Auto2DE) for small animals and compare it to the standard use of manual 2D-echocardiographic assessment (2DE). We hypothesized that novel Auto2DE will provide rapid and robust data sets, which are in agreement with manually assessed data of animals.2DE and Auto2DE were carried out using a high-resolution imaging-system for small animals. First, validation cohorts of mouse and rat cine loops were used to compare Auto2DE against 2DE. These data were stratified for image quality by a blinded expert in small animal imaging. Second, we evaluated 2DE and Auto2DE in four mouse models and four rat models with different cardiac pathologies.Automated assessment of LV function by 2DE was faster than conventional 2DE analysis and independent of operator experience levels. The accuracy of Auto2DE-assessed data in healthy mice was dependent on cine loop quality, with excellent agreement between Auto2DE and 2DE in cine loops with adequate quality. Auto2DE allowed for valid detection of impaired cardiac function in animal models with pronounced cardiac phenotypes, but yielded poor performance in diabetic animal models independent of image quality.Auto2DE represents a novel automated analysis tool for rapid assessment of LV function, which is suitable for data acquisition in studies with good and very good echocardiographic image quality, but presents systematic problems in specific pathologies.

6.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 15: 72-77, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825931

RESUMO

Women with preeclampsia (PE) have increased mean arterial pressure (MAP), natural killer (NK) cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and agonistic autoantibodies to the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-AA). AT1-AA's administered to pregnant rodents produces a well-accepted model of PE. However, the role of NK cells and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) in AT1-AA mediated hypertension during pregnancy is unknown. We hypothesize that AT1-AA induced model of PE will exhibit elevated MAP, NK cells, and mtROS; while inhibition of the AT1-AA binding to the AT1R would be preventative. Pregnant rats were divided into 4 groups: normal pregnant (NP) (n = 5), NP + AT1-AA inhibitory peptide (NP +'n7AAc') (n = 3), NP + AT1-AA infused (NP + AT1-AA) (n = 10), and NP + AT1-AA +'n7AAc' (n = 8). Day 13, rats were surgically implanted with mini-pumps infusing either AT1-AA or AT1-AA +'n7AAc'. Day 19, tissue and blood was collected. MAP was elevated in AT1-AA vs. NP (119 ±â€¯1 vs. 102 ±â€¯2 mmHg, p < 0.05) and this was prevented by 'n7AAc' (108 ±â€¯3). There was a 6 fold increase in renal activated NK cells in AT1-AA vs NP (1.2 ±â€¯0.4 vs. 0.2 ±â€¯0.1% Gated, p = 0.05) which returned to NP levels in AT1-AA +'n7AAc' (0.1 ±â€¯0.1% Gated). Renal mtROS (317 ±â€¯49 vs. 101 ±â€¯13% Fold, p < 0.05) was elevated with AT1-AA vs NP and was decreased in AT1-AA +'n7AAc' (128 ±â€¯16, p < 0.05). In conclusion, AT1-AA's increased MAP, NK cells, and mtROS which were attenuated by AT1-AA inhibition, thus highlighting new mechanisms of AT1-AA and the importance of drug therapy targeted to AT1-AAs in hypertensive pregnancies.


Assuntos
Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Rim/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Placenta/imunologia , Pré-Eclâmpsia/metabolismo , Animais , Autoanticorpos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/citologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Placenta/metabolismo , Pré-Eclâmpsia/induzido quimicamente , Pré-Eclâmpsia/tratamento farmacológico , Pré-Eclâmpsia/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina/metabolismo
7.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 24: 1037-1049, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844728

RESUMO

An autoimmune reaction directed against the cardiac b1-adrenergic receptor (beta1-ADR) leading to the generation of autoantibodies (AA) against this G-coupled receptor has been described in patients with heart failure (HF). Agonist-like beta1-ADR-AA are associated with morbidity in HF patients and even predict mortality. Standardised and valid diagnostic tools to detect beta 1-ADR-AA in clinical routine are lacking. We used a novel ELISA approach to investigate beta 1-ADR-AA in a cohort of 574 HF patients of the CIBIS-ELD trial with follow up. The CIBIS-ELD trial compared the titration of bisoprolol and carvedilol to recommended target doses in regard to BB tolerability in patients aged 65 years and older. Patient with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) less than 50% or LV diameter end diastolic (DED) more than 55 cm showed significantly higher levels of beta1-ADR-AA. Although not yet fully validated, this ELISA allowed for a negative correlation of beta1-ADR-AA with the EF at baseline and at the follow up, beta1-ADR-AA further correlated positively with basal heart rate at follow up 12 weeks later. beta1-ADR-AA levels thus determined  significantly increased under titration with beta-blockers (pless  than 0.01). Changes in beta1-ADR-AA between F-Up and baseline were significantly higher in patients who used beta blockers (p=0.016) before study inclusion. The type of beta-blocker titrated in this study did not affect log beta1-ADR-AA levels at baseline (p=0.132), follow-up (p=0.058), nor the change (p=0.426). beta1-ADR-AA levels were estimated using a novel, commercially available ELISA. Although not yet fully validated, this ELISA allowed for pathophysiological insights: beta1-ADR-AA levels thus determined significantly increased under titration with beta-blockers (pless  than 0.01), irrespective of type of BB. Higher levels of beta1-ADR-AA at baseline are associated with higher heart rates, lower ejection fraction and enlarged left ventricles. The relevance of the beta1-ADR-AA biomarker should be further evaluated.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/imunologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/imunologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bisoprolol/uso terapêutico , Carvedilol/uso terapêutico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
8.
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol ; 316(2): R165-R171, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624978

