Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 216
Filtrar
1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7960, 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846417

RESUMO

Theoretically, panic disorder and agoraphobia pathology can be conceptualized as a cascade of dynamically changing defensive responses to threat cues from inside the body. Guided by this trans-diagnostic model we tested the interaction between defensive activation and vagal control as a marker of prefrontal inhibition of subcortical defensive activation. We investigated ultra-short-term changes of vagally controlled high frequency heart rate variability (HRV) during a standardized threat challenge (entrapment) in n = 232 patients with panic disorder and agoraphobia, and its interaction with various indices of defensive activation. We found a strong inverse relationship between HRV and heart rate during threat, which was stronger at the beginning of exposure. Patients with a strong increase in heart rate showed a deactivation of prefrontal vagal control while patients showing less heart rate acceleration showed an increase in vagal control. Moreover, vagal control collapsed in case of imminent threat, i.e., when body symptoms increase and seem to get out of control. In these cases of defensive action patients either fled from the situation or experienced a panic attack. Active avoidance, panic attacks, and increased sympathetic arousal are associated with an inability to maintain vagal control over the heart suggesting that teaching such regulation strategies during exposure treatment might be helpful to keep prefrontal control, particularly during the transition zone from post-encounter to circa strike defense.Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN80046034.

2.
J Psychopharmacol ; : 2698811211003477, 2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33779379

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug-induced prolongation of cardiac repolarization limits the treatment with many psychotropic drugs. Recently, the contribution of polygenic variation to the individual duration of the QT interval was identified. AIMS: To explore the interaction between antipsychotic drugs and the individual polygenic influence on the QT interval. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of clinical and genotype data of 804 psychiatric inpatients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder. The individual polygenic influence on the QT interval was calculated according to the method of Arking et al. RESULTS: Linear regression modelling showed a significant association of the individual polygenic QT interval score (ßstd = 0.176, p < 0.001) and age (ßstd = 0.139, p < 0.001) with the QTc interval corrected according to Fridericia's formula. Sex showed a nominal trend towards significance (ßstd = 0.064, p = 0.064). No association was observed for the number of QT prolonging drugs according to AZCERT taken. Subsample analysis (n = 588) showed a significant association of potassium serum concentrations with the QTc interval (ßstd = -0.104, p = 0.010). Haloperidol serum concentrations were associated with the QTc interval only in single medication analysis (n = 26, ßstd = 0.101, p = 0.004), but not in multivariate regression analysis. No association was observed for aripiprazole, clozapine, quetiapine and perazine, while olanzapine and the sum of risperidone and its metabolite showed a negative association. CONCLUSIONS: Individual genetic factors and age are main determinants of the QT interval. Antipsychotic drug serum concentrations within the therapeutic range contribute to QTc prolongation on an individual level.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606835

RESUMO

The serotonin transporter (5-HTT) is a key molecule of serotoninergic neurotransmission and target of many anxiolytics and antidepressants. In humans, 5-HTT gene variants resulting in lower expression levels are associated with behavioral traits of anxiety. Furthermore, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies reported increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) during resting state (RS) and amygdala hyperreactivity. 5-HTT deficient mice as an established animal model for anxiety disorders seem to be well suited for investigating amygdala (re-)activity in an fMRI study. We investigated wildtype (5-HTT+/+), heterozygous (5-HTT+/-), and homozygous 5-HTT-knockout mice (5-HTT-/-) of both sexes in an ultra-high-field 17.6 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. CBF was measured with continuous arterial spin labeling during RS, stimulation state (SS; with odor of rats as aversive stimulus), and post-stimulation state (PS). Subsequently, post mortem c-Fos immunohistochemistry elucidated neural activation on cellular level. The results showed that in reaction to the aversive odor CBF in total brain and amygdala of all mice significantly increased. In male 5-HTT+/+ mice amygdala RS CBF levels were found to be significantly lower than in 5-HTT+/- mice. From RS to SS 5-HTT+/+ amygdala perfusion significantly increased compared to both 5-HTT+/- and 5-HTT-/- mice. Perfusion level changes of male mice correlated with the density of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells in the amygdaloid nuclei. In female mice the perfusion was not modulated by the 5-Htt-genotype, but by estrous cycle stages. We conclude that amygdala reactivity is modulated by the 5-Htt genotype in males. In females, gonadal hormones have an impact which might have obscured genotype effects. Furthermore, our results demonstrate experimental support for the tonic model of 5-HTTLPR function.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637837

