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Am Surg ; 88(3): 455-462, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797198


BACKGROUND: Trauma patients are at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Opportunity for chemical VTE prophylaxis improvement was identified and practice was altered to start chemoprophylaxis on admission in most patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if early VTE prophylaxis is safe and reduces VTE. METHODS: The trauma registry was queried over a 12-month period for patients admitted greater than 1 day for traumatic injury. The study spanned 6 months on either side of instituting aggressive chemoprophylaxis. Patients were risk adjusted on demographics, Injury Severity Score, transfusions, procedure type, length of stay, and mortality. Pre-intervention patients were then compared to patients in the aggressive cohort with the primary outcome of VTE. Secondary outcomes included transfusions, mortality, and length of stay (LOS). RESULTS: 1597 patients were identified over the study period with 754 (47%) patients in the aggressive period. There were no differences in age, sex, Injury Severity Score, transfusions, procedures, or LOS between cohorts. Pre-algorithm patients were more likely to have penetrating mechanism (9.3% vs 6.6%; P = .009) and longer time to VTE prophylaxis (23.3 vs 13.9 hours; P < .001). No differences were noted in anticoagulant, VTE rate (2.0% vs 1.2%; P = .195), or mortality. Linear regression analysis identified time to chemical prophylaxis as significant predictor of VTE (ß = 43.9, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Early aggressive chemical VTE prophylaxis is safe without increasing transfusions. Venous thromboembolism rates were decreased, but did not reach statistical significance.

Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Tempo para o Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Algoritmos , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Transfusão de Sangue , Colorado/epidemiologia , Enoxaparina/administração & dosagem , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tromboembolia Venosa/mortalidade , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/mortalidade , Ferimentos Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/mortalidade
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(3): 557-564, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507026


BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively evaluate whether ESS can predict the need for respiratory and/or renal support (RRS) at discharge after emergent laparotomies (EL). METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of a 19-center prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL were enrolled. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were systematically collected. In this analysis, patients were excluded if they died during the index hospitalization, were discharged to hospice, or transferred to other hospitals. A composite variable, the need for RRS, was defined as the need for one or more of the following at hospital discharge: tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for all patients, and the correlation between ESS and RRS was examined using the c-statistics method. RESULTS: From a total of 1,649 patients, 1,347 were included. Median age was 60 years, 49.4% were men, and 70.9% were White. The most common diagnoses were hollow viscus organ perforation (28.1%) and small bowel obstruction (24.5%); 87 patients (6.5%) had a need for RRS (4.7% tracheostomy, 2.7% dialysis, and 1.3% ventilator dependence). Emergency Surgery Score predicted the need for RRS in a stepwise fashion; for example, 0.7%, 26.2%, and 85.7% of patients required RRS at an ESS of 2, 12, and 16, respectively. The c-statistics for the need for RRS, the need for tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis at discharge were 0.84, 0.82, 0.79, and 0.88, respectively. CONCLUSION: Emergency Surgery Score accurately predicts the need for RRS at discharge in EL patients and could be used for preoperative patient counseling and for quality of care benchmarking. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological, level III.

Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco
Am J Surg ; 221(5): 1069-1075, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32917366


INTRODUCTION: We sought to evaluate whether the Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) can accurately predict outcomes in elderly patients undergoing emergent laparotomy (EL). METHODS: This is a post-hoc analysis of an EAST multicenter study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL in 19 participating hospitals were prospectively enrolled, and ESS was calculated for each patient. Using the c-statistic, the correlation between ESS and mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU admission was assessed in three patient age cohorts (65-74, 75-84, ≥85 years old). RESULTS: 715 patients were included, of which 52% were 65-74, 34% were 75-84, and 14% were ≥85 years old; 51% were female, and 77% were white. ESS strongly correlated with postoperative mortality (c-statistic:0.81). Mortality gradually increased from 0% to 20%-60% at ESS of 2, 10 and 16 points, respectively. ESS predicted mortality, morbidity, and need for ICU best in patients 65-74 years old (c-statistic:0.81, 0.75, 0.83 respectively), but its performance significantly decreased in patients ≥85 years (c-statistic:0.72, 0.64, 0.67 respectively). CONCLUSION: ESS is an accurate predictor of outcome in the elderly EL patient 65-85 years old, but its performance decreases for patients ≥85. Consideration should be given to modify ESS to better predict outcomes in the very elderly patient population.

