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1.
Am J Med ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33359271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of loop diuretics on clinical outcomes in heart failure has not been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. In hospitalized patients with heart failure, a discharge loop diuretic prescription has been shown to be associated with improved 30-day outcomes, which appears to be more pronounced in subgroups with congestion. In the current study, we examined these associations and association modifications during longer follow-up. METHODS: We assembled a propensity score-matched cohort of 2191 pairs of hospitalized heart failure patients discharged with, vs without, a prescription for loop diuretics, balanced on 74 baseline characteristics (mean age 78 years; 54% women; 11% African American). RESULTS: Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for 6-year combined endpoint of heart failure readmission or all-cause mortality was 1.02 (0.96-1.09). HRs and 95% CIs for this combined endpoint in patients with no, mild-to-moderate, and severe pulmonary rales were 1.19 (1.07-1.33), 0.95 (0.86-1.04), and 0.77 (0.63-0.94), respectively (P for interaction, < .001). Respective HRs (95% CIs) for no, mild-to-moderate, and severe lower extremity edema were 1.16 (1.06-1.28), 0.94 (0.85-1.04), and 0.71 (0.56-0.89; interaction P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The association between a discharge loop diuretic prescription and long-term clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with heart failure is modified by admission congestion with worse, neutral, and better outcomes in patients with no, mild-to-moderate, and severe congestion, respectively. If these findings can be replicated, congestion may be used to risk-stratify patients with heart failure for potential optimization of loop diuretic prescription and outcomes.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369719

RESUMO

Hyperuricemia and gout have been linked to an increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease, stroke, hypertension, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease, possibly through a proinflammatory milieu. However, not all the drugs used in gout treatment improve CV outcomes; colchicine has shown improved CV outcomes in patients with recent myocardial infarction and stable coronary artery disease independent of lipid-lowering effects. There is resurging interest in colchicine following publication of the COLCOT, LoDoCo, LoDoCo2, LoDoCo-MI trials, and COLCORONA trial which will shed light on its utility in COVID-19. Our aim is to review the CV use of colchicine beyond pericardial diseases, as well as CV outcomes of the available gout therapies, including allopurinol and febuxostat. The CARES trial and its surrounding controversies, which lead to the US FDA 'black box' warning on febuxostat, in addition to the recent FAST trial which contradicts this and finds febuxostat to be non-inferior, are discussed in this paper.

3.
Am J Med ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: New hypertension and heart failure guidelines recommend that systolic blood pressure (SBP) in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and hypertension be lowered to <130 mm Hg. METHODS: Of the 6778 hospitalized patients with HFpEF and a history of hypertension in the Medicare-linked OPTIMIZE-HF registry, 3111 had a discharge SBP <130 mm Hg. Using propensity scores for SBP <130 mm Hg, we assembled a matched cohort of 1979 pairs with SBP <130 versus ≥130 mm Hg, balanced on 66 baseline characteristics (mean age, 79 years; 69% women; 12% African American). We then assembled a second matched cohort of 1326 pairs with SBP <120 versus ≥130 mm Hg. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes associated with SBP <130 and <120 mm Hg were separately estimated in the matched cohorts using SBP ≥130 mm Hg as the reference. RESULTS: HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day, 12-month, and 6-year all-cause mortality associated with SBP <130 mm Hg were 1.20 (0.91-1.59; P = 0.200), 1.11 (0.99-1.26; P = 0.080), and 1.05 (0.98-1.14; P = 0.186), respectively. Respective HRs (95% CIs) associated with SBP <120 mm Hg were 1.68 (1.21-2.34; P = 0.002), 1.28 (1.11-1.48; P = 0.001), and 1.11 (1.02-1.22; P = 0.022). There was no association with readmission. CONCLUSIONS: Among older patients with HFpEF and hypertension, compared with SBP ≥130 mm Hg, the new target SBP <130 mm Hg had no association with outcomes but SBP <120 mm Hg was associated with a higher risk of death but not of readmission. Future prospective studies need to evaluate optimal SBP treatment goals in these patients.

