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1.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(8): 861-872, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420151

RESUMO

Human health effects of airborne lower-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (LC-PCBs) are largely unexplored. Since PCBs may cross the placenta, maternal exposure could potentially have negative consequences for fetal development. We aimed to determine if exposure to airborne PCB during pregnancy was associated with adverse birth outcomes. In this cohort study, exposed women had lived in PCB contaminated apartments at least one year during the 3.6 years before conception or the entire first trimester of pregnancy. The women and their children were followed for birth outcomes in Danish health registers. Logistic regression was performed to estimate odds ratios (OR) for changes in secondary sex ratio, preterm birth, major congenital malformations, cryptorchidism, and being born small for gestational age. We performed linear regression to estimate difference in birth weight among children of exposed and unexposed mothers. All models were adjusted for maternal age, educational level, ethnicity, and calendar time. We identified 885 exposed pregnancies and 3327 unexposed pregnancies. Relative to unexposed women, exposed women had OR 0.97 (95% CI 0.82, 1.15) for secondary sex ratio, OR 1.13 (95% CI 0.76, 1.67) for preterm birth, OR 1.28 (95% CI 0.81, 2.01) for having a child with major malformations, OR 1.73 (95% CI 1.01, 2.95) for cryptorchidism and OR 1.23 (95% CI 0.88, 1.72) for giving birth to a child born small for gestational age. The difference in birth weight for children of exposed compared to unexposed women was - 32 g (95% CI-79, 14). We observed an increased risk of cryptorchidism among boys after maternal airborne LC-PCB exposure, but due to the proxy measure of exposure, inability to perform dose-response analyses, and the lack of comparable literature, larger cohort studies with direct measures of exposure are needed to investigate the safety of airborne LC-PCB exposure during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Anormalidades Congênitas/etiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Crescimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Bifenilos Policlorados/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Congênitas/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia
2.
J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev ; 23(6): 276-291, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741292

RESUMO

Exposure to environmental pollutants may produce impairment of male reproductive health. The epidemiological literature evaluating potential consequences of human exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has grown in recent years with concerns for both pre- and postnatal influences. The aim of this systematic review was to assess available evidence on associations between PFAS exposures in different stages of life and semen quality, reproductive hormones, cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and testicular cancer. A systematic search of literature published prior to March 9th, 2020, was performed in the databases PubMed and Embase®. Predefined criteria for eligibility were applied by two authors screening study records independently. Among the 242 study records retrieved in the literature search, 26 studies were eligible for qualitative assessment. While several investigations suggested weak associations for single compounds and specific outcomes, a lack of consistency across studies limited conclusions of overall evidence. The current gap in knowledge is particularly obvious regarding exposures prior to adulthood, exposure to combinations of both PFAS and other types of environmental chemicals, and outcomes such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and testicular cancer. Continued efforts to clarify associations between PFAS exposure and male reproductive health through high-quality epidemiological studies are needed.


Assuntos
Criptorquidismo/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Hipospadia/induzido quimicamente , Saúde Reprodutiva , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Testiculares/induzido quimicamente , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino
3.
Fertil Steril ; 114(1): 89-96, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between use of protein supplements (PS) and semen quality among young men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Not applicable PATIENT(S): We used data from the Fetal Programming of Semen Quality (FEPOS) cohort, which is a subsample of 778 men whose mothers enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort 1996-2002. INTERVENTION(S): Semen samples were collected from April 2017 to March 2019. Relative difference in semen characteristics according to self-reported PS use was estimated with negative binomial regression adjusting for lifestyle factors including exercise, body mass index, and use of anabolic steroids, and maternal and paternal factors potentially confounding the association between PS and semen quality. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Negative binomial regression yielded the best fit and was used to estimate the percent difference with 95% confidence intervals in semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, proportions of progressive, nonprogressive, and immotile sperm, and percentage of morphologically normal sperm in former and current users of PS relative to never users. RESULT(S): PS was used currently by 28% and formerly by 24% of participants. PS use was not associated with reduced semen quality in terms of semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, morphology, or motility in either crude or adjusted analyses. CONCLUSION: This study showed no association between use of PS and semen quality characteristics. Still, we encourage others to repeat the study, as even a small harmful effect would have a large impact on the population level because of the widespread use of PS among young men.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Análise do Sêmen , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Voluntários Saudáveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle de Qualidade , Análise do Sêmen/estatística & dados numéricos , Esportes , Adulto Jovem
4.
Psychosom Med ; 82(4): 432-439, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increasing evidence has shown an association between reduced psychological well-being and long-term morbidity. However, longitudinal studies addressing potential biobehavioral mechanisms, such as physiological function, are lacking. The aim of this study is to examine the association between changes in emotional vitality on levels and changes in allostatic load (AL), a measure of multisystem physiological dysregulation, as well as its composite risk markers. METHODS: Participants comprised 5919 British civil servants from phases 3, 5, and 7 of the Whitehall II study. Psychological well-being was operationalized as emotional vitality. AL was measured using nine biomarkers of the cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune system. Linear mixed-effect models were used to determine the association between changes in emotional vitality between phases 3 and 5 and subsequent levels and change in AL from phases 5 to 7. Generalized linear models were used to address the association between changes in emotional vitality and individual risk markers. RESULTS: Increase in emotional vitality was associated with a lower mean level of AL, whereas the AL slope was not markedly affected. Among the included risk markers, only interleukin-6 was weakly associated with changes in emotional vitality, with a 7% reduced risk of high levels of interleukin-6 per one-unit increase in emotional vitality. CONCLUSION: This study found that an increase in emotional vitality was associated with subsequent lower levels, but not rate of change, of AL over time. Further research is needed to address the relationship between trajectories of psychological well-being and physiological dysregulation.


