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1.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 35(2): 195-203, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: As no causal treatment for dementia is available yet, the focus of dementia research is slowly shifting towards prevention strategies. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the predictive accuracy of the "LIfestyle for BRAin Health" (LIBRA) score, a weighted compound score of 12 modifiable risk and protective factors, for dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in midlife and late-life, and in individuals with high or low genetic risk based on presence of the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele. METHODS: The LIBRA score was calculated for participants from the Finnish Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) population-based study examined in midlife (n = 1024) and twice in late-life (n = 604) up to 30 years later. Diagnoses of MCI and dementia were made according to established criteria. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between LIBRA and risk of dementia and MCI in models adjusted for sex and education (age as timescale). RESULTS: Higher midlife LIBRA scores were related to higher risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-1.43) and MCI (unadjusted model: HR = 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03-1.22) up to 30 years later. Higher late-life LIBRA scores were related to higher risk of MCI (HR = 1.11; 95% CI, 1.00-1.25), but not dementia (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.84-1.24). Higher late-life LIBRA scores were related to higher dementia risk among apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 non-carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Findings emphasize the importance of modifiable risk and protective factors for dementia prevention.

2.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 107: 346-359, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525387

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers such as amyloid, p-tau and neuronal injury markers have been associated with affective symptoms in cognitively impaired individuals, but results are conflicting. METHODS: CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO and PubMed were searched for studies evaluating AD biomarkers with affective symptoms in mild cognitive impairment and AD dementia. Studies were classified according to AT(N) research criteria. RESULT: Forty-five abstracts fulfilled eligibility criteria, including in total 8,293 patients (41 cross-sectional studies and 7 longitudinal studies). Depression and night-time behaviour disturbances were not related to AT(N) markers. Apathy was associated with A markers (PET, not CSF). Mixed findings were reported for the association between apathy and T(N) markers; anxiety and AT(N) markers; and between agitation and irritability and A markers. Agitation and irritability were not associated with T(N) markers. DISCUSSION: Whereas some AD biomarkers showed to be associated with affective symptoms in AD, most evidence was inconsistent. This is likely due to differences in study design or heterogeneity in affective symptoms. Directions for future research are given.

3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 71(2): 549-557, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424404

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences in dementia risk across the gradient of socioeconomic status (SES) exist, but their determinants are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: This study investigates whether health conditions and lifestyle-related risk factors explain the SES inequalities in dementia risk. METHODS: 6,346 participants from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing were followed up from 2008/2009 until 2014/2015. We used Cox regression adjusted for age, gender, wealth/education, and clustering at the household level to examine the association between SES markers (wealth, education) and time to dementia in a structural equation model including potential mediation or effect modification by a weighted compound score of twelve modifiable risk and protective factors for dementia ('LIfestyle for BRAin health' (LIBRA) score). RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 6 years, 192 individuals (3.0%) developed dementia. LIBRA scores decreased with increasing wealth and higher educational level. A one-point increase in the LIBRA score was associated with a 13% increase in dementia risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.19). Higher wealth was associated with a decreased dementia risk (HR = 0.58, 0.39-0.85). Mediation analysis showed that 52% of the risk difference between the highest and lowest wealth tertile was mediated by differences in LIBRA (indirect effect: HR = 0.75, 0.66-0.85). Education was not directly associated with dementia (HR = 1.05, 0.69-1.59), but was a distal risk factor for dementia by explaining differences in wealth and LIBRA scores (indirect effect high education: HR = 0.92, 0.88-0.95). CONCLUSION: Socioeconomic differences in dementia risk can be partly explained by differences in modifiable health conditions and lifestyle factors.