4.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 13(11): e006378, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981337

RESUMO

Implementation of prevention policies has often been impeded or delayed due to the lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with hard clinical outcomes (eg, incident disease, mortality). Despite the prominent role of RCTs in health care, it may not always be feasible to conduct RCTs of public health interventions with hard outcomes due to logistical and ethical considerations. RCTs may also lack external validity and have limited generalizability. Currently, there is insufficient guidance for policymakers charged with establishing evidence-based policy to determine whether an RCT with hard outcomes is needed before policy recommendations. In this context, the purpose of this article is to assess, in a case study, the feasibility of conducting an RCT of the oft-cited issue of sodium reduction on cardiovascular outcomes and then propose a framework for decision-making, which includes an assessment of the feasibility of conducting an RCT with hard clinical outcomes when such trials are unavailable. We designed and assessed the feasibility of potential individual- and cluster-randomized trials of sodium reduction on cardiovascular outcomes. Based on our assumptions, a trial using any of the designs considered would require tens of thousands of participants and cost hundreds of millions of dollars, which is prohibitively expensive. Our estimates may be conservative given several key challenges, such as the unknown costs of sustaining a long-term difference in sodium intake, the effect of differential cotreatment with antihypertensive medications, and long lag time to clinical outcomes. Thus, it would be extraordinarily difficult to conduct such a trial, and despite the high costs, would still be at substantial risk for a spuriously null result. A robust framework, such as the one we developed, should be used to guide policymakers when establishing evidence-based public health interventions in the absence of trials with hard clinical outcomes.

5.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785614

RESUMO

Importance: The PCSK9 inhibitor evolocumab reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular events in the FOURIER randomized clinical trial. Patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are at increased cardiovascular risk. Objective: To investigate outcomes with evolocumab in patients with and without MetS. Design, Setting, and Participants: The FOURIER trial randomized patients worldwide with stable atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease receiving statin to evolocumab vs placebo with follow-up for a median of 2.2 years. Data were collected February 2013 to November 2016. For this prespecified analysis, patients with the requisite data were stratified based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III MetS criteria; in secondary analyses, patients were further substratified by diabetes at baseline. Analysis was intention to treat. Analysis began March 2018 and ended April 2020. Interventions: Patients were randomized to evolocumab or placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina, or coronary revascularization. The key secondary end point was cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. Results: Of 27 342 patients (mean [SD] age, 63 [9] years; 20 623 men [75.4%]) included in this analysis, 16 361 (59.8%) with baseline MetS were, when compared with patients without MetS, at higher risk of cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratio [95% CI], 1.31 [1.18-1.46]; P < .001 for the primary and 1.38 [1.20-1.57]; P < .001 for the key secondary end point). Evolocumab reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol similarly in patients with MetS (median [interquartile range], 92 [79-109] mg/dL vs 30 [19-48] mg/dL; P < .001) and without MetS (median [interquartile range], 92 [81-108] mg/dL vs 29 [18-44] mg/dl; P < .001). For the primary end point, the hazard ratios (95% CI) with evolocumab vs placebo were 0.83 (0.76-0.91) and 0.89 (0.79-1.01) in patients with and without MetS (P for interaction = .39). For the key secondary end point, the corresponding hazard ratios (95% CIs) were 0.76 (0.68-0.86) and 0.86 (0.74-1.01) (P for interaction = .23), respectively. Evolocumab did not increase the risk of new-onset diabetes or other major safety outcomes including worsening glycemic control, compared with placebo in patients with MetS. Conclusions and Relevance: Patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and MetS have substantial residual risk of cardiovascular events despite statin therapy. Evolocumab significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and cardiovascular risk in patients with MetS without increasing new-onset diabetes, worsening glycemic control, or other major safety events. These data suggest the addition of evolocumab to statin therapy in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and MetS is safe and efficacious to reduce residual cardiovascular risk. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01764633.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 76(6): 669-679, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a major source of morbidity and mortality. Fluid retention and shortness of breath are its cardinal manifestations for which loop diuretics are used. Although their usefulness is well accepted, less is known about their role in improving clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between loop diuretics and clinical outcomes in patients with HF. METHODS: Of the 25,345 older patients hospitalized for HF in the Medicare-linked OPTIMIZE-HF (Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure) registry, 9,866 (39%) received no pre-admission diuretics. The study excluded 1,083 patients receiving dialysis and 847 discharged on thiazide diuretics. Of the remaining 7,936 patients, 5,568 (70%) were prescribed loop diuretics at discharge. Using propensity scores for receipt of loop diuretics estimated for each of the 7,936 patients, a matched cohort of 2,191 pairs of patients was assembled balanced on 74 baseline characteristics. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes were estimated in the matched cohort. RESULTS: Matched patients (n = 4,382) had a mean age of 78 years, 54% were women, and 11% were African American. The 30-day all-cause mortality occurred in 4.9% (107 of 2,191) and 6.6% (144 of 2,191) of patients in the loop diuretic and no loop diuretic groups, respectively (HR when the use of loop diuretics was compared with nonuse: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.94; p = 0.016). Patients in the loop diuretic group had a significantly lower risk of 30-day HF readmission (HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.63 to 0.99; p = 0.037) but not of 30-day all-cause readmission (HR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.01; p = 0.081). None of the associations was statistically significant during 60 days of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized older patients not taking diuretics prior to hospitalization for HF decompensation who received a discharge prescription for loop diuretics had significantly better 30-day clinical outcomes than those not discharged on loop diuretics. These findings provide new information about short-term clinical benefits associated with loop diuretic use in HF.