RESUMO

Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by chronic inflammation and elevated agonistic autoantibodies to the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1-AA), endothelin-1, and uterine artery resistance index (UARI) during pregnancy. Previous studies report an imbalance among immune cells, with T-helper type 2 (Th2) cells being decreased during PE. We hypothesized that interleukin-4 (IL-4) would increase Th2 cells and improve the pathophysiology in response to placental ischemia during pregnancy. IL-4 (600 ng/day) was administered via osmotic minipump on gestational day 14 to normal pregnant (NP) and reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rats. Carotid catheters were inserted, and Doppler ultrasound was performed on gestational day 18. Blood pressure (mean arterial pressure), TNF-α, IL-6, AT1-AA, natural killer cells, Th2 cells, and B cells were measured on gestational day 19. Mean arterial pressure was 97 ± 2 mmHg in NP ( n = 9), 101 ± 3 mmHg in IL-4-treated NP ( n = 14), and 137 ± 4 mmHg in RUPP ( n = 8) rats and improved to 108 ± 3 mmHg in IL-4-treated RUPP rats ( n = 17) ( P < 0.05). UARI was 0.5 ± 0.03 in NP and 0.8 in RUPP rats and normalized to 0.5 in IL-4-treated RUPP rats ( P < 0.05). Plasma nitrate-nitrite levels increased in IL-4-treated RUPP rats, while placental preproendothelin-1 expression, plasma TNF-α and IL-6, and AT1-AA decreased in IL-4-treated RUPP rats compared with untreated RUPP rats ( P < 0.05). Circulating B cells and placental cytolytic natural killer cells decreased after IL-4 administration, while Th2 cells increased in IL-4-treated RUPP compared with untreated RUPP rats. This study illustrates that IL-4 decreased inflammation and improved Th2 numbers in RUPP rats and, ultimately, improved hypertension in response to placental ischemia during pregnancy.

9.
Circulation ; 139(11): 1407-1421, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial hypertension and its organ sequelae show characteristics of T cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. Experimental anti-inflammatory therapies have been shown to ameliorate hypertensive end-organ damage. Recently, the CANTOS study (Canakinumab Antiinflammatory Thrombosis Outcome Study) targeting interleukin-1ß demonstrated that anti-inflammatory therapy reduces cardiovascular risk. The gut microbiome plays a pivotal role in immune homeostasis and cardiovascular health. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced from dietary fiber by gut bacteria and affect host immune homeostasis. Here, we investigated effects of the SCFA propionate in 2 different mouse models of hypertensive cardiovascular damage. METHODS: To investigate the effect of SCFAs on hypertensive cardiac damage and atherosclerosis, wild-type NMRI or apolipoprotein E knockout-deficient mice received propionate (200 mmol/L) or control in the drinking water. To induce hypertension, wild-type NMRI mice were infused with angiotensin II (1.44 mg·kg-1·d-1 subcutaneous) for 14 days. To accelerate the development of atherosclerosis, apolipoprotein E knockout mice were infused with angiotensin II (0.72 mg·kg-1·d-1 subcutaneous) for 28 days. Cardiac damage and atherosclerosis were assessed using histology, echocardiography, in vivo electrophysiology, immunofluorescence, and flow cytometry. Blood pressure was measured by radiotelemetry. Regulatory T cell depletion using PC61 antibody was used to examine the mode of action of propionate. RESULTS: Propionate significantly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, vascular dysfunction, and hypertension in both models. Susceptibility to cardiac ventricular arrhythmias was significantly reduced in propionate-treated angiotensin II-infused wild-type NMRI mice. Aortic atherosclerotic lesion area was significantly decreased in propionate-treated apolipoprotein E knockout-deficient mice. Systemic inflammation was mitigated by propionate treatment, quantified as a reduction in splenic effector memory T cell frequencies and splenic T helper 17 cells in both models, and a decrease in local cardiac immune cell infiltration in wild-type NMRI mice. Cardioprotective effects of propionate were abrogated in regulatory T cell-depleted angiotensin II-infused mice, suggesting the effect is regulatory T cell-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Our data emphasize an immune-modulatory role of SCFAs and their importance for cardiovascular health. The data suggest that lifestyle modifications leading to augmented SCFA production could be a beneficial nonpharmacological preventive strategy for patients with hypertensive cardiovascular disease.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5224, 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523250