4.
PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002853, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With no effective treatments for cognitive decline or dementia, improving the evidence base for modifiable risk factors is a research priority. This study investigated associations between risk factors and late-life cognitive decline on a global scale, including comparisons between ethno-regional groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized longitudinal data from 20 population-based cohorts from 15 countries over 5 continents, including 48,522 individuals (58.4% women) aged 54-105 (mean = 72.7) years and without dementia at baseline. Studies had 2-15 years of follow-up. The risk factors investigated were age, sex, education, alcohol consumption, anxiety, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) status, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and pulse pressure, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, self-rated health, high cholesterol, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, physical activity, smoking, and history of stroke. Associations with risk factors were determined for a global cognitive composite outcome (memory, language, processing speed, and executive functioning tests) and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Individual participant data meta-analyses of multivariable linear mixed model results pooled across cohorts revealed that for at least 1 cognitive outcome, age (B = -0.1, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.31, SE = 0.11), depression (B = -0.11, SE = 0.06), diabetes (B = -0.23, SE = 0.10), current smoking (B = -0.20, SE = 0.08), and history of stroke (B = -0.22, SE = 0.09) were independently associated with poorer cognitive performance (p < 0.05 for all), and higher levels of education (B = 0.12, SE = 0.02) and vigorous physical activity (B = 0.17, SE = 0.06) were associated with better performance (p < 0.01 for both). Age (B = -0.07, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.41, SE = 0.18), and diabetes (B = -0.18, SE = 0.10) were independently associated with faster cognitive decline (p < 0.05 for all). Different effects between Asian people and white people included stronger associations for Asian people between ever smoking and poorer cognition (group by risk factor interaction: B = -0.24, SE = 0.12), and between diabetes and cognitive decline (B = -0.66, SE = 0.27; p < 0.05 for both). Limitations of our study include a loss or distortion of risk factor data with harmonization, and not investigating factors at midlife. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that education, smoking, physical activity, diabetes, and stroke are all modifiable factors associated with cognitive decline. If these factors are determined to be causal, controlling them could minimize worldwide levels of cognitive decline. However, any global prevention strategy may need to consider ethno-regional differences.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
5.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 678, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The total number of people with dementia is increasing worldwide, due to our aging society. Without a disease-modifying drug available, risk reduction strategies are to date the only promising way to reduce dementia incidence in the future. Substantial evidence exists that lifestyle factors contribute to the risk of dementia, such as physical exercise, mental activity and (non-)smoking. Still, most people seem unaware of a relationship between lifestyle and brain health. This paper investigates dementia literacy and knowledge of modifiable risk and protective factors of dementia in a Dutch population-based sample. METHODS: An online-survey was carried out among 590 community-dwelling people between 40 and 75 years old in the Province of Limburg, the Netherlands. The total group comprises both of a provincial sample (n = 381) and a sample of three specific districts within the province (n = 209). Dementia awareness and knowledge about 12 risk and protective factors was assessed with items derived from the British Social Attitudes (BSA) survey, supplemented with custom items developed by the research team. RESULTS: The majority of participants (56%) were unaware of a relationship between lifestyle and dementia risk. Most individuals identified low cognitive activity, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet as dementia risk factors. Particular gaps in knowledge existed with regard to major cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease. Although the level of awareness varied by age and level of education, most people (70%) were eager to learn more about the topic of brain health, and indicated to be interested in using eHealth (54%) to measure or improve brain health. CONCLUSIONS: Most people still are unaware of the relation between lifestyle and brain health, indicating the need for public health campaigns. Increasing awareness in the general population about the presence of modifiable dementia risk and protective factors is a crucial first step prior to implementation of preventative measures. Targeting specific subgroups, such as individuals with low socioeconomic status and low health literacy, is essential for the reach and effect of a prevention campaign. Outcome of this study was the rationale for an awareness campaign in The Netherlands, called "MijnBreincoach" ("MyBraincoach").


Assuntos
Conscientização , Encéfalo , Demência , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , Demência/etiologia , Demência/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão , Masculino , Processos Mentais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Sports (Basel) ; 7(4)2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003397

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Working memory training (WMT) programs can improve working memory (WM). In football players, this could lead to improved performance on the pitch. METHOD: Eighteen professional football players of Maatschappelijke Voetbal Vereniging Maastricht (MVV) participated and followed an online, computerized WMT program. Neuropsychological performance, psychological wellbeing, self-efficacy, and football skills (Loughborough Soccer Passing Test; LSPT) were assessed at three time points, before and after WMT and at three-month follow-up. Descriptive data are reported. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were roughly similar for both groups. Participants performed better on the trained WM tasks, but performance for other neuropsychological test measures or the LSPT did not change. Low compliance rates were observed, showing differences in personality and well-being between compliers and non-compliers. CONCLUSIONS: WMT is not a feasible and effective strategy to improve non-trained cognitive measures and football performance. However, this study indicates that it is important to take individual characteristics into account.