7.
Am J Med ; 133(12): 1460-1470, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Digoxin reduces the risk of heart failure hospitalization but has no effect on mortality in patients with heart failure without atrial fibrillation in the randomized controlled trial setting. Observational studies of digoxin use in patients with atrial fibrillation have suggested a higher risk for poor outcomes. Less is known about this association in patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation, the examination of which was the objective of the current study. METHODS: We conducted an observational propensity score-matched study of predischarge digoxin initiation in 1768 hospitalized patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation in the Medicare-linked Organized Program to Initiate Lifesaving Treatment in Hospitalized Patients with Heart Failure (OPTIMIZE-HF) registry, balanced on 56 baseline characteristics (mean age, 79 years; 55% women; 7% African American). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes were estimated for the 884 patients initiated on digoxin compared with 884 not initiated on digoxin. RESULTS: HRs (95% CIs) for 30-day, 2-year, and 4-year all-cause mortality were 0.80 (0.55-1.18; P = .261), 0.94 (0.87-1.16; P = .936), and 1.01 (0.90-1.14; P = .729), respectively. Respective HRs (95% CIs) for heart failure readmission were 0.67 (0.49-0.92; P = .014), 0.81 (0.69-0.94; P = .005), and 0.85 (0.74-0.97; P = .022), and those for all-cause readmission were 0.78 (0.64-0.96; P = .016), 0.90 (0.81-1.00; P = .057), and 0.91 (0.83-1.01; P = .603). These associations were homogeneous between patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤45% vs >45%. CONCLUSIONS: Among hospitalized older patients with heart failure (HFrEF and HFpEF) and atrial fibrillation, initiation of digoxin was associated with a lower risk of heart failure readmission but had no association with mortality.

8.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 63(5): 585-590, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224112

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Depression is a recognized predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF) and is associated with poor quality of life, functional limitation, increased morbidity and mortality, decreased adherence to treatment, and increased rehospitalization. To understand the impact of depression on HF readmission, we conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD) 2010-2014. METHODS: We identified all patients with the primary discharge diagnosis of HF by ICD-9-CM codes. The primary outcome of the study was to identify 30-day all-cause readmission and causes of readmission in patients with and without depression. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratio for the primary and secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Among, 3,500,570 patients admitted with HF, 9.7% had concomitant depression. Patients with depression were more likely to be readmitted within 30 days (19.7% vs. 18.5%; P < 0.001). Concomitant depression was associated with higher risk of all-cause readmissions within 30 days and 90 days [P < 0.001] but was not associated with increased readmissions due to cardiovascular (CV) cause at 30 days and 90 days. The hazard of psychiatric causes of readmission was higher in patients with depression, both at 30 days [P < 0.001], and 90 days [P < 0.001]. Most of the readmissions were due to CV causes, with HF being the most common cause. CONCLUSION: Among patients hospitalized with HF, the presence of depression is associated with increased all-cause readmission driven mainly by psychiatric causes but not CV-related readmission. Standard interventions targeted toward HF are unlikely to modify this portion of all-cause readmission.

