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1.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(8): 3195-3211, 2021 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351812

RESUMO

Purpose Recent behavioral studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of implementing retrieval practice into learning tasks for children. Such approaches have revealed that repeated spaced retrieval (RSR) is particularly effective in promoting children's learning of word form and meaning information. This study further examines how retrieval practice enhances learning of word meaning information at the behavioral and neural levels. Method Twenty typically developing preschool children were taught novel words using an RSR learning schedule for some words and an immediate retrieval (IR) learning schedule for other words. In addition to the label, children were taught two arbitrary semantic features for each item. Following the teaching phase, children's learning was tested using recall tests. In addition, during the 1-week follow-up, children were presented with pictures and an auditory sentence that correctly labeled the item but stated correct or incorrect semantic information. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were time locked to the onset of the words noting the semantic feature. Children provided verbal judgments of whether the semantic feature was correctly paired with the item. Results Children recalled more labels and semantic features for items that had been taught in the RSR learning schedule relative to the IR learning schedule. ERPs also differentiated the learning schedules. Mismatching label-meaning pairings elicited an N400 and late positive component (LPC) for both learning conditions; however, mismatching RSR pairs elicited an N400 with an earlier onset and an LPC with a longer duration, relative to IR mismatching label-meaning pairings. These ERP timing differences indicated that the children were more efficient in processing words that were taught in the RSR schedule relative to the IR learning schedule. Conclusions Spaced retrieval practice promotes learning of both word form and meaning information. The findings lay the necessary groundwork for better understanding of processing newly learned semantic information in preschool children. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.15063060.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Semântica , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem Verbal
2.
J Neurodev Disord ; 13(1): 20, 2021 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many children with developmental language disorders (DLD) have well-documented weaknesses in vocabulary. In recent years, investigators have explored the nature of these weaknesses through the use of novel word learning paradigms. These studies have begun to uncover specific areas of difficulty and have provided hints about possible intervention strategies that might help these children learn words more accurately and efficiently. Among the studies of this type are those that incorporate repeated spaced retrieval activities in the learning procedures. METHODS: In this study, we examined the data from four of these studies that employed the same types of participants (4- and 5-year-old children with DLD and same-age children with typical language development), research design, and outcome measures. The studies differed primarily in the type of learning condition that was being compared to a spaced retrieval condition. A mixed-effects modeling framework was used, enabling the data from the four studies and different outcome measures to be aggregated. RESULTS: Across the studies, more words in the repeated spaced retrieval condition were recalled than those in the comparison conditions. This was true regardless of outcome measure. Children with typical language development recalled more words than the children with DLD. Both groups benefited from spaced retrieval, though effects were larger for the group with DLD. Children recalled words as accurately 1 week after learning as they did at the 5-min mark; the two groups were essentially identical in this respect. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings support the continued refinement of these types of repeated spaced retrieval procedures, as they may have potential to serve as effective approaches to intervention.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Aprendizagem Verbal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Rememoração Mental , Vocabulário
3.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 64(2): 542-560, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561369

RESUMO

Purpose Recent findings in preschool children indicated novel adjective recall was enhanced when learned using repeated retrieval with contextual reinstatement (RRCR) compared to repeated study (RS). Recall was similar for learned pictures used during training and new (generalized) pictures with the same adjective features. The current study compared the effects of learning method and learned/generalized pictures on the neural processes mediating the recognition of novel adjectives. Method Twenty typically developing children aged 4;6-5;11 (years;months) learned four novel adjectives, two using RRCR and two using RS. Five-minute and 1-week tests assessed adjective recall using learned and generalized pictures. Also, at the 1-week visit, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to assess children's processing of learned/generalized pictures, followed by naturally spoken novel adjectives in a match-mismatch paradigm. Results Naming recall and match-mismatch judgment accuracy were similar for the RS and RRCR conditions and across learned/generalized pictures. However, ERPs revealed more reliable condition effects in the phonological mapping negativity, indexing phonological expectations, and the late positive component, indexing semantic reanalysis, for the adjectives learned in the RRCR relative to the RS condition. Unfamiliar pictures (generalized) elicited larger amplitude N300 and N400 components relative to learned pictures. Conclusions Although behavioral accuracy measures suggest similar effects of the RS and RRCR learning conditions, subtle differences in the ERPs underlying novel adjective processing indicate advantages of RRCR for phonological processing and semantic reanalysis. While children readily generalized the novel adjectives, ERPs revealed greater cognitive resources for processing unfamiliar compared to learned pictures of the novel adjective characteristics. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.13683214.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Encéfalo , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Semântica
4.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 63(10): 3252-3262, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064601