7.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 96: 302-315, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30513312

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: APOE status has been associated to affective symptoms in cognitively impaired subjects, with conflicting results. METHODS: Databases CINAHL, Embase, PsychINFO and PubMed were searched for studies evaluating APOE genotype with affective symptoms in MCI and AD dementia. Symptoms were meta-analyzed separately and possible sources of heterogeneity were examined. RESULTS: Fifty-three abstracts fulfilled the eligibility criteria. No association was found between the individual symptoms and APOE ε4 carriership or zygosity. For depression and anxiety, only pooled unadjusted estimates showed positive associations with between-study heterogeneity, which could be explained by variation in study design, setting and way of symptom assessment. CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence that APOE ε4 carriership or zygosity is associated with the presence of depression, anxiety, apathy, agitation, irritability or sleep disturbances in cognitively impaired subjects. Future research should shift its focus from this single polymorphism to a more integrated view of other biological factors.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/psicologia , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Emoções , Humanos
8.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 70(s1): S31-S41, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline have been identified, but whether differences by gender and educational level exist is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to clarify this by prospectively investigating the relationship between health and lifestyle factors and cognitive functioning in different subgroups defined by gender and educational level. METHODS: 2,347 cognitive healthy individuals (mean age = 54.8, SD = 6.8, range: 41-71; 51.8% female; 26.2% low education) from the Doetinchem Cohort Study were examined for cognitive function at baseline, and at 5- and 10-year follow-up. Health- and lifestyle factors were captured by a poly-environmental risk score labelled 'LIfestyle for BRAin Health' (LIBRA). This score consists of 12 modifiable risk and protective factors for cognitive decline and dementia, with higher scores indicating greater risk (range: -2.7 to +12.7). Heterogeneity in associations between LIBRA and decline in verbal memory, cognitive flexibility, and mental speed between males and females and individuals with different levels of education were assessed in linear mixed models. RESULTS: Overall, higher LIBRA scores predicted faster decline in verbal memory, cognitive flexibility, and mental speed over 10 years. Higher LIBRA scores were further associated with increased risk for incident cognitive impairment (one-point increase in LIBRA: HR = 1.09, 1.04-1.14, p = 0.001). In general, these effects were similar across gender and educational level. CONCLUSION: A composite risk score comprising unhealthy lifestyle and relatively poor health in midlife is significantly associated with a worse course of cognition 10 years later. These associations were for the most part unrelated to gender or educational differences.

9.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 10(1): 62, 2018 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960597