Tratamento de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Laparotomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tratamento de Emergência/efeitos adversos , Tratamento de Emergência/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Laparotomia/mortalidade , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 88(6): 816-824, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459447


BACKGROUND: Efforts to reduce opioid use in trauma patients are currently hampered by an incomplete understanding of the baseline opioid exposure and variation in United States. The purpose of this project was to obtain a global estimate of opioid exposure following injury and to quantify the variability of opioid exposure between and within United States trauma centers. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study was performed to calculate opioid exposure by converting all sources of opioids to oral morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs). To estimate variation, an intraclass correlation was calculated from a multilevel generalized linear model adjusting for the a priori selected variables Injury Severity Score and prior opioid use. RESULTS: The centers enrolled 1,731 patients. The median opioid exposure among all sites was 45 MMEs per day, equivalent to 30 mg of oxycodone or 45 mg of hydrocodone per day. Variation in opioid exposure was identified both between and within trauma centers with the vast majority of variation (93%) occurring within trauma centers. Opioid exposure increased with injury severity, in male patients, and patients suffering penetrating trauma. CONCLUSION: The overall median opioid exposure was 45 MMEs per day. Despite significant differences in opioid exposure between trauma centers, the majority of variation was actually within centers. This suggests that efforts to minimize opioid exposure after injury should focus within trauma centers and not on high-level efforts to affect all trauma centers. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiological, level III.

Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos e Lesões/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor/etiologia , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Manejo da Dor/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(1): 118-124, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176177


BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently developed and retrospectively validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively validate ESS, specifically in the high-risk nontrauma emergency laparotomy (EL) patient. METHODS: This is an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, 19 centers enrolled all adults (aged >18 years) undergoing EL. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were prospectively and systematically collected. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for each patient and validated using c-statistic methodology by correlating it with three postoperative outcomes: (1) 30-day mortality, (2) 30-day complications (e.g., respiratory/renal failure, infection), and (3) postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: A total of 1,649 patients were included. The mean age was 60.5 years, 50.3% were female, and 71.4% were white. The mean ESS was 6, and the most common indication for EL was hollow viscus perforation. The 30-day mortality and complication rates were 14.8% and 53.3%; 57.0% of patients required ICU admission. Emergency Surgery Score gradually and accurately predicted 30-day mortality; 3.5%, 50.0%, and 85.7% of patients with ESS of 3, 12, and 17 died after surgery, respectively, with a c-statistic of 0.84. Similarly, ESS gradually and accurately predicted complications; 21.0%, 57.1%, and 88.9% of patients with ESS of 1, 6, and 13 developed postoperative complications, with a c-statistic of 0.74. Emergency Surgery Score also accurately predicted which patients required intensive care unit admission (c-statistic, 0.80). CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective multicenter study to validate ESS as an accurate predictor of outcome in the EL patient. Emergency Surgery Score can prove useful for (1) perioperative patient and family counseling, (2) triaging patients to the intensive care unit, and (3) benchmarking the quality of emergency general surgery care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level III.

Emergências , Cirurgia Geral , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 87(5): 1119-1124, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389913


BACKGROUND: End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) is routinely used during elective surgery to monitor ventilation. The role of ETCO2 monitoring in emergent trauma operations is poorly understood. We hypothesized that ETCO2 values underestimate plasma carbon dioxide (pCO2) values during resuscitation for hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Multicenter trial was performed analyzing the correlation between ETCO2 and pCO2 levels. RESULTS: Two hundred fifty-six patients resulted in 587 matched pairs of ETCO2 and pCO2. Correlation between these two values was very poor with an R of 0.04. 40.2% of patients presented to the operating room acidotic and hypercarbic with a pH less than 7.30 and a pCO2 greater than 45 mm Hg. Correlation was worse in patients that were either acidotic or hypercarbic. Forty-five percent of patients have a difference greater than 10 mm Hg between ETCO2 and pCO2. A pH less than 7.30 was predictive of an ETCO2 to pCO2 difference greater than 10 mm Hg. A difference greater than 10 mm Hg was predictive of mortality independent of confounders. CONCLUSION: Nearly one half (45%) of patients were found to have an ETCO2 level greater than 10 mm Hg discordant from their PCO2 level. Reliance on the discordant values may have contributed to the 40% of patients in the operating room that were both acidotic and hypercarbic. Early blood gas analysis is warranted, and a lower early goal of ETCO2 should be considered. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, level IV.

Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Hipoventilação/diagnóstico , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Gasometria/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoventilação/sangue , Hipoventilação/etiologia , Hipoventilação/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Plasma/química , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Valores de Referência , Ressuscitação/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Hemorrágico/sangue , Choque Hemorrágico/diagnóstico , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Adulto Jovem