RESUMO

Depressed patients often do not respond to the first antidepressant prescribed, resulting in sequential trials of different medications. Personalised medicine offers a means of reducing this delay; however, the clinical effectiveness of personalised approaches to antidepressant treatment has not previously been tested. We assessed the clinical effectiveness of using a predictive algorithm, based on behavioural tests of affective cognition and subjective symptoms, to guide antidepressant treatment. We conducted a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial in 913 medication-free depressed patients. Patients were randomly assigned to have their antidepressant treatment guided by a predictive algorithm or treatment as usual (TaU). The primary outcome was the response of depression symptoms, defined as a 50% or greater reduction in baseline score of the QIDS-SR-16 scale, at week 8. Additional prespecified outcomes included symptoms of anxiety at week 8, and symptoms of depression and functional outcome at weeks 8, 24 and 48. The response rate of depressive symptoms at week 8 in the PReDicT (55.9%) and TaU (51.8%) arms did not differ significantly (odds ratio: 1.18 (95% CI: 0.89-1.56), P = 0.25). However, there was a significantly greater reduction of anxiety in week 8 and a greater improvement in functional outcome at week 24 in the PReDicT arm. Use of the PReDicT test did not increase the rate of response to antidepressant treatment estimated by depressive symptoms but did improve symptoms of anxiety at week 8 and functional outcome at week 24. Our findings indicate that personalisation of antidepressant treatment may improve outcomes in depressed patients.

5.
J Psychiatr Res ; 135: 294-301, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524676

RESUMO

Fear conditioning and generalization are well-known mechanisms in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders. Extinction of conditioned fear responses is crucial for the psychotherapeutic treatment of these diseases. Anxious depression as a subtype of major depression shares characteristics with anxiety disorders. We therefore aimed to compare fear learning mechanisms in patients with anxious versus non-anxious depression. Fear learning mechanisms in patients with major depression (n = 79; for subgroup analyses n = 41 patients with anxious depression and n = 38 patients with non-anxious depression) were compared to 48 healthy participants. We used a well-established differential fear conditioning paradigm investigating acquisition, generalization, and extinction. Ratings of valence, arousal and probability of expected threat were assessed as well as skin conductance response as an objective psychophysiological measure. Patients with major depression showed impaired acquisition of conditioned fear. In addition, depressed patients showed impaired extinction of conditioned fear responses after successful fear conditioning. Generalization was not affected. However, there was no difference between patients with anxious and non-anxious depression. Results differed between objective and subjective measures. Our findings show altered fear acquisition and extinction in major depression as compared to healthy controls, but they do not favor differential fear learning and extinction mechanisms in the pathogenesis of anxious versus non-anxious depression. The results of impaired extinction warrant future studies addressing extinction learning elements in the treatment of depression.

6.
Brain Behav Immun ; 93: 132-140, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422640

RESUMO

Childhood trauma as well as severe events occurring later in life have been associated with the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the interaction of early and later occurring adverse events in patients with MDD is understudied. This study aims to disentangle this interaction by investigating the effects on two of the main stress-response systems of the body, the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA-) axis and the immune system in depressed patients. The function of the HPA-axis was assessed by measuring FKBP5, SGK1 and NR3C1 mRNA-expression in peripheral blood after an in vivo glucocorticoid receptor (GR) challenge with 1.5 mg dexamethasone in 150 depressed in-patients (47.4% females). Childhood trauma was evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), severe life events occurring one year prior to hospital admission were assessed with the List of Threatening Experiences (LTE). Multiple childhood traumata, i.e. ≥ 3, were present in 68 (45.5%) patients, 59 (39.3%) experienced ≥ 3 severe recent life events. The history of ≥ 3 severe recent life events was associated with an impaired GR-induction of SGK1 (F = 10.455; df = 1; p = 0.002) and FKBP5 mRNA expression (F = 8.720; df = 1; p = 0.004), and with elevated measures of the immune system such as CRP and lymphocyte count. In addition, severe recent life events were associated with a substantially impaired treatment response to antidepressants (F = 7.456; df = 1; p = 0.008). These effects could not be observed in relation to childhood trauma. Severe life events occurring prior to MDD development substantially impaired the stress-response systems and the response to treatment with antidepressants. This finding may indicate the need to employ additional treatment options such as psychotherapy right at the beginning of treatment or immune-modulating approaches.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 22196, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335130