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selecting high-risk participants for dementia prevention trials based on a modifiable dementia risk score may be advantageous, as it increases the opportunity for intervention. We studied whether a multi-domain intervention can prevent all-cause dementia and cognitive decline in older people across three different levels of a modifiable dementia risk score. METHODS: Prevention of Dementia by Intensive Vascular Care (preDIVA) is a randomised controlled trial studying the effect of multi-domain vascular care during 6-8 years on incident all-cause dementia in community-dwelling people aged 70-78 years. For this post hoc analysis, we stratified preDIVA participants in tertiles based on their baseline LIfestyle for BRAin Health (LIBRA) index, a modifiable dementia risk score. With Cox proportional hazards regression, the intervention effect on dementia was assessed. The effect on cognition was measured every 2 years with the Mini-Mental State Examination and Visual Association Test. RESULTS: Dementia developed in 220 of 3274 (6.7%) participants. In participants with a low, intermediate and high LIBRA index, the hazard ratio (HR) of the intervention on incident dementia was respectively 0.71 (95% CI 0.45-1.12), 1.06 (95% CI 0.66-1.69) and 1.02 (95% CI 0.64-1.62). Also, when adding the non-modifiable risk factors age, education and sex to the index, results were comparable (respectively HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.54-1.43; HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.57-1.47; HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.59-1.41). There was no statistically significant intervention effect on cognition during follow-up across the LIBRA groups. CONCLUSIONS: In the preDIVA study population aged 70-78 years, the LIBRA modifiable dementia risk score did not identify a (high-)risk group in whom the multi-domain intervention was effective in preventing dementia or cognitive decline. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry, ISRCTN29711771 . Registered on 14 February 2006.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Coortes , Demência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 62(1): 373-384, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29439337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia prevalence is expected to increase substantially over the next few decades. Since there is currently no cure for dementia available, there is an urgent need for the early identification of individuals at high risk for dementia, so that primary and secondary prevention strategies can be implemented. Recently, the LIfestyle for BRAin health (LIBRA) index was developed as a new dementia risk algorithm. It specifically focuses on modifiable risk and protective factors that can be targeted in midlife. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the LIBRA index in relation to markers of cognitive functioning in a clinical, health-seeking sample of community-based older adults. METHODS: 484 participants (mean age 62.7 years) were recruited from the Healthy Brain Ageing Clinic at the Brain and Mind Centre, Sydney. Participants underwent comprehensive clinical and neuropsychological assessment and completed a self-report survey pack. Participants were rated via consensus as having either subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) or meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The LIBRA score was calculated based on 11 available risk and protective factors. RESULTS: 65.4% of the sample met criteria for MCI. People with MCI showed a significantly higher LIBRA score compared to people with SCC. Furthermore, multiple cognitive domains, in particular executive functioning, were associated with a higher LIBRA score, with stronger correlations in people with MCI. CONCLUSION: The LIBRA index might be a useful tool to determine lifestyle-attributable risk of cognitive decline in an older health-seeking population, including people with MCI.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Demência/diagnóstico , Idoso , Algoritmos , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato
11.
Aging Ment Health ; 22(10): 1272-1278, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28151002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between modifiable risk and protective factors and severe cognitive impairment and dementia in the very old. Additionally, the present study tests the predictive validity of the 'LIfestyle for BRAin health' (LIBRA) score, an index developed to assess an individual's dementia prevention potential. METHOD: Two hundred seventy-eight individuals aged 85 years or older from the Cambridge City over-75s cohort study were followed-up until death. Included risk and protective factors were: diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, depression, smoking, low-to-moderate alcohol use, high cognitive activity, and physical inactivity. Incident severe cognitive impairment was based on the Mini-Mental State Examination (score: 0-17) and incident dementia was based on either post-mortem consensus clinical diagnostic assessments or death certificate data. Logistic regressions were used to test whether individual risk and protective factors and the LIBRA score were associated with severe cognitive impairment or dementia after 18 years follow-up. RESULTS: None of the risk and protective factors or the LIBRA score was significantly associated with increased risk of severe cognitive impairment or dementia. Sensitivity analyses using a larger sample, longer follow-up period, and stricter cut-offs for prevalent cognitive impairment showed similar results. CONCLUSION: Associations between well-known midlife risk and protective factors and risk for severe cognitive impairment or dementia might not persist into very old age, in line with suggestions that targeting these factors through lifestyle interventions should start earlier in life.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 33(1): 167-175, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28247500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Modifiable risk factors for dementia were recently identified and compiled in a systematic review. The 'Lifestyle for Brain Health' (LIBRA) score, reflecting someone's potential for dementia prevention, was studied in a large longitudinal population-based sample with respect to predicting cognitive change over an observation period of up to 16 years. METHODS: Lifestyle for Brain Health was calculated at baseline for 949 participants aged 50-81 years from the Maastricht Ageing Study. The predictive value of LIBRA for incident dementia and cognitive impairment was examined by using Cox proportional hazard models and by testing its relation with cognitive decline. RESULTS: Lifestyle for Brain Health predicted future risk of dementia, as well as risk of cognitive impairment. A one-point increase in LIBRA score related to 19% higher risk for dementia and 9% higher risk for cognitive impairment. LIBRA predicted rate of decline in processing speed, but not memory or executive functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Lifestyle for Brain Health (LIBRA) may help in identifying and monitoring risk status in dementia-prevention programmes, by targeting modifiable, lifestyle-related risk factors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle , Demência/prevenção & controle , Estilo de Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Encéfalo , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Comorbidade , Demência/epidemiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
14.
Eur Heart J ; 2017 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29020327