RESUMO

Purpose In this article, we review the role of retrieval practice on the word learning and retention of children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method Following a brief review of earlier findings on word learning in children with SLI and the assumptions behind retrieval practice, four experiments are described that compared novel words learned in a repeated spaced retrieval condition and those learned in either a repeated study condition or a repeated immediate retrieval condition. Preschool-age children with SLI and their same-age peers with typical language development were the participants in all experiments. The effects of repeated spaced retrieval were assessed through measures of recall of word form and meaning and, receptively, through both picture-pointing and electrophysiological measures. Results Repeated spaced retrieval resulted in greater recall of word form and meaning across the experiments. This advantage was seen not only for word-picture pairs used during the learning period but also when generalization of the word to new pictures was required. Receptive testing through picture pointing showed similar results, though in some experiments, ceiling effects rendered this measure less sensitive to differences. An alternative receptive measure-the N400 elicited during picture-word mismatches-showed evidence at the neural level favoring repeated spaced retrieval. The advantages of repeated spaced retrieval were seen in both children with SLI and their typically developing age mates. Conclusion Future efforts are warranted to refine and extend the experiments reviewed here. If these efforts prove successful, procedures that incorporate repeated spaced retrieval into more naturalistic clinical and educational activities might be an appropriate next step. Presentation Video https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.13063730.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Transtorno Específico de Linguagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Aprendizagem Verbal
5.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 63(8): 2763-2776, 2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692599

RESUMO

Purpose Children with developmental language disorder (DLD) often have difficulty with word learning. Recent studies have shown that incorporating retrieval practice provides a significant benefit to this learning. However, we have not yet discovered the best balance between the amount of retrieval and the amount of study (hearing the word in the presence of the referent) that is provided. In this investigation, we compared a word learning procedure using more retrieval and less study with a procedure that used more study and less retrieval. Method Participants were 13 children with DLD and 13 same-age peers with typical language development (TD). Both groups ranged in age from 4 to 6 years. The children learned two sets of novel words, with each set taught in two sessions. During an initial criterion period, the children had the opportunity to retrieve all of the words. Following this period, the words were either retrieved without further study or studied without additional retrieval. Recall and recognition testing immediately followed the second learning session and was repeated 1 week later. Testing assessed the children's retention of both the word forms and their meanings. Results Better recall both immediately after learning and after 1 week was seen for the more retrieval/less study condition. This was seen for both groups of children for word form recall and for children with DLD for meaning. Group differences were not found. Conclusion This study served as a stringent test of the benefits of retrieval to children's word learning. Continued retrieval after initial retrieval practice appeared to be helpful even when further study was discontinued and when the comparison study condition had also provided retrieval practice in the initial stages. Further refinement of retrieval procedures might lead to the development of useful clinical tools to promote word learning.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Rememoração Mental , Aprendizagem Verbal
6.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(12): 4433-4449, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805241

RESUMO

Purpose There are strong retention benefits when learners frequently test themselves during the learning period. This practice of repeated retrieval has recently been applied successfully to children's word learning. In this study, we apply a repeated retrieval procedure to the learning of novel adjectives by preschool-age children with developmental language disorder (DLD) and their typically developing (TD) peers. We ask whether the benefits of retrieval extend to children's ability to apply the novel adjectives to newly introduced objects sharing the same characteristics as the objects used during the learning period. Method Fourteen children with DLD (M age = 62.64 months) and 13 TD children (M = 62.54 months) learned novel adjectives in 2 sessions. For each child, half of the adjectives were learned in a repeated spaced retrieval condition, and half were learned in a repeated study-only condition. Recall was assessed immediately after the second learning session and 1 week later. A recognition test was also administered at the 1-week mark. Results On the recall tests, for both groups of children, recall was better for adjectives learned in the repeated spaced retrieval condition. Adjectives learned by the 2nd day were retained 1 week later. Every adjective correctly applied to an object used during the learning period was also extended accurately to new objects with the same characteristics. On these recall tests, the children with DLD did not differ from the TD group in the number of items recalled, though their phonetic accuracy was lower. On the recognition test, the DLD group showed greater accuracy for adjectives that had been learned in the repeated spaced retrieval condition than for those learned in the repeated study condition, whereas the TD group performed at high levels in both conditions. Conclusion Repeated spaced retrieval appears to provide an effective boost to word learning. Because its benefits are seen even when a word must be extended to new objects, the application of this procedure seems well suited for learning new language material rather than being limited to item-specific memorization.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Fonética , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia
7.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(4): 932-943, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986142