RESUMO

Neurodegenerative diseases show an increase in prevalence and incidence, with the most prominent example being Alzheimer's disease. DNA damage has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis, but the exact mechanisms remain elusive. We enrolled 425 participants with and without neurodegenerative diseases and analyzed DNA damage in the form of micronuclei in buccal mucosa samples. In addition, other parameters such as binucleated cells, karyolytic cells, and karyorrhectic cells were quantified. No relevant differences in DNA damage and cytotoxicity markers were observed in patients compared to healthy participants. Furthermore, other parameters such as lifestyle factors and diseases were also investigated. Overall, this study could not identify a direct link between changes in buccal cells and neurogenerative diseases, but highlights the influence of lifestyle factors and diseases on the human buccal cytome.

8.
Pharmacopsychiatry ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147643

RESUMO

The implementation of pharmacogenomic (PGx) testing in psychiatry remains modest, in part due to divergent perceptions of the quality and completeness of the evidence base and diverse perspectives on the clinical utility of PGx testing among psychiatrists and other healthcare providers. Recognizing the current lack of consensus within the field, the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics assembled a group of experts to conduct a narrative synthesis of the PGx literature, prescribing guidelines, and product labels related to psychotropic medications as well as the key considerations and limitations related to the use of PGx testing in psychiatry. The group concluded that to inform medication selection and dosing of several commonly-used antidepressant and antipsychotic medications, current published evidence, prescribing guidelines, and product labels support the use of PGx testing for 2 cytochrome P450 genes (CYP2D6, CYP2C19). In addition, the evidence supports testing for human leukocyte antigen genes when using the mood stabilizers carbamazepine (HLA-A and HLA-B), oxcarbazepine (HLA-B), and phenytoin (CYP2C9, HLA-B). For valproate, screening for variants in certain genes (POLG, OTC, CSP1) is recommended when a mitochondrial disorder or a urea cycle disorder is suspected. Although barriers to implementing PGx testing remain to be fully resolved, the current trajectory of discovery and innovation in the field suggests these barriers will be overcome and testing will become an important tool in psychiatry.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 406, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235193

RESUMO

Adenosine, its interacting A1 and A2A receptors, and particularly the variant rs5751876 in the A2A gene ADORA2A have been shown to modulate anxiety, arousal, and sleep. In a pilot positron emission tomography (PET) study in healthy male subjects, we suggested an effect of rs5751876 on in vivo brain A1 receptor (A1AR) availability. As female sex and adenosinergic/dopaminergic interaction partners might have an impact on this rs5751876 effect on A1AR availability, we aimed to (1) further investigate the pilot male-based findings in an independent, newly recruited cohort including women and (2) analyze potential modulation of this rs5751876 effect by additional adenosinergic/dopaminergic gene variation. Healthy volunteers (32/11 males/females) underwent phenotypic characterization including self-reported sleep and A1AR-specific quantitative PET. Rs5751876 and 31 gene variants of adenosine A1, A2A, A2B, and A3 receptors, adenosine deaminase, and dopamine D2 receptor were genotyped. Multivariate analysis revealed an rs5751876 effect on A1AR availability (P = 0.047), post hoc confirmed in 30 of 31 brain regions (false discovery rate (FDR) corrected P values < 0.05), but statistically stronger in anxiety-related regions (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus). Additional effects of ADORA1 rs1874142 were identified; under its influence rs5751876 and rs5751876 × sleep had strengthened effects on A1AR availability (Pboth < 0.02; post hoc FDR-corrected Ps < 0.05 for 29/30 regions, respectively). Our results support the relationship between rs5751876 and A1AR availability. Additional impact of rs1874142, together with rs5751876 and sleep, might be involved in regulating arousal and thus the development of mental disorders like anxiety disorders. The interplay of further detected suggestive ADORA2A × DRD2 interaction, however, necessitates larger future samples more comparable to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based samples.