RESUMO

Autoantibodies have been associated with autoimmune diseases. However, studies have identified autoantibodies in healthy donors (HD) who do not develop autoimmune disorders. Here we provide evidence of a network of immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) in HD compared to patients with systemic sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and ovarian cancer. Sex, age and pathological conditions affect autoantibody correlation and hierarchical clustering signatures, yet many of the correlations are shared across all groups, indicating alterations to homeostasis. Furthermore, we identify relationships between autoantibodies targeting structurally and functionally related molecules, such as vascular, neuronal or chemokine receptors. Finally, autoantibodies targeting the endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA) exhibit chemotactic activity, as demonstrated by neutrophil migration toward HD-IgG in an EDNRA-dependent manner and in the direction of IgG from EDNRA-immunized mice. Our data characterizing the in vivo signatures of anti-GPCR autoantibodies thus suggest that they are a physiological part of the immune system.

11.
Hypertension ; 72(3): 695-702, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354752

RESUMO

Uteroplacental acute atherosis (AA) is a pregnancy-specific arterial lesion resembling early stages of atherosclerosis. AA is frequent in preeclamptic pregnancies, which associate with increased long-term maternal risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that AA in pregnant women associates with classical risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, glucose intolerance, elevated C-reactive protein, age, and body mass index. We included 237 women delivered by cesarean section (healthy pregnancies, n=94; preeclampsia, n=87; pregestational and gestational diabetes mellitus, n=39; diabetes mellitus with preeclampsia, n=17). They provided blood before delivery for biomarker analyses. AA was diagnosed by immunohistochemistry in uteroplacental (decidual) tissue collected after placental removal. Statistical analyses were performed with Mann-Whitney test. Levels of traditional cardiovascular markers were not associated with decidual AA within the groups of women with normotensive pregnancies, preeclampsia, diabetes mellitus, or diabetes mellitus superimposed with preeclampsia. However, the oldest patient age quartile (36-43 years old) with AA had significantly higher levels of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and apolipoprotein B (both P<0.01) than women of the same age without AA. AA was associated with elevated median prepregnancy/early pregnancy systolic blood pressure ( P=0.01) in the total cohort, but as preeclampsia was strongly associated with this finding ( P<0.01), this was likely caused by a large proportion of preeclamptic pregnancies in the AA group (62.7%). Our findings demonstrate that dyslipidemia associated with cardiovascular risk is a feature of uteroplacental AA in older women, not of AA in pregnancy in general.

12.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-8, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173595

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the predictive performance of placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble FMS-like kinase 1 (sFlt-1) on birth weight and small for gestational age (SGA), in a large, population-based cohort. METHODS: Women enrolled in the population-based, prospective Odense Child Cohort Study with early (GA < 20 weeks) and/or late (≥20 weeks) pregnancy blood samples (n = 1937) were included. The association between log-transformed values of the biomarkers and birth weight Z-score was studied using multivariate regression models. The prediction of SGA overall, and in women developing preeclampsia, by biomarkers was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analyses. RESULTS: No substantial associations between early pregnancy biomarkers and SGA were seen. PlGF measured in late pregnancy demonstrated the strongest association with birth weight Z-score (adjusted ß-coefficient = 0.43 [95%CI = 0.35; 0.50]). The area under curve (AUC) for predicting SGA was higher for sFlt-1/PlGF compared to sFlt-1 (0.74 versus 0.63, p = .006) and reached excellent prediction for SGA after preeclampsia (AUC 0.94). Optimal sFlt-1/PlGF ratio cut-offs had higher negative predictive value (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV) for SGA (cut-off > 5.0; NPV = 99.1%, PPV = 5.4%) compared to each marker individually. CONCLUSION: The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is a potential predictor of SGA in population-based screening, particularly when preeclampsia is also present.