RESUMO

Purpose Scholars have long noted that retention improves significantly when learners frequently test themselves on the new material rather than engage in continuous study with no intermittent testing. In this study, we apply the notion of repeated testing or retrieval to the process of word learning in preschool-age children with and without developmental language disorder (DLD). Method Novel words and their meanings were taught to 10 children with DLD and 10 typically developing (TD) children matched on age (DLD, M = 63.4 months; TD, M = 63.2 months). Recall was assessed immediately after the 2nd learning session and then again 1 week later. Results Both groups showed better retention when they had attempted to retrieve the words during the learning period than when they had simply listened to and studied the words paired with their referents. Relative to their TD peers, the children with DLD seemed to be weaker in their encoding, but these children's retention over a 1-week period was indistinguishable from that of their age mates. Conclusion Word learning activities that include opportunities for repeated retrieval appear to significantly benefit retention relative to more traditional word learning activities. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.7927046.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino
8.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 62(4): 944-964, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986145

RESUMO

Purpose Retrieval practice has been found to be a powerful strategy to enhance long-term retention of new information; however, the utility of retrieval practice when teaching young children new words is largely unknown, and even less is known for young children with language impairments. The current study examined the effect of 2 different retrieval schedules on word learning at both the behavioral and neural levels. Method Participants included 16 typically developing children ( M TD = 61.58 months) and 16 children with developmental language disorder ( M DLD = 59.60 months). Children participated in novel word learning sessions in which the spacing of retrieval practice was manipulated: Some words were retrieved only after other words had been presented (i.e., repeated retrieval that required contextual reinstatement [RRCR]); others were taught using an immediate retrieval schedule. In Experiment 1, children's recall of the novel word labels and their meanings was tested after a 5-min delay and a 1-week delay. In Experiment 2, event-related brain potentials were obtained from a match-mismatch task utilizing the novel word stimuli. Results Experiment 1 findings revealed that children were able to label referents and to retain the novel words more successfully if the words were taught in the RRCR learning condition. Experiment 2 findings revealed that mismatching picture-word pairings elicited a robust N400 event-related brain potential only for words that were taught in the RRCR condition. In addition, children were more accurate in identifying picture-word matches and mismatches for words taught in the RRCR condition, relative to the immediate retrieval condition. Conclusions Retrieval practice that requires contextual reinstatement through spacing results in enhanced word learning and long-term retention of words. Both typically developing children and children with developmental language disorder benefit from this type of retrieval procedure. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.7927112.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Priming de Repetição/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Verbal/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
9.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 61(12): 3064-3074, 2018 12 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30453333

RESUMO

Purpose: This study tested children's sensitivity to tense/agreement information in fronted auxiliaries during online comprehension of questions (e.g., Are the nice little dogs running?). Data from children with developmental language disorder (DLD) were compared to previously published data from typically developing (TD) children matched according to sentence comprehension test scores. Method: Fifteen 5-year-old children with DLD and fifteen 3-year-old TD children participated in a looking-while-listening task. Children viewed pairs of pictures, 1 with a single agent and 1 with multiple agents, accompanied by a sentence with a fronted auxiliary (is + single agent or are + two agents) or a control sentence. Proportion looking to the target was measured. Results: Children with DLD did not show anticipatory looking based on the number information contained in the auxiliary (is or are) as the younger TD children had. Both groups showed significant increases in looking to the target upon hearing the subject noun (e.g., dogs). Conclusions: Despite the groups' similar sentence comprehension abilities and ability to accurately respond to the information provided by the subject noun, children with DLD did not show sensitivity to number information on the fronted auxiliary. This insensitivity is considered in light of these children's weaker command of tense/agreement forms in their speech. Specifically, we consider the possibility that failure to grasp the relation between the subject-verb sequence (e.g., dogs running) and preceding information (e.g., are) in questions in the input contributes to the protracted inconsistency in producing auxiliary forms in obligatory contexts by children with DLD. Supplemental Material: https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.7283459.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Compreensão , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Linguística , Semântica , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino
10.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 61(6): 1460-1461, 2018 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800056