Assuntos
Alostase/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
5.
BMJ Open ; 8(8): e021509, 2018 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121599

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is of increasing concern among breast cancer survivors. However, evidence on ethnic differences in CVD among women with breast cancer is sparse. We assessed ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with breast cancer in the Netherlands. METHODS: A nationwide register-based cohort study comprising all women with a first admission for breast cancer (n=127 714) between 1996 and 2010 in the Netherlands was conducted. Differences in CVD admission, CVD mortality and overall CVD event, which comprised a CVD admission and/or CVD mortality, between the largest ethnic minority groups (Surinamese, Moroccan, Turkish, Antillean and Indonesian) and the Dutch general population (henceforth, Dutch) were investigated using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: The incidence of cardiovascular outcomes varied by the ethnic group. The incidence of an overall cardiovascular event was significantly higher for women with breast cancer from Suriname (HR 1.46; 95% CI 1.29 to 1.64) and Turkey (HR 1.25; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.51), compared with Dutch women with breast cancer. In contrast, Indonesian women with breast cancer had a significantly lower risk (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.81 to 0.96) of a cardiovascular event compared with Dutch women with breast cancer. The risk of a cardiovascular event did not differ between Moroccan and Dutch women with breast cancer, whereas for Antillean women the risk was not significantly higher. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that Surinamese and Turkish women with breast cancer are disadvantaged in terms of cardiovascular outcomes compared with Dutch women with breast cancer. More work is needed to unravel the potential factors contributing to these differences.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros
6.
Infection ; 46(5): 659-667, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29971691

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Migrants represent a considerable proportion of HIV diagnoses in Europe and are considered a group at risk of late presentation. This study examined the incidence of HIV diagnoses and the risk of late presentation according to migrant status, ethnic origin and duration of residence. METHODS: We conducted a historically prospective cohort study comprising all adult migrants to Denmark between 1.1.1993 and 31.12.2010 (n = 114.282), matched 1:6 to Danish born by age and sex. HIV diagnoses were retrieved from the National Surveillance Register and differences in incidence were assessed by Cox regression model. Differences in late presentation were assessed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Both refugees (HR = 5.61; 95% CI 4.45-7.07) and family-reunified immigrants (HR = 10.48; 95% CI 8.88-12.36) had higher incidence of HIV diagnoses compared with Danish born and the incidence remained high over time of residence for both groups. Migrants from all regions, except Western Asia and North Africa, had higher incidence than Danish born. Late presentation was more common among refugees (OR = 1.87; 95% CI 1.07-3.26) and family-reunified immigrants (OR = 2.30; 95% CI 1.49-3.55) compared with Danish born. Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa were the only regions with a higher risk of late presentation. Late presentation was only higher for refugees within 1 year of residence, whereas it remained higher within 10 years of residence for family-reunified immigrants. CONCLUSIONS: This register-based study revealed a higher incidence of HIV diagnoses and late presentation among migrants compared with Danish born and the incidence remained surprisingly high over time.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Refugiados , Adulto , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Sistema de Registros , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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