13.
Angiology ; : 3319718796313, 2018 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30149731

RESUMO

Stable angina (SA) is a chronic condition reducing physical activity and quality of life (QoL). Physicians treating patients with SA in Italy, Germany, Spain, and United Kingdom completed a web-based survey. The objective was to assess physician perceptions of patient needs, the impact of SA on QoL, and evaluate SA management. Overall, 659 physicians (cardiologists and general practitioners) entered data from 1965 eligible patients. The perceived importance of everyday activities for patients with a recent diagnosis (≤2 years) was higher than for patients with a longer diagnosis (>2 years), while severity of limitations for those activities were rated similarly for both groups. Gender-based analyses revealed that physicians documented more severe SA, more symptoms and more angina attacks in women, yet they rated the patients' condition as similar for both sexes. Women also received less medical and interventional treatment. Patients who have previously had a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) had more severe SA, despite more intense medical treatment, than patients with no previous PCI. In conclusion, severity, symptoms, and impact of SA on health status and everyday life activities vary by duration of disease, gender, and previous PCI. However, physicians do not seem to attach appropriate importance to these differences.

14.
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29896157

RESUMO

Aim: Diabetes in pregnancy is a major burden with acute and long-term consequences. Its treatment requires adequate diagnosis and monitoring of therapy. Many experimental research on diabetes during pregnancy has been performed in rats. Recently, continuous blood glucose monitoring of non-pregnant diabetic rats revealed an increased circadian variability of blood glucose that made a single blood glucose measurement per day inappropriate to reflect glycemic status. Continuous blood glucose measurement has never been performed in pregnant rats. We wanted to perform continuous blood glucose monitoring in pregnant rats to decipher the influence of pregnancy on blood glucose in diabetic and normoglycemic status. Methods: We used the transgenic Tet29 diabetes rat model with an inducible knock down of the insulin receptor via RNA interference upon application of doxycycline (DOX) leading to insulin resistant type II diabetes. All Tet29 rats received a HD-XG telemetry implant (Data Sciences International, USA) that measured blood glucose and activity continuously. Rats were divided into four groups and blood glucose was monitored until end of pregnancy or the corresponding period: Tet29 + DOX (diabetic) non-pregnant, Tet29 + DOX (diabetic) pregnant, Tet29 (normoglycemic) non-pregnant, Tet29 (normoglycemic) pregnant. Results: All analyzed rats displayed a circadian variation in blood glucose concentration. Circadian variability was much more pronounced in pregnant diabetic rats than in normoglycemic pregnant rats. Pregnancy ameliorated variation in blood glucose in diabetic situation. Pregnancy continuously decreased blood glucose during normoglycemic pregnancy. Diabetic rats were less active than normoglycemic rats. We performed a calculation showing that application of continuous blood glucose measurement reduces animal numbers needed to detect a given effect in experimental setting by decreasing variability and SD. Interpretation: Continuous blood glucose monitoring via a telemetry device in pregnant rats provides a more informative picture of the glycemic situation in comparison to single measurements. This could improve diagnosis and therapy of diabetes, decrease animal numbers within experimental settings, and add another physiological parameter (activity) to the analysis that could be helpful in testing therapeutic concepts targeting blood glucose levels and peripheral muscle function. We propose continuous glucose monitoring as a new tool for the evaluation of pregnant diabetic rats.

16.
Anticancer Res ; 38(6): 3619-3625, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848718

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to analyze the predictive, prognostic and diagnostic value of autoantibodies to coagulation factor II thrombin receptor (F2R; protease-activated receptor 1, PAR1) (PAR1-AB) in patients with primary epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 197 patients with primary EOC and 200 healthy female blood donors were included in the study. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to determine PAR1-AB levels in blood sera taken preoperatively. Correlation of PAR1-AB with clinicopathological outcome, progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival was analyzed and patients were compared with controls. RESULTS: PAR1-AB was significantly negatively correlated with histological grading (p=0.008) and was significantly lower in the patient group compared to healthy controls (p<0.001). There was no significant correlation of PAR1-AB level with PFS or OS. CONCLUSION: This study showed PAR1-AB to significantly decrease in patients with primary EOC and with histological high-grade carcinoma. The relevance of PAR1-AB in early detection of ovarian cancer and follow-up for EOC should be further investigated.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Receptor PAR-1/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Prognóstico , Receptor PAR-1/genética
17.
J Reprod Immunol ; 128: 23-29, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29843114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uteroplacental acute atherosis is a pregnancy-specific lesion resembling early stages of atherosclerosis found frequently in preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is associated with an increased risk for future maternal atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The renin-angiotensin-system plays a role both in atherosclerosis and in preeclampsia. Circulating agonistic autoantibodies at the angiotensin-II type 1 receptor (AT1-AA) are increased in preeclampsia. We hypothesized an association between AT1-AA at delivery and postpartum with acute atherosis in pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Maternal serum and decidua basalis tissue was collected at elective cesarean section (n = 41; 24 preeclampsia, 17 normotensive controls). Circulating AT1-AA were detected by a bioassay using spontaneously beating rat cardiomyocytes at delivery (n = 41) and 5-8 years postpartum in a subgroup (n = 10). Decidual acute atherosis was assessed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Significantly less normotensive controls (18%; 3/17) than women with preeclampsia (58%; 14/24) were AT1-AA positive at delivery, p<0.01. Uteroplacental acute atherosis and circulating AT1-AA at delivery were not significantly correlated. Postpartum, 2 prior preeclamptic women had circulating AT1-AA, both without acute atherosis in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm that circulating AT1-AA are present significantly more often in preeclampsia than in normotensive pregnancy, however without association to acute atherosis. Whether circulating maternal AT1-AA or acute atherosis target young women at increased long-term cardiovascular risk warrants further investigations.