RESUMO

Purpose: In this reply, we respond to comments on our article "Tracking the Growth of Tense and Agreement in Children With Specific Language Impairment: Differences Between Measures of Accuracy, Diversity, and Productivity." Conclusion: The finite verb morphology composite can be disproportionately affected by frequently occurring grammatical forms produced through direct activation. This assumption was one of the reasons we wished to compare this measure to the tense marker total and the tense/agreement productivity score. The latter two measures provide valuable developmental information that is not available from the finite morphology composite. Yet, the finite verb morphology composite shows good diagnostic accuracy and an interpretable pattern of growth and is relatively stable across different sample sizes.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Criança , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Psicolinguística , Transtorno Específico de Linguagem
11.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 61(3): 729-739, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29484362

RESUMO

Purpose: Previous behavioral studies have found deficits in lexical-semantic abilities in children with specific language impairment (SLI), including reduced depth and breadth of word knowledge. This study explored the neural correlates of early emerging familiar word processing in preschoolers with SLI and typical development. Method: Fifteen preschoolers with typical development and 15 preschoolers with SLI were presented with pictures followed after a brief delay by an auditory label that did or did not match. Event-related brain potentials were time locked to the onset of the auditory labels. Children provided verbal judgments of whether the label matched the picture. Results: There were no group differences in the accuracy of identifying when pictures and labels matched or mismatched. Event-related brain potential data revealed that mismatch trials elicited a robust N400 in both groups, with no group differences in mean amplitude or peak latency. However, the typically developing group demonstrated a more robust late positive component, elicited by mismatch trials. Conclusions: These initial findings indicate that lexical-semantic access of early acquired words, indexed by the N400, does not differ between preschoolers with SLI and typical development when highly familiar words are presented in isolation. However, the typically developing group demonstrated a more mature profile of postlexical reanalysis and integration, indexed by an emerging late positive component. The findings lay the necessary groundwork for better understanding processing of newly learned words in children with SLI.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/fisiopatologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Percepção da Fala/fisiologia , Pré-Escolar , Eletroencefalografia , Potenciais Evocados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Clin Linguist Phon ; 32(3): 232-248, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28727489

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine factors promoting the use of third person singular -s by 23 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 21 children with typical development (TD). Relative proportions of third person singular -s forms in the input (input proportion) were calculated for 25 verbs based on data from an American English corpus of child-directed speech. Neighbourhood density values were also collected for these verbs. With previously collected probes of third person singular -s use for each of these verbs, we found with logistic regression that input proportion was positively associated with the likelihood of third person singular -s use for both groups. For neighbourhood density, we found that children with SLI were more likely to inflect sparse verbs than dense verbs; density was not significantly related to inflection use for TD children. We argue that as a result of their verbs' poorly encoded phonological representations, children with SLI were less able to inflect dense verbs than sparse verbs. We recommend that clinicians be aware of the effects of input proportion and neighbourhood density to ensure that assessments are representative and that treatment success is optimal.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Linguística , Masculino , Semântica
13.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 60(12): 3590-3600, 2017 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29188270

RESUMO

Purpose: Composite measures of children's use of tense and agreement morphology differ in their emphasis on accuracy, diversity, or productivity, yet little is known about how these different measures change over time. An understanding of these differences is especially important for the study of children with specific language impairment, given these children's extraordinary difficulty with this aspect of grammar. Method: We computed 3 types of composite scores from spontaneous speech samples obtained from 17 preschoolers with specific language impairment before, during, and after their participation in a language intervention study. These measures were the Finite Verb Morphology Composite (a measure of accuracy), the Tense Marker Total (a measure of diversity), and the Productivity Score (a measure of productivity). Results: The 3 measures differed in their growth trajectories. Sample size did not alter the linear or quadratic nature of growth of any composite, although it did affect the absolute values found for the Tense Marker Total and Productivity Score. Conclusion: Even when sample size is controlled, early growth can be seen in tense and agreement accuracy with relatively limited diversity and productivity, whereas later growth in diversity and productivity can occur with very little change in accuracy.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Linguística , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/terapia , Testes de Linguagem , Terapia da Linguagem , Masculino , Fala
14.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 26(3): 1030-1041, 2017 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28586829

