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2.
Leukemia ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483613

RESUMO

The STI571 prospective randomised trial (SPIRIT) French trial is a four-arm study comparing imatinib (IM) 400 mg versus IM 600 mg, IM 400 mg + cytarabine (AraC), and IM 400 mg + pegylated interferon alpha2a (PegIFN-α2a) for the front-line treatment of chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). Long-term analyses included overall and progression-free survival, molecular responses to treatment, and severe adverse events. Starting in 2003, the trial included 787 evaluable patients. The median overall follow-up of the patients was 13.5 years (range 3 months to 16.7 years). Based on intention-to-treat analyses, at 15 years, overall and progression-free survival were similar across arms: 85%, 83%, 80%, and 82% and 84%, 87%, 79%, and 79% for the IM 400 mg (N = 223), IM 600 mg (N = 171), IM 400 mg + AraC (N = 172), and IM 400 mg + PegIFN-α2a (N = 221) arms, respectively. The rate of major molecular response at 12 months and deep molecular response (MR4) over time were significantly higher with the combination IM 400 mg + PegIFN-α2a than with IM 400 mg: p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0035, respectively. Progression to advanced phases and secondary malignancies were the most frequent causes of death. Toxicity was the main reason for stopping AraC or PegIFN-α2a treatment.

3.
Drug Test Anal ; 2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453144

RESUMO

The General European Official Medicines Control Laboratory (OMCL) Network (GEON), co-ordinated by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM), regularly organises market surveillance studies on specific categories of suspected illegal or illegally traded products. These studies are generally based on a combination of retrospective and prospective data collection over a defined period of time. This paper reports the results of the most recent study in this context with the focus on health products containing non-Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical-International Nonproprietary Name (ATC-INN) molecules. In total 1104 cases were reported by 16 countries for the period between January 2017 and the end of September 2019. The vast majority of these samples (83%) were collected from the illegal market, while only 3% originated from a legal source. For the rest of the samples, categorisation was not possible. Moreover, 69% of all the reported samples were presented as medicines, including sexual performance enhancers, sports performance enhancers, physical performance enhancers and cognitive enhancers or nootropic molecules that act on the central nervous system (CNS). Although the popularity of anabolics, PDE-5 inhibitors and CNS drugs in illegal products has already been reported, the study showed some new trends and challenges. Indeed, 11% of the samples contained molecules of biological origin, that is, research peptides, representing the second most reported category in this study. Furthermore, the study also clearly shows the increasing popularity of Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators and nootropics, two categories that need attention and should be further monitored.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514919

RESUMO

We assessed the incidence and outcome of early candidemia after hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). The analysis included all first HSCTs performed from 2000 to 2015 in adult and pediatric patients with a non-leukemic disease and recorded in the EBMT registry. Overall survival (OS), non-relapse mortality (NRM), and relapse mortality (RM) were evaluated. Candidemia was diagnosed in 420 of 49,852 patients at a median time of 17 days post HSCT (range 0-100), the cumulative incidence being 0.85%. In 65.5% of episodes, candidemia occurred by day 30 after HSCT. The mortality rate by day 7 was 6.2%, whereas 100-day NRM was higher (HR 3.47, p < 0.0001), and 100-day OS was lower (HR 3.22, p < 0.0001) than that of patients without candidemia. After a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 5-year OS, NRM, and RM for patients with and without candidemia were 50.5% vs. 60.8%, p < 0.0001, 28.2% vs.18.8%, p < 0.0001, and 25.3% vs. 27.2%, p = 0.4, respectively. In conclusion, in non-leukemic transplant patients, the occurrence of an early episode of candidemia is rare but it is still associated with a negative effect on the outcome.