9.
Circulation ; 141(19): e779-e806, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279539

RESUMO

Although cardiologists have long treated patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and concomitant type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), T2DM has traditionally been considered just a comorbidity that affected the development and progression of the disease. Over the past decade, a number of factors have shifted that have forced the cardiology community to reconsider the role of T2DM in CAD. First, in addition to being associated with increased cardiovascular risk, T2DM has the potential to affect a number of treatment choices for CAD. In this document, we discuss the role that T2DM has in the selection of testing for CAD, in medical management (both secondary prevention strategies and treatment of stable angina), and in the selection of revascularization strategy. Second, although glycemic control has been recommended as a part of comprehensive risk factor management in patients with CAD, there is mounting evidence that the mechanism by which glucose is managed can have a substantial impact on cardiovascular outcomes. In this document, we discuss the role of glycemic management (both in intensity of control and choice of medications) in cardiovascular outcomes. It is becoming clear that the cardiologist needs both to consider T2DM in cardiovascular treatment decisions and potentially to help guide the selection of glucose-lowering medications. Our statement provides a comprehensive summary of effective, patient-centered management of CAD in patients with T2DM, with emphasis on the emerging evidence. Given the increasing prevalence of T2DM and the accumulating evidence of the need to consider T2DM in treatment decisions, this knowledge will become ever more important to optimize our patients' cardiovascular outcomes.

10.
Am J Cardiovasc Drugs ; 20(6): 517-524, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157567

RESUMO

The health benefit of fish oil, i.e. omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3 FA) has a long history of debate. While there are a number of medications to reduce serum triglyceride levels, none have shown unanimous cardiovascular (CV) benefits. The most recent Reduction of Cardiovascular Events with Icosapent Ethyl-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) assessing the CV outcome of one highly purified prescription ω-3 FA has certainly rejuvenated the debate. While this trial has been regarded as one of the most important landmark trials in preventive cardiology, the tolerability issue in a very high dose (4 g/day, as administered in the trial) is still a matter of concern. This article summarizes the current status and future perspective of icosapent ethyl in clinical practice in light of REDUCE-IT.

11.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; : 100553, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32222319

RESUMO

Primary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD) is an important means to reduce the burden of the disease. Aspirin has been widely prescribed over the last several decades as part of primary CAD prevention strategy. However, 3 recent hallmark trials - ARRIVE, ASCEND and ASPREE have raised serious questions about this common practice. Although, aspirin reduced incidence of non-fatal MI and stroke in these recent studies, bleeding risk was higher. In the present era, where regular exercise, healthy diet, smoking cessation, and statins are used to manage the risk factors of CAD, additional prescription of aspirin seems more harmful than beneficial. The guidelines of major societies such as European Society of Cardiology (ESC), American College of Cardiology (ACC), and American Heart Association (AHA) also reflect this shift. In this article, the authors aim to highlight the current evidence on aspirin use for primary prevention of CAD, in the context of evolving contrasting clinical trial data from the last 2 decades. We also highlight the pertinent sections of the most recent clinical guidelines of European Society of Cardiology, American College of Cardiology, and American Heart Association in this article.

12.
Minerva Endocrinol ; 45(1): 49-60, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347343

RESUMO

Insulin, either in its intravenous or subcutaneous forms, remains the standard therapy for virtually all type-1 diabetes and many of the type-2 diabetes patients in its advanced stages. With advancement of injection techniques, insulin therapy has become much more patient-friendly than ever. Still there is vast area of unmet needs regarding current practice of insulin therapy. Insulin injections are associated with poor compliance, weight gain, fears of hypoglycemia and adverse effects of systemic hyperinsulinemia. So, a search for oral insulin tablet which may closely mimic the physiological insulin secretions has always been there. This review intends to briefly describe the existing barriers of oral insulin delivery and strategies to overcome those. It also highlights the recent human studies and tries to find out the future of oral insulin in clinical context.