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present 3 approaches that emphasize the role that input plays in the treatment of grammatical deficits in children with language impairments. Method: These approaches-input informativeness, competing sources of input, and high variability-were selected because they go beyond issues of token frequency and emphasize instead type frequency, relative frequency, and frequency at an abstract as well as a concrete level of grammar. Each of these approaches can be applied to the grammatical deficits seen in children with specific language impairment and can be readily used with well-established procedures, such as focused stimulation and recasting. Results: Each approach is supported by a body of laboratory research with children with typical language skills, and the feasibility of each has been tested in studies with a treatment design. Furthermore, the assumptions of the 3 approaches are largely compatible, permitting application of combinations of these approaches without violating any of their principles. Conclusion: The positive findings from each of these approaches should serve as a basis for further clinical research.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos da Linguagem/reabilitação , Terapia da Linguagem/métodos , Patologia da Fala e Linguagem/métodos , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Comportamento Imitativo , Transtornos da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Transtornos da Linguagem/etiologia , Transtornos da Linguagem/psicologia , Jogos e Brinquedos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Aprendizagem Verbal , Vocabulário
15.
J Neurodev Disord ; 9: 22, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28630655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A substantial amount of work has examined language abilities in young children with specific language impairment (SLI); however, our understanding of the developmental trajectory of language impairment is limited. Along with studying the behavioral changes that occur across development, it is important to examine the neural indices of language processing for children with different language trajectories. The current study sought to examine behavioral and neural bases of language processing in adolescents showing three different trajectories: those with normal language development (NL), those exhibiting persistent SLI (SLI-Persistent), and those with a history of SLI who appear to have recovered (SLI-Recovered). METHODS: Through a sentence judgment task, we examined semantic and syntactic processing. Adolescents judged whether or not each sentence was semantically and syntactically correct. Stimuli consisted of naturally spoken sentences that were either correct, contained a semantic verb error, or contained a syntactic verb agreement error. Verb agreement errors consisted of omission and commission violations of the third-person singular -s. Behavioral button-press responses and electroencephalographic recordings were collected. Behavioral judgments and mean amplitude of the N400 and P600 components were examined. RESULTS: Adolescents in the SLI-Persistent group had lower sentence judgment accuracy overall, relative to the NL and SLI-Recovered groups. Accuracy in judging omission and commission syntactic errors were marginally different, with marginally lower accuracy for commission errors. All groups demonstrated an N400 component elicited by semantic violations. However, adolescents in the SLI-Persistent group demonstrated a less robust P600 component for syntactic violations. Furthermore, adolescents in the SLI-Recovered group exhibited a similar neural profile to the NL group for the semantic and syntactic omission violations. However, a unique profile with initial negativity was observed in the SLI-Recovered group in the commission violation condition. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents with persistent language impairment continue to demonstrate delays in language processing at the behavioral and neural levels. Conversely, the adolescents in the SLI-Recovered group appear to have made gains in language processing skills to overcome their initial impairments. However, our findings suggest that the adolescents in the SLI-Recovered group may have compensatory processing strategies for some aspects of language, as evidenced by a unique event-related potential profile.

16.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 60(3): 668-674, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28241196

RESUMO

Purpose: This study tested the feasibility of a method designed to assess children's sensitivity to tense/agreement information in fronted auxiliaries during online comprehension of questions (e.g., Are the nice little dogs running?). We expected that a group of children who were proficient in auxiliary use would show this sensitivity, indicating an awareness of the relation between the subject-verb sequence (e.g., dogs running) and preceding information (e.g., are). Failure to grasp this relation is proposed to play a role in the protracted inconsistency in auxiliary use in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Fifteen 3-year-old typically developing children who demonstrated proficiency in auxiliary use viewed pairs of pictures showing a single agent and multiple agents while hearing questions with or without an agreeing fronted auxiliary. Proportion looking to the target was measured. Results: Children showed anticipatory looking on the basis of the number information contained in the auxiliary (is or are). Conclusions: The children tested in this study represent a group that frequently serves as a comparison for older children with SLI. Because the method successfully demonstrated their sensitivity to tense/agreement information in questions, future research that involves direct comparisons of these 2 groups is warranted.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Linguística , Análise de Variância , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
J Speech Lang Hear Res ; 60(1): 104-120, 2017 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28114610