RESUMO

Aims: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been suggested to accelerate cognitive decline and to be a risk factor for dementia, but still little is known about the cognitive course after a first cardiovascular event. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the cognitive trajectories in both prevalent and incident CVD over a 12-year time period in the general population. Methods and results: Cognitively healthy participants (age 24-82 years, n = 1823) of a prospective cohort study were serially assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 years. Verbal memory, executive function, and information processing speed were analysed in adults with prevalent, incident, and no CVD. Random effects models were used to test the association between CVD and change in cognitive function over time. At baseline, participants with prevalent CVD showed more decline in memory and information processing speed than healthy controls. Participants with incident CVD also showed more decline in these cognitive domains, but this was only significant in the follow-up period from 6 to 12 years. Associations were more pronounced in participants aged younger than 65 years at baseline, and in sub-analyses with angina pectoris or myocardial infarction as the most prevalent CVD conditions. Conclusion: Prevalent and incident CVD predict cognitive decline in middle-aged individuals. Findings for incident CVD suggest that the onset of decline is linked in time with the vascular event itself. Timely CVD management may delay the onset of decline.

15.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0184244, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28886155

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Accumulating evidence suggests an association between coronary heart disease and risk for cognitive impairment or dementia, but no study has systematically reviewed this association. Therefore, we summarized the available evidence on the association between coronary heart disease and risk for cognitive impairment or dementia. METHODS: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and CINAHL were searched for all publications until 8th January 2016. Articles were included if they fulfilled the inclusion criteria: (1) myocardial infarction, angina pectoris or coronary heart disease (combination of both) as predictor variable; (2) cognition, cognitive impairment or dementia as outcome; (3) population-based study; (4) prospective (≥1 year follow-up), cross-sectional or case-control study design; (5) ≥100 participants; and (6) aged ≥45 years. Reference lists of publications and secondary literature were hand-searched for possible missing articles. Two reviewers independently screened all abstracts and extracted information from potential relevant full-text articles using a standardized data collection form. Study quality was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We pooled estimates from the most fully adjusted model using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: We identified 6,132 abstracts, of which 24 studies were included. A meta-analysis of 10 prospective cohort studies showed that coronary heart disease was associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment or dementia (OR = 1.45, 95%CI = 1.21-1.74, p<0.001). Between-study heterogeneity was low (I2 = 25.7%, 95%CI = 0-64, p = 0.207). Similar significant associations were found in separate meta-analyses of prospective cohort studies for the individual predictors (myocardial infarction, angina pectoris). In contrast, meta-analyses of cross-sectional and case-control studies were inconclusive. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: This meta-analysis suggests that coronary heart disease is prospectively associated with increased odds of developing cognitive impairment or dementia. Given the projected worldwide increase in the number of people affected by coronary heart disease and dementia, insight into causal mechanisms or common pathways underlying the heart-brain connection is needed.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Doença das Coronárias/complicações , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/etiologia , Angina Pectoris/complicações , Angina Pectoris/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
16.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 58(2): 537-547, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28453475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recently, the LIfestyle for BRAin health (LIBRA) index was developed to assess an individual's prevention potential for dementia. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the predictive validity of the LIBRA index for incident dementia in midlife, late life, and the oldest-old. METHODS: 9,387 non-demented individuals were recruited from the European population-based DESCRIPA study. An individual's LIBRA index was calculated solely based on modifiable risk factors: depression, diabetes, physical activity, hypertension, obesity, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, coronary heart disease, and mild/moderate alcohol use. Cox regression was used to test the predictive validity of LIBRA for dementia at follow-up (mean 7.2 y, range 1-16). RESULTS: In midlife (55-69 y, n = 3,256) and late life (70-79 y, n = 4,320), the risk for dementia increased with higher LIBRA scores. Individuals in the intermediate- and high-risk groups had a higher risk of dementia than those in the low-risk group. In the oldest-old (80-97 y, n = 1,811), higher LIBRA scores did not increase the risk for dementia. CONCLUSION: LIBRA might be a useful tool to identify individuals for primary prevention interventions of dementia in midlife, and maybe in late life, but not in the oldest-old.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/prevenção & controle , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Planejamento em Saúde Comunitária , Depressão/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar
17.
Neurology ; 88(2): 198-208, 2017 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27974647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Renal dysfunction has been linked with increased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia, but studies are conflicting. For that reason, the aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to summarize the best available evidence on the prospective association between potential markers of renal dysfunction and development of cognitive impairment or dementia. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched for potential publications until August 1, 2016. Studies were eligible if they fulfilled the following criteria: population-based study, prospective design, ≥100 participants, aged ≥45 years, ≥1 year follow-up, and cognition/dementia outcomes. Where appropriate, random effects meta-analyses were conducted yielding pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Twenty-two out of 8,494 abstracts fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Sufficient evidence was found for albuminuria, mixed results for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), insufficient support for cystatin C, and tentative evidence for serum creatinine and creatinine clearance. Meta-analyses of 5 studies representing 27,805 persons showed a 35% increased risk of cognitive impairment or dementia in those with albuminuria (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.06-1.73, p = 0.015), whereas eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 showed no significant association (OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.99-1.65, p = 0.063). No meta-analyses could be done for serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, or cystatin C. CONCLUSIONS: The overall evidence for an association between renal dysfunction and cognitive impairment or dementia is modest. Evidence suggests that albuminuria is associated with higher odds of developing cognitive impairment or dementia.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Nefropatias/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27965818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dementia prevalence is increasing as populations live longer, with no cure and the costs of caring exceeding many other conditions. There is increasing evidence for modifiable risk factors which, if addressed in mid-life, can reduce the risk of developing dementia in later life. These include physical inactivity, low cognitive activity, mid-life obesity, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. This study aims to assess the acceptability and feasibility and impact of giving those in mid-life, aged between 40 and 60 years, an individualised dementia risk modification score and profile and access to personalised on-line health information and goal setting in order to support the behaviour change required to reduce such dementia risk. A secondary aim is to understand participants' and practitioners' views of dementia prevention and explore the acceptability and integration of the Innovative Midlife Intervention for Dementia Deterrence (In-MINDD) intervention into daily life and routine practice. METHODS/DESIGN: In-MINDD is a multi-centre, primary care-based, single-blinded randomised controlled feasibility trial currently being conducted in four European countries (France, Ireland, the Netherlands and the UK). Participants are being recruited from participating general practices. Inclusion criteria will include age between 40 and 60 years; at least one modifiable risk factor for dementia risk (including diabetes, hypertension, obesity, renal dysfunction, current smoker, raised cholesterol, coronary heart disease, current or previous history of depression, self-reported sedentary lifestyle, and self-reported low cognitive activity) access to the Internet. Primary outcome measure will be a change in dementia risk modification score over the timescale of the trial (6 months). A qualitative process evaluation will interview a sample of participants and practitioners about their views on the acceptability and feasibility of the trial and the links between modifiable risk factors and dementia prevention. This work will be underpinned by Normalisation Process Theory. DISCUSSION: This study will explore the feasibility and acceptability of a risk profiler and on-line support environment to help individuals in mid-life assess their risk of developing dementia in later life and to take steps to alleviate that risk by tackling health-related behaviour change. Testing the intervention in a robust and theoretically informed manner will inform the development of a future, full-scale randomised controlled trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry: ISRCTN 98553005 (DOI: 10.1186/ISRCTN98553005).