5.
Blood Adv ; 4(24): 6327-6335, 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351128

RESUMO

Double-unit unrelated cord blood transplantation (DUCBT) is an option in patients for whom a single unit is not sufficient to provide an adequate number of cells. As current guidelines on UCB unit selection are mainly based on single-unit UCB data, we performed a retrospective analysis of 1375 adult recipients of DUCBT for hematologic malignancies to determine optimal criteria for graft selection. Cryopreserved total nucleated cells (TNCs; ≤3.5 vs >3.5 × 107/kg: hazard ratio [HR], 1.53; 30% vs 45%; P = .01), number of HLA mismatches (≥2 vs 0-1: HR, 1.28; 42% vs 48%; P = .01), and ABO compatibility (minor/major ABO incompatibility vs compatibility: HR, 1.28; P = .04) were independent risk factors for OS. Cryopreserved CD34+ cell dose ≥0.7 × 105/kg in the winning UCB was associated with improved OS (HR, 1.34; P = .03). Low TNC (≤3.5 × 107/kg) and CD34+ (≤1.4 × 105/kg) cell doses were related to decreased neutrophil recovery (HR, 0.65 [P = .01] and HR, 0.81 [P = .01], respectively). DUCBT recipients with ≥2 HLA mismatches had a higher incidence of grade II-IV and III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (HR, 1.26 [P = .03] and 1.59 [P = .02], respectively). Low TNC dose (HR, 1.57; P = .02) and receiving UCB with ≥2 HLA mismatches (HR, 1.35; P = .03) were associated with increased transplant-related mortality. Our data support selecting adequately HLA-matched UCB units with a double-unit cryopreserved TNC dose >3.5 × 107/kg and CD34+ cell dose of ≥0.7 × 105/kg per unit in DUCBT candidates.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339900

RESUMO

In order to identify cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seropositive patients who are at risk of developing CMV infection following first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), we built up a scoring system based on patient/donor characteristics and transplantation modalities. To this end, 3690 consecutive patients were chronologically divided into a derivation cohort (2010-2012, n = 2180) and a validation cohort (2013-2014, n = 1490). Haploidentical donors were excluded. The incidence of first clinically significant CMV infection (CMV disease or CMV viremia leading to preemptive treatment) at 1, 3, and 6 months in the derivation cohort was 13.8%, 38.5%, and 39.6%, respectively. CMV-seropositive donor, unrelated donor (HLA matched 10/10 or HLA mismatched 9/10), myeloablative conditioning, total body irradiation, antithymocyte globulin, and mycophenolate mofetil significantly and independently affected the incidence of 3-month infection. These six factors were selected to build up the prognostic model. Four risk groups were defined: low, intermediate-low, intermediate-high, and high-risk categories, with a 3-month predicted incidence of first clinically significant CMV infection in the derivation cohort of 22.2%, 31.1%, 45.4%, and 56.9%, respectively. This score represents a framework for the evaluation of patients who are at risk of developing clinically significant CMV infection following allo-HCT. Prospective studies using this score may be of benefit in assessing the value of anti-CMV prophylaxis in well-defined patient cohorts.

7.
Drug Test Anal ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33197122

RESUMO

More and more events, such as the summer music festivals, are considering the possibilities for implementing on-site testing of psychoactive drugs in the context of prevention and harm reduction. Although the on-site identification is already implemented by plenty of drug checking services, the required rapid quantitative dosing of the composition of illicit substances is still a missing aspect for a successful harm reduction strategy at events. In this paper, an approach is presented to identify white powders as amphetamine, cocaine, ketamine or others and to estimate the purity of the amphetamine, cocaine and ketamine samples using spectroscopic techniques hyphenated with partial least squares (PLS) modelling. For identification purposes, it was observed that mid-infrared spectroscopy hyphenated with PLS-discriminant analysis allowed the distinction between amphetamine, cocaine, ketamine and other samples and this with a correct classification rate of 93.1% for an external test set. For quantitative estimation, near-infrared spectroscopy was more performant and allowed the estimation of the dosage/purity of the amphetamine, cocaine and ketamine samples with an error of more or less 10% w/w. An easily applicable, practical and cost-effective approach for on-site characterisation of the majority of the psychoactive samples encountered in Belgian nightlife settings based on IR spectroscopy was proposed.

8.
Food Chem Toxicol ; : 111864, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33217530

RESUMO

E-cigarettes have become very popular, a trend that has been stimulated by the wide variety of available e-liquid flavours. Considering the large number of e-liquid flavours (>7000), there is an urgent need to establish a screening strategy to prioritize the flavouring substances of highest concern for human health. In the present study, a prioritization strategy combining analytical screening, in silico tools and literature data was developed to identify potentially genotoxic e-liquid flavourings. Based on the analysis of 129 e-liquids collected on the Belgian market, 60 flavourings with positive in silico predictions for genotoxicity were identified. By using literature data, genotoxicity was excluded for 33 of them whereas for 5, i.e. estragole, safrole, 2-furylmethylketon, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxyl-3(2H)-furanone and transhexanal, there was a clear concern for in vivo genotoxicity. A selection of 4 out of the remaining 22 flavourings was tested in two in vitro genotoxicity assays. Three out of the four tested flavourings induced gene mutations and chromosome damage in vitro, whereas equivocal results were obtained for the fourth compound. Thus, although there is a legislative framework which excludes the use of CMR compounds in e-liquids, flavourings of genotoxic concern are present and might pose a health risk for e-cigarette users.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249424