13.
Indian Heart J ; 71(4): 309-313, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779858

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. There is limited data on hypertension prevalence in India. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of hypertension among Indian adults. METHODS: A national level survey was conducted with fixed one-day blood pressure measurement camps across 24 states and union territories of India. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) ≥140 mmHg or a diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg or on treatment for hypertension. The prevalence was age- and gender-standardized according to the 2011 census population of India. RESULTS: Blood pressure was recorded for 180,335 participants (33.2% women; mean age 40.6 ± 14.9 years). Among them, 8,898 (4.9%), 99,791 (55.3%), 35,694 (11.9%), 23,084 (12.8%), 9,989 (5.5%), and 2,878 (1.6%) participants were of the age group 18-19, 20-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74, and ≥ 75 years, respectively. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 30.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 30.5, 30.9) and the prevalence among women was 23.7% (95% CI: 23.3, 24). Prevalence adjusted for 2011 census population and the WHO reference population was 29.7% and 32.8%, respectively. CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of hypertension, with almost one in every three Indian adult affected.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
14.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(11): 1790-1796, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627834

RESUMO

Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) receptors are primarily located in the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron. These receptors are responsible for almost 90% to 95% of tubular reabsorption of the glucose in the nephron. In patients with diabetes mellitus, due to upregulation of SGLT2 receptors, glucose reabsorption is further increased. The Food and Drug Administration approved SGLT2 inhibitors, such as canagliflozin, empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and ertugliflozin, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In addition to their positive effect on blood glucose, additional cardioprotective and renoprotective functions have been demonstrated in major trials such as EMPA-REG OUTCOME, CANVAS, DECLARE-TIMI-58, and CREDENCE. Unlike other antihyperglycemic drugs, reduction in hospitalization for heart failure (HF) was also seen as a class effect with this group, mechanisms of which are probably multifactorial. Subgroup analysis from these major trials indicated a reduction in progression of nephropathy and HF readmission with SGLT2 inhibitors. Although this unique property of canagliflozin was further analyzed in the CREDENCE trial, similar trials for empagliflozin (EMPERIAL-Reduced and EMPERIAL-Preserved) and dapagliflozin (DAPA-HF) are currently underway. Recently released phase III results from DAPA-HF trial indicate that dapagliflozin shows significant reduction in death due to cardiovascular causes and hospitalization in HF compared with the placebo, in both diabetics and nondiabetics. In this review article, the authors attempt to explore the possible underlying molecular mechanisms and data from existing trials pertaining to the HF related outcomes associated with SGLT2 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco
16.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; : 100455, 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526517

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory condition. Chronic inflammation is associated with atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic kidney disease. But sparse data are available regarding the trends of cardiovascular diseases and complications in RA. We conducted a National Inpatient Sample database analysis to demonstrate the trends of cardiac complications in patients with RA. METHODS: We used National Inpatient Sample data from 2005 to 2014 to identify admissions with the diagnosis of RA and identified who had associated cardiovascular complications also. The International Classification of Diseases-9th Revision-Clinical Modification codes were used for the diagnoses of RA; congestive heart failure (CHF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and atrial fibrillation (AF). RESULTS: A statistically significant increasing trend of AMI, CHF, and AF was found. Independent predictors of mortality in RA patients with AMI were age (OR 1.03, CI 1.02-1.04; P < 0.001), COPD (OR 1.67, CI 1.40-2.00; P < 0.001), cerebrovascular disease (OR 2.207, CI 1.71-2.86; P < 0.001), renal disease (OR 1.42, CI 1.16-1.75; P = 0.001), and alcohol abuse (OR 2.73, CI 1.73-4.32; P < 0.001). Independent predictors of mortality in RA patients with CHF were age (odds ratio [OR] 1.02, confidence interval [CI] 1.017-1.024; P < 0.001]), COPD (OR 1.09, CI 1.01-1.18; P = 0.023), cerebrovascular disease (OR 1.67, CI 1.44-1.95; P < 0.001), renal disease (OR 1.16, CI 1.07-1.27; P = 0.001). Independent predictors of mortality in RA patients with AF were age (OR 1.02, CI 1.02-1.03; P < 0.001), race (OR 1.16, CI 1.02-1.31; P = 0.022), COPD (OR 1.56, CI 1.42-1.71; P < 0.001), peripheral arterial disease (OR 1.34, CI 1.16-1.53; P < 0.001), cerebrovascular disease (OR 2.27, CI 1.0-2.58; P < 0.001), renal disease (OR 1.60, CI 1.44-1.80; P < 0.001). The mortality trend has increased significantly in the CHF (P = 0.025) and AF (P = 0.042) groups during this study period. CONCLUSIONS: We have found a significant increase in trend of cardiovascular complications in RA patients. The proportion of patients, with cardiovascular comorbidities, have also been increased significantly.