11.
Neuropsychologia ; 148: 107650, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045230

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) are a globally rising issue. It is necessary to detect such diseases early to find strategies for prevention. Typically, patients with MCI or AD show deviant neuronal patterns, which could be detected early through brain imaging techniques enabling assumptions about pre-existing diseases. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an appropriate imaging method because of its easy and economical nature with hardly any drawbacks. An early measurable risk factor indicating neurodegenerative processes could be a deficit in visual-spatial processing, which is localized in the parietal cortex. In this study, we aimed to measure the hemodynamic response of the visual-spatial processing in the healthy elderly participants of our long-term Vogel Study with fNIRS during the clock-hand-angle-discrimination task (ADT) to deepen our understanding of healthy brain mechanisms. Our results revealed for our healthy sample a significantly increased neuronal brain activity with increasing task difficulties, namely from the long to the middle to the short clock hand during ADT and significantly higher activation in the right hemisphere compared to the left hemisphere as well as in the superior parietal cortex compared to the inferior parietal cortex. Additionally, our behavioral data demonstrated longer reaction times and more errors with an increasing task requirement. We, therefore, assume that visual-spatial processing can successfully be operationalized with fNIRS for healthy elderly people based on ADT. Further fNIRS analyses are planned to investigate pathological neuronal correlates of visual-spatial function in MCI or AD study participants.

12.
Zootaxa ; 4809(2): zootaxa.4809.2.5, 2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055938

RESUMO

The Hemimetabola Collection of the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin, Leibniz-Institut für Evolutions- und Biodiversitätsforschung, located in Berlin, Germany, holds types of 22 species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) belonging to six genera: Belminus Stål, 1859; Eratyrus Stål, 1859; Meccus Stål, 1859; Panstrongylus Berg, 1879; Rhodnius Stål, 1859; and Triatoma Laporte, 1832. We present a detailed list containing nomenclatural, taxonomic and label data, and photographs of specimens and their labels.


Assuntos
Heterópteros , Triatominae , Animais , Berlim , Museus
13.
Ther Drug Monit ; 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of overweight and obesity are higher in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders than in the general population. Body composition and enzyme functions are affected by overweight, and consequently, the pharmacokinetics of drugs may vary in overweight patients. Thus, overweight and obesity are important factors in psychiatric disorders and their treatment. OBJECTIVES: This analysis aimed to investigate the impact of body mass index (BMI) on serum concentrations of the antidepressant drugs amitriptyline, doxepin, escitalopram, mirtazapine, and venlafaxine, and the antipsychotic drugs clozapine, quetiapine, and risperidone, taking into account the following confounding parameters: age, sex, and smoking habit. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Inpatients and outpatients (N = 1657) who took at least one of the target drugs were included in this retrospective analysis. Serum concentrations of the target drugs and their metabolites were determined at the Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatics, and Psychotherapy of the University Hospital of Würzburg during routine therapeutic drug monitoring (January 2009 to December 2010), which was performed in the morning (trough level) at steady state. RESULTS: Dose-corrected serum concentrations (CD) of the active moiety of doxepin and venlafaxine and of O-desmethylvenlafaxine were negatively associated with BMI (partial Pearson correlation, R = -0.267, p = 0.002; R = -0.206, p ≤ 0.001; R = -0.258, p ≤ 0.001), and the CDs were different in normal weight, overweight, and obese patients (ANCOVA, p = 0.004, p < 0.001, p ≤ 0.001). No association was found between BMI and serum concentrations of amitriptyline, escitalopram, mirtazapine, clozapine, quetiapine, and risperidone. CONCLUSION: In obese patients, higher doses of doxepin and venlafaxine are necessary to achieve similar serum concentrations as in normal weight patients and to avoid treatment-resistant depression.