RESUMO

The association of Cyclosporine A (CsA) and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has increased in the setting of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC). Nevertheless, the use of CsA or CsA+MMF has not been reported in a large and uniform cohort. We analyzed 497 patients with acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission (CR) who underwent matched unrelated donor (MUD) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). All patients received a fludarabine busulfan RIC regimen and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) with either CsA alone or in combination with MMF. The cumulative incidence (CI) of grade II-IV acute GvHD was 27% (95% CI 21-33%) for CsA and 33% (95% CI 27-38%) for CsA+MMF (p = 0.25). The 2-year CI of chronic GvHD was 38% (95% CI 31-45%) and 33% (95% CI 28-39%) for the CsA and the CsA+MMF group, respectively (p = 0.26). On multivariate analysis, no statistically significant differences with respect to relapse incidence (RI), non-relapse mortality (NRM), leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS), acute and chronic GvHD were found between the two groups, also when conducting a subgroup analysis in peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) recipients. Our results support the importance of randomized trial to identify patients who could benefit from the addition of MMF in MUD HSCT.

10.
Haematologica ; Online ahead of print2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054115

RESUMO

Neoplasms involving plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells (pDCs) include Blastic pDC Neoplasms (BPDCN) and other pDC proliferations, where pDCs are associated with myeloid malignancies: most frequently Chronic MyeloMonocytic Leukemia (CMML) but also Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML), hereafter named pDC-AML. We aimed to determine the reactive or neoplastic origin of pDCs in pDC-AML, and their link with the CD34+ blasts, monocytes or conventional DCs (cDCs) associated in the same sample, by phenotypic and molecular analyses (targeted NGS, 70 genes). We compared 15 pDC-AML at diagnosis with 21 BPDCN and 11 normal pDCs from healthy donors. CD45low CD34+ blasts were found in all cases (10-80% of medullar cells), associated with pDCs (4-36%), monocytes in 14 cases (1-10%) and cDCs (2 cases, 4.8-19%). pDCs in pDC-AML harbor a clearly different phenotype from BPDCN: CD4+ CD56- in 100% of cases, most frequently CD303+, CD304+ and CD34+; lower expression of cTCL1 and CD123 with isolated lymphoid markers (CD22/CD7/CD5) in some cases, suggesting a pre-pDC stage. In all cases, pDCs, monocytes and cDC are neoplastic since they harbor the same mutations as CD34+ blasts. RUNX1 is the most commonly mutated gene: detected in all AML with minimal differentiation (M0-AML) but not in the other cases. Despite low number of cases, the systematic association between M0-AML, RUNX1 mutations and an excess of pDC is puzzling. Further evaluation in a larger cohort is required to confirm RUNX1 mutations in pDC-AML with minimal differentiation and to investigate whether it represents a proliferation of blasts with macrophage and DC progenitor potential.

11.
Acta Oncol ; : 1-9, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112687

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) on survivals for patients receiving a haploidentical allogeneic stem-cell transplant (Allo-SCT) with peripheral blood stem-cells (PBSC) complemented by post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) is ill-known. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 131 patients who received a PBSC haplograft in order to precise the impact of acute GVHD on outcomes. There were 78 males and 53 females and the median age for the whole cohort was 59 years (range: 20-71). Thirty-five patients were allografted for a lymphoid disease and 96 for a myeloid malignancy, including 67 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). RESULTS: The cumulative incidence (CI) of day 100 grade 2-4 and 3-4 acute GVHD was 43.4 + 4.6% and 16.7 + 3.4%, respectively. The 2-year CI of moderate/severe chronic GVHD was 10.1 + 2.8%. The only factor affecting the occurrence of GVHD was GVHD prophylaxis. Indeed, CI of day 100 grade 2-4 (but not grade 3-4) acute GVHD was significantly reduced when adding anti-thymoglobulin (ATG) to PTCY. However, in multivariate analysis, grade 2 acute GVHD was significantly associated with better disease-free (HR: 0.36; 95%CI: 0.19-0.69, p = .002) and overall (HR: 0.35; 95%CI: 0.1-0.70, p = .003) survivals. The same results were observed when considering only AML patients. CONCLUSION: Acute grade 2 GVHD is a factor of good prognosis after PBSC haplotransplant with PTCY. Further and larger studies are needed to clarify the complex question of GVHD prophylaxis in the setting of haplo-transplant, especially that of combining ATG and PTCY.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004942