18.
Hypertension ; 72(1): 208-218, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844145

RESUMO

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are the second leading cause of maternal deaths worldwide. Superimposed preeclampsia is an increasingly common problem and often associated with impaired placental perfusion. Understanding the underlying mechanisms and developing treatment options are crucial. The pregnant stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat has impaired uteroplacental blood flow and abnormal uterine artery remodeling. We used Ang II (angiotensin II) infusion in pregnant stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats to mimic the increased cardiovascular stress associated with superimposed preeclampsia and examine the impact on the maternal cardiovascular system and fetal development. Continuous infusion of Ang II at 500 or 1000 ng/kg per minute was administered from gestational day 10.5 until term. Radiotelemetry and echocardiography were used to monitor hemodynamic and cardiovascular changes, and urine was collected prepregnancy and throughout gestation. Uterine artery myography assessed uteroplacental vascular function and structure. Fetal measurements were made at gestational day 18.5, and placentas were collected for histological and gene expression analyses. The 1000 ng/kg per minute Ang II treatment significantly increased blood pressure (P<0.01), reduced cardiac output (P<0.05), and reduced diameter and increased stiffness of the uterine arteries (P<0.01) during pregnancy. The albumin:creatinine ratio was increased in both Ang II treatment groups (P<0.05; P<0.0001). The 1000 ng/kg per minute-treated fetuses were significantly smaller than vehicle treatment (P<0.001). Placental expression of Ang II receptors was increased in the junctional zone in 1000 ng/kg per minute Ang II-treated groups (P<0.05), with this zone showing depletion of glycogen content and structural abnormalities. Ang II infusion in pregnant stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats mirrors hemodynamic, cardiac, and urinary profiles observed in preeclamptic women, with evidence of impaired fetal growth.

20.
Hypertension ; 71(5): 911-920, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29610268

RESUMO

Diabetic pregnancy is correlated with increased risk of metabolic and neurological disorders in the offspring putatively mediated epigenetically. Little is known about epigenetic changes already present in fetuses of diabetic pregnancies. We aimed at characterizing the perinatal environment after preexisting maternal diabetes mellitus and at identifying relevant epigenetic changes in the fetus. We focused on the transcription factor Srebf2 (sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2), a master gene in regulation of cholesterol metabolism. We tested whether diabetic pregnancy induces epigenetic changes in the Srebf2 promoter and if they become manifest in altered Srebf2 gene expression. We worked with a transgenic rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (Tet29) in which the insulin receptor is knocked down by doxycycline-induced RNA interference. Doxycycline was administered preconceptionally to Tet29 and wild-type control rats. Only Tet29 doxycycline dams were hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, and hyperlipidemic. Gene expression was analyzed with quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and CpG promoter methylation with pyrosequencing. Immunohistochemistry was performed on fetal brains. Fetuses from diabetic Tet29 dams were hyperglycemic and growth restricted at the end of pregnancy. They further displayed decreased liver and brain weight with concomitant decreased microglial activation in the hippocampus in comparison to fetuses of normoglycemic mothers. Importantly, diabetic pregnancy induced CpG hypermethylation of the Srebf2 promoter in the fetal liver and brain, which was associated with decreased Srebf2 gene expression. In conclusion, diabetic and hyperlipidemic pregnancy induces neurological, metabolic, and epigenetic alterations in the rat fetus. Srebf2 is a potential candidate mediating intrauterine environment-driven epigenetic changes and later diabetic offspring health.

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