14.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 15(8): 849-859, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734299

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking increases the likelihood of developing anxiety disorders, among them panic disorder (PD). While brain structures altered by smoking partly overlap with morphological changes identified in PD, the modulating impact of smoking as a potential confounder on structural alterations in PD has not yet been addressed. In total, 143 PD patients (71 smokers) and 178 healthy controls (62 smokers) participated in a multicenter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. T1-weighted images were used to examine brain structural alterations using voxel-based morphometry in a priori defined regions of the defensive system network. PD was associated with gray matter volume reductions in the amygdala and hippocampus. This difference was driven by non-smokers and absent in smoking subjects. Bilateral amygdala volumes were reduced with increasing health burden (neither PD nor smoking > either PD or smoking > both PD and smoking). As smoking can narrow or diminish commonly observed structural abnormalities in PD, the effect of smoking should be considered in MRI studies focusing on patients with pathological forms of fear and anxiety. Future studies are needed to determine if smoking may increase the risk for subsequent psychopathology via brain functional or structural alterations.

15.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 13: 152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32848605

RESUMO

A GWAS study recently demonstrated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human GLRB gene of individuals with a prevalence for agoraphobia. GLRB encodes the glycine receptor (GlyRs) ß subunit. The identified SNPs are localized within the gene flanking regions (3' and 5' UTRs) and intronic regions. It was suggested that these nucleotide polymorphisms modify GlyRs expression and phenotypic behavior in humans contributing to an anxiety phenotype as a mild form of hyperekplexia. Hyperekplexia is a human neuromotor disorder with massive startle phenotypes due to mutations in genes encoding GlyRs subunits. GLRA1 mutations have been more commonly observed than GLRB mutations. If an anxiety phenotype contributes to the hyperekplexia disease pattern has not been investigated yet. Here, we compared two mouse models harboring either a mutation in the murine Glra1 or Glrb gene with regard to anxiety and startle phenotypes. Homozygous spasmodic animals carrying a Glra1 point mutation (alanine 52 to serine) displayed abnormally enhanced startle responses. Moreover, spasmodic mice exhibited significant changes in fear-related behaviors (freezing, rearing and time spent on back) analyzed during the startle paradigm, even in a neutral context. Spastic mice exhibit reduced expression levels of the full-length GlyRs ß subunit due to aberrant splicing of the Glrb gene. Heterozygous animals appear normal without an obvious behavioral phenotype and thus might reflect the human situation analyzed in the GWAS study on agoraphobia and startle. In contrast to spasmodic mice, heterozygous spastic animals revealed no startle phenotype in a neutral as well as a conditioning context. Other mechanisms such as a modulatory function of the GlyRs ß subunit within glycinergic circuits in neuronal networks important for fear and fear-related behavior may exist. Possibly, in human additional changes in fear and fear-related circuits either due to gene-gene interactions e.g., with GLRA1 genes or epigenetic factors are necessary to create the agoraphobia and in particular the startle phenotype.

16.
J Psychopharmacol ; 34(10): 1105-1111, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32669065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The therapeutic reference range for venlafaxine in antidepressant treatment has been defined as 100 to 400 ng/mL. However, in an everyday setting active moiety concentrations above the therapeutic reference range were often reported. AIM: The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the therapeutic reference range of venlafaxine. METHODS: In-patients (⩽60 years) with major depressive episodes receiving antidepressant monotherapy with venlafaxine during routine clinical treatment were included in this observational study. Depressive symptom severity was evaluated on a weekly basis using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-21), and therapeutic drug monitoring analyses were performed. Resting electrocardiograms were analyzed in week 3, week 5 and week 7 of study participation. RESULTS: Clinical improvement from baseline to week 4 was significantly associated with increasing serum concentrations of the active moiety of venlafaxine (N = 23, Pearson correlation, p = 0.009), but not with the dose of venlafaxine. Patients achieving remission showed significantly higher serum concentrations than patients achieving response/non-response (Kruskal-Wallis test, p = 0.019). Moreover, in patients with serum concentrations above 400 ng/mL time to remission and time to response was significantly shorter than in patients with concentrations below 400 ng/mL (Mantel-COX test, p = 0.001; p = 0.010). QTc time was below the upper limit of a normal QTc time (450 ms) for all patients. CONCLUSION: The serum concentration of the active moiety and not the dose determined the effect of venlafaxine. Shorter remission times without ECG alterations in patients with serum concentrations above the therapeutic reference range suggest a re-evaluation of the therapeutic reference range for venlafaxine in larger studies.