RESUMO

No studies have been reported so far on bridging treatment with idelalisib for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) prior to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT). To study potential carry-over effects of idelalisib and to assess the impact of pathway-inhibitor (PI) failure we performed a retrospective EBMT registry-based study. Patients with CLL who had a history of idelalisib treatment and received a first alloHCT between 2015 and 2017 were eligible. Data on 72 patients (median age 58 years) were analyzed. Forty percent of patients had TP53mut/del CLL and 64% had failed on at least one PI. No primary graft failure occurred. Cumulative incidences of acute GVHD °II-IV and chronic GVHD were 51% and 39%, respectively. Estimates for 2-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and cumulative incidences of relapse/progression (CIR) and non-relapse mortality NRM were 59%, 44%, 25%, and 31%. In univariate analysis, drug sensitivity was a strong risk factor. For patients who had failed neither PI treatment nor chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) the corresponding 2-year estimates were 73%, 65%, 15%, and 20%, respectively. In conclusion, idelalisib may be considered as an option for bridging therapy prior to alloHCT. Owing to the high risk for acute GVHD intensified clinical monitoring is warranted.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33046830

RESUMO

Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is curative for a proportion of patients with relapsed/refractory (R/R) Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). However, there is a small group of patients with high-risk of relapse after ASCT that might benefit from other approaches. We conducted a retrospective analysis on 126 patients treated with tandem ASCT-reduced intensity conditioning (RIC)-allogeneic-SCT and reported to the EBMT registry to analyze the efficacy and safety of this approach. Patients were included if they had received an ASCT followed by a planned RIC-SCT in <6 months without relapse between the procedures. The median time between diagnosis and ASCT was 16 months (2-174). The median number of lines prior to ASCT was two (33% of the patients received >3 lines). Forty-one percent were transplanted with active disease. The median follow-up was 44 months (6-130). Three-year-progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), incidence of relapse (IR), and non-relapse mortality (NRM) after the tandem were 53% (45-64), 73% (65-81), 34% (24-42), and 13% (8-21), respectively. This is the largest series analyzing the efficacy and safety of a tandem approach in R/R HL. The low NRM and IR with promising PFS and OS suggest that this might be an effective procedure for a high-risk population.

15.
Vox Sang ; 2020 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Practices in end-of-life platelet transfusions in haematologic malignancies are variable. Our aim was to describe the platelet transfusion burden and parameters linked to this indication in such a setting and thereby contribute to defining optimal practices. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From July 2015 to December 2016, all consecutive deceased adult patients with a haematologic malignancy receiving a platelet transfusion in the last 6 months of their life from the Etablissement Français du Sang Bourgogne Franche-Comté were included retrospectively. The outcome criteria were changes in the number of platelet transfusions, percent platelet recovery, platelet transfusion interval, reported bleeding with its grade and recipient adverse events in the last 6 months of life. RESULTS: Among the 1125 patients monitored, 119 were included in our study. Bleeding prophylaxis (versus treatment) was the reason for 55% of transfusions. 18% of platelet concentrates (n = 1999) were transfused during the last two weeks of life. As death approached, the transfusion and haemorrhage burden increased (P < 0·0001 in both cases), whereas platelet recovery and transfusion interval decreased (P = 0·02 in both cases). Recipient adverse events were rare (0·6%) and of minor severity. CONCLUSION: In end-of-life transfused patients with haematologic malignancies, approaching death is associated with an increased number of platelet transfusions and bleeding events, while platelet recovery and transfusion intervals are reduced. Such findings, together with further evaluations, may contribute to informing best practices for these patients.

17.
J Biol Inorg Chem ; 25(6): 875-885, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719971

RESUMO

L-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate magnesium (APMg) salt is a vitamin C derivative frequently used as a raw material in cell and tissue therapy. APMg is not only used as a replacement of the unstable ascorbate, but also shows additional cell-biological functionalities. However, its unknown structural characteristics hamper the mechanistic elucidation of its biological role. Therefore, different techniques were applied for APMg structure characterization. Firstly, the stoichiometric composition was characterized by its solvent, ligand and magnesium content. No crystals of APMg could be obtained; however, a single crystal of APNa, the sodium salt of l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate, was successfully obtained and its crystal structure was elucidated. FT-IR was applied to further clarify the structure of solid APMg. Finally, the structure of APMg in aqueous solution was explored by potentiometric titration as well as FT-IR.