17.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 62(4): 342-348, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442511

RESUMO

Concerns of elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk with some anti-diabetic medications warranted phase 4 clinical trials to demonstrate CVD safety of newly marketed anti-diabetic drugs. Although initially designed to evaluate safety, some of these CVD outcome trials (CVOTs) have in fact shown CVD benefits. New medication classes, like glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogues and sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, have shown reductions in the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including, myocardial infarction, stroke, CV death, and heart failure (HF). Perhaps more importantly, SGLT2 inhibitors demonstrated reduction in the risk of HF hospitalizations, being the first class of anti-diabetic drugs to do so. Conversely, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors did not significantly affect atherosclerotic CVD end-points and some actually increased the risk of HF hospitalizations. Further, the adverse/beneficial CVD effects of these medications may not be class specific. This review focuses on the main results of these CVOTs while highlighting the heterogeneity of CVD end-points within each class and discusses important mechanistic insights and adverse effect profiles.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Dipeptidil Peptidase IV/uso terapêutico , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/administração & dosagem , Segurança do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase IV como Assunto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/administração & dosagem
18.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis ; 62(4): 334-341, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442512

RESUMO

Hyperlipidemia plays a crucial role in the underlying pathogenesis of multiple cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including coronary artery disease, peripheral arterial disease, carotid stenosis, and heart failure. The risk of developing such diseases in the diabetic population is relatively high. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk factor for premature atherosclerosis. The hallmark of DM dyslipidemia is a demonstrably high level of atherogenic triglyceride rich lipids including very low-density lipoprotein, chylomicrons, and small dense low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Moderate to high intensity statins, targeting LDL cholesterol reduction, remain the cornerstone in the management of this unique disorder. Many 'non-statin' drugs have recently been studied in the DM patients who were either on a 'maximally tolerated statin' or 'statin intolerant'. Ezetimibe and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors are particularly important and were incorporated in the recent guidelines by the European Society of Cardiology, American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association, and American Diabetes Association. Icosapent Ethyl has garnered huge interest this year following publication of the REDUCE-IT trial. There are several newer hypolipidemic drugs, including Bempedoic acid, Inclisiran and RVX-208, that are in different phases of clinical trials. In this article, we review the underlying pathophysiology of DM dyslipidemia, existing guidelines related to its management, and the potential of newer hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory drugs being incorporated in the management of DM.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hipolipemiantes/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Anticolesterolemiantes/farmacologia , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Dislipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Hiperlipidemias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Clin Lipidol ; 13(4): 586-593.e5, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Differences in lipid and cardiovascular risk profiles have been observed in African-American/black (AA/B), white (W), and Hispanic/Latino (H/L) individuals. Efficacy and safety of alirocumab, a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor, may vary by race and ethnicity and has not been analyzed. OBJECTIVE: This post hoc analysis evaluated alirocumab efficacy and safety vs control in 3 pooled ODYSSEY phase 3 trials (COMBO I, COMBO II, and LONG TERM) by race (AA/B [n = 154] vs W [n = 1982]) and ethnicity (H/L [n = 174] vs non-H/L [n = 3149]). METHODS: Patients with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) despite maximally tolerated statin received alirocumab (75 mg up to 150 mg every 2 weeks [COMBO I & II] or 150 mg every 2 weeks [LONG TERM]) or control (placebo [COMBO I and LONG TERM] or ezetimibe [COMBO II]). RESULTS: At baseline, LDL-C levels were similar across treatment groups; median lipoprotein(a) levels were higher in AA/B (33.0-120.0 mg/dL) vs W (7.1-66.3 mg/dL) and lower in H/L (5.0-38.3 mg/dL) vs non-H/L (7.7-69.0 mg/dL). At week 24, alirocumab significantly reduced LDL-C vs control. Alirocumab also reduced lipoprotein(a) compared with control across the subgroups. Treatment-emergent adverse events were similar between alirocumab (68.9-85.0%) and control (70.6-82.4%) regardless of race and ethnicity. CONCLUSION: Alirocumab significantly reduced LDL-C and Lp(a) levels compared with control, regardless of race and ethnicity, with overall safety comparable to control across most of the racial and ethnic groups analyzed.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteína(a)/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Efeito Placebo , Resultado do Tratamento
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