17.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 127(11): 1539-1546, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524199

RESUMO

Panic disorder (PD) is one of the most common anxiety disorders and often occurs comorbidly with major depressive disorder (MDD). Altered methylation of the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene has been implicated in the etiology of both PD and MDD. The Krüppel-like factor 11 (KLF11; alias TIEG2), an activating transcription factor of the MAOA gene, has been found to be increased in MDD, but has not yet been investigated in PD. In an effort to further delineate the effects of the KLF11-MAOA pathway in anxiety and affective disorders, KLF11 promoter methylation was analyzed via pyrosequencing of sodium bisulfite-treated DNA isolated from human peripheral blood in two independent samples of PD patients with or without comorbid MDD in a case-control design (sample 1: N = 120) as well as MDD patients with and without anxious depression (sample 2: N = 170). Additionally, in sample 1, KLF11 methylation was correlated with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scores. No overall association of KLF11 promoter methylation with PD was detected. However, PD patients with comorbid MDD showed significant hypomethylation relative to both healthy controls (p = 0.010) and PD patients without comorbid MDD (p = 0.008). Furthermore, KLF11 methylation was negatively correlated with BDI-II scores in PD patients (p = 0.013). MDD patients without anxious features showed nominally decreased KLF11 methylation in comparison to MDD patients with anxious depression (p = 0.052). The present results suggest KLF11 promoter hypomethylation as a potential epigenetic marker of MDD comorbidity in PD or of non-anxious depression, respectively, possibly constituting a differential pathomechanism in anxiety and mood disorders.

18.
Ther Drug Monit ; 42(6): 893-901, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antidepressants are recommended for the treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain; however, target serum concentrations based on therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) have not been established. Therefore, the authors analyzed routine care TDM data of antidepressants in patients with chronic pain with and without depression in terms of treatment outcomes in an interdisciplinary multimodal pain treatment (IMPT) program. METHODS: Patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain and TDM for amitriptyline (n = 45) or duloxetine (n = 30) were retrospectively included. The German pain questionnaire for pain intensity and the Depression Anxiety Stress scale were applied at T0 and at the end of the IMPT program (T1). A relief of pain intensity score ≥2 was considered as a positive outcome. Comorbid depression was diagnosed based on ICD-10 criteria. Serum concentrations of antidepressants were measured for routine clinical care TDM. RESULTS: After IMPT, stress improved in all subgroups, and depressive symptoms improved only in the duloxetine group. Overall, 40% and 27% of patients in the amitriptyline and duloxetine subgroup, respectively, were responders in terms of maximum pain score relief. Responders with comorbid depression were treated with a dose that led to a 1.7-fold higher serum concentration of the active moiety of amitriptyline (amitriptyline + nortriptyline) compared with nonresponders. Similarly, a 2.3-fold higher serum concentration was observed in depressed responders than in nondepressed responders (at minimum 131.5 ng/mL). CONCLUSIONS: Dosing of antidepressants for chronic pain relief should specifically take comorbid depression into account. TDM may provide better outcomes of pain relief in an IMPT setting in patients with comorbid depression.

20.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 127(11): 1527-1537, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468273

RESUMO

While DNA methylation patterns have been studied for a role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders, the role of the enzymes establishing DNA methylation-DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs)-has yet to be investigated. In an effort to investigate DNMT genotype-specific effects on dimensional anxiety traits in addition to the categorical phenotype of panic disorder, 506 panic disorder patients and 3112 healthy participants were assessed for anxiety related cognition [Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ)], anxiety sensitivity [Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI)] as well as pathological worry [Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)] and genotyped for five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DNMT3A (rs11683424, rs1465764, rs1465825) and DNMT3B (rs2424932, rs4911259) genes, which have previously been found associated with clinical and trait-related phenotypes. There was no association with the categorical phenotype panic disorder. However, a significant association was discerned between DNMT3A rs1465764 and PSWQ scores in healthy participants, with the minor allele conveying a protective effect. In addition, a marginally significant association between questionnaire scores (PSWQ, ASI) in healthy participants and DNMT3B rs2424932 was detected, again with the minor allele conveying a protective effect. The present results suggest a possible minor role of DNMT3A and DNMT3B gene variation in conveying resilience towards anxiety disorders. As the observed associations indicated a protective effect of two SNPs particularly with pathological worry, future studies are proposed to explore these variants in generalized anxiety disorder rather than panic disorder.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...