18.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630482

RESUMO

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a rare autoimmune disease due to autoantibodies targeting platelet glycoproteins (GP). The mechanism of platelet destruction could differ depending on the specificity of antiplatelet antibodies: anti-GPIIb/IIIa antibodies lead to phagocytosis by splenic macrophages, in a Fcγ receptor (FcγR)-dependent manner while anti-GPIb/IX antibodies induce platelet desialylation leading to their destruction by hepatocytes after binding to the Ashwell-Morell receptor, in a FcγR-independent manner. Considering the FcγR-dependent mechanism of action of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg), we assumed that the response to IVIg could be less efficient in the presence of anti-GPIb/IX antibodies. We conducted a multicentric, retrospective study including all adult ITP patients treated with IVIg who had antiplatelet antibodies detected between January 2013 and October 2017. Among the 609 identified, 69 patients were included: 17 had anti-GPIb/IX antibodies and 33 had anti-GPIIb/IIIa antibodies. The response to IVIg was not different between the patients with or without anti-GPIb/IX (88.2% vs. 73.1%). The response to IVIg was better in the case of newly diagnosed ITP (odds ratio (OR) = 5.4 (1.2-24.7)) and in presence of anti-GPIIb/IIIa (OR = 4.82 (1.08-21.5)), while secondary ITP had a poor response (OR = 0.1 (0.02-0.64)). In clinical practice, the determination of antiplatelet antibodies is therefore of little value to predict the response to IVIg.

19.
J Hematol Oncol ; 13(1): 87, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major contributor to mortality and morbidity after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The updated recommendations suggest that rabbit antithymocyte globulin or anti-T-lymphocyte globulin (ATG) should be used for GVHD prophylaxis in patients undergoing matched-unrelated donor (MUD) allo-HSCT. More recently, using post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCY) in the haploidentical setting has resulted in low incidences of both acute (aGVHD) and chronic GVHD (cGVHD). Therefore, the aim of our study was to compare GVHD prophylaxis using either PTCY or ATG in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who underwent allo-HSCT in first remission (CR1) from a 10/10 HLA-MUD. METHODS: Overall, 174 and 1452 patients from the EBMT registry receiving PTCY and ATG were included. Cumulative incidence of aGVHD and cGVHD, leukemia-free survival, overall survival, non-relapse mortality, cumulative incidence of relapse, and refined GVHD-free, relapse-free survival were compared between the 2 groups. Propensity score matching was also performed in order to confirm the results of the main analysis RESULTS: No statistical difference between the PTCY and ATG groups was observed for the incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD. The same held true for the incidence of cGVHD and for extensive cGVHD. In univariate and multivariate analyses, no statistical differences were observed for all other transplant outcomes. These results were also confirmed using matched-pair analysis. CONCLUSION: These results highlight that, in the10/10 HLA-MUD setting, the use of PTCY for GVHD prophylaxis may provide similar outcomes to those obtained with ATG in patients with AML in CR1.

20.
Harm Reduct J ; 17(1): 52, 2020 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few data on motivations for using new psychoactive substances (NPS) are available. However, the cost, the legal status, and their accessibility through channels like internet contributed to the popularity of NPS. The objective of this article are first to gain a deeper understanding of the culture surrounding NPS in Belgium and second to define the awareness of the users concerning the content of the NPS they are consuming. METHODS: Snowball sampling and partners in the drug demand reduction field were used as a gateway in order to reach a heterogeneous study population. In total, 45 users were recruited and in-depth interviews were conducted. The personal experiences of NPS users and their needs for support along the continuum of care were explored through an interview guideline, while subjects were given the opportunity to deposit a NPS sample for forensic analysis in a recognized laboratory. RESULTS: A diversity of profiles was found among NPS users but also a wide diversity in the motives to consume NPS: personal reasons such as pleasure, mind exploration, being connected to others, or out of curiosity, but also external reasons such as price, accessibility or the specific effects procured by certain NPS. The results showed as well that a majority of NPS users seem to be aware of the substances they are using. CONCLUSION: Understanding the motivations of use is of importance to determine which type of NPS targeted interventions are adapted to different profiles of users.

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