19.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 30(3): 234-46, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25504093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dementia has a multifactorial etiology, but the importance of individual health and lifestyle related risk factors is often uncertain or based on few studies. The goal of this paper is to identify the major modifiable risk factors for dementia as a first step in developing an effective preventive strategy and promoting healthy late life cognitive functioning. METHODS: A mixed-method approach combined findings from a systematic literature review and a Delphi consensus study. The literature search was conducted in PubMed and updated an earlier review by the United States National Institutes of Health from 2010. We reviewed the available evidence from observational epidemiological studies. The online Delphi study asked eight international experts to rank and weigh each risk factor for its importance for dementia prevention. RESULTS: Out of 3127 abstracts, 291 were included in the review. There was good agreement between modifiable risk factors identified in the literature review and risk factors named spontaneously by experts. After triangulation of both methods and re-weighting by experts, strongest support was found for depression, (midlife) hypertension, physical inactivity, diabetes, (midlife) obesity, hyperlipidemia, and smoking, while more research is needed for coronary heart disease, renal dysfunction, diet, and cognitive activity. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide good support for several somatic and lifestyle factors and will be used to inform the design of a new multicenter trial into dementia prevention.


Assuntos
Técnica Delfos , Demência/prevenção & controle , Cognição , Comorbidade , Demência/etiologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Atividade Motora , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
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