RESUMO

Purpose: Our purpose was to test the competing sources of input (CSI) hypothesis by evaluating an intervention based on its principles. This hypothesis proposes that children's use of main verbs without tense is the result of their treating certain sentence types in the input (e.g., Wasshe laughing?) as models for declaratives (e.g., She laughing). Method: Twenty preschoolers with specific language impairment were randomly assigned to receive either a CSI-based intervention or a more traditional intervention that lacked the novel CSI features. The auxiliary is and the third-person singular suffix -s were directly treated over a 16-week period. Past tense -ed was monitored as a control. Results: The CSI-based group exhibited greater improvements in use of is than did the traditional group (d = 1.31), providing strong support for the CSI hypothesis. There were no significant between-groups differences in the production of the third-person singular suffix -s or the control (-ed), however. Conclusions: The group differences in the effects on the 2 treated morphemes may be due to differences in their distribution in interrogatives and declaratives (e.g., Ishe hiding/Heishiding vs. Doeshe hide/He hides). Refinements in the intervention could address this issue and lead to more general effects across morphemes.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Transtornos da Linguagem/terapia , Linguística , Modelos Psicológicos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Commun Disord ; 62: 45-53, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27235928

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Several recent studies have suggested that the production errors of children with specific language impairment (SLI) such as The girl singing may be explained by a misinterpretation of grammatical adult input containing a similar structure (e.g., The boy hears the girl singing). Thirteen children with SLI and 13 younger typically developing children with comparable sentence comprehension test scores (TD-COMP) completed a comprehension task to assess their understanding of sentences involving a nonfinite subject-verb sequence in a subordinate clause such as The dad sees the boy running. TD-COMP children were more accurate on subordinate clause items than children with SLI despite similar performance on simple transitive (e.g., The horse sees the cow) and simple progressive (e.g., The cow is eating) items. However, no relationship was found between the SLI group's specific subordinate clause comprehension level and their specific level of auxiliary is production, casting some doubt on this type of structure as a source for inconsistent use of auxiliary is. LEARNING OUTCOMES: The reader will learn that children with specific language impairment (SLI): (1) have difficulty understanding complex sentences that include nonfinite subject-verb sequences; (2) that this difficulty is apparent in comparison to younger typically developing peers who have similar scores not only on a sentence comprehension test, but also on simple sentences that correspond to the component parts of the complex sentences; and (3) that this weakness is concurrent with these children's inconsistent use of auxiliary is in production. Although novel verb studies show a clear connection between how children with SLI hear new verbs and how they use them, we do not yet have evidence that this connection is tied to a poor understanding of the input sentences that house the verbs.


Assuntos
Linguagem Infantil , Compreensão , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Linguagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino
19.
J Child Lang ; 42(4): 786-820, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25076070

RESUMO

We tested four predictions based on the assumption that optional infinitives can be attributed to properties of the input whereby children inappropriately extract non-finite subject-verb sequences (e.g., the girl run) from larger input utterances (e.g., Does the girl run? Let's watch the girl run). Thirty children with specific language impairment (SLI) and thirty typically developing children heard novel and familiar verbs that appeared exclusively either in utterances containing non-finite subject-verb sequences or in simple sentences with the verb inflected for third person singular -s. Subsequent testing showed strong input effects, especially for the SLI group. The results provide support for input-based factors as significant contributors not only to the optional infinitive period in typical development, but also to the especially protracted optional infinitive period seen in SLI.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Aprendizagem , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Testes de Linguagem , Linguística , Masculino
20.
Clin Linguist Phon ; 28(10): 741-56, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24641713

RESUMO

In this study, we ask (1) whether measures of the developmental level of the tense/agreement morphemes used by children have diagnostic value, as has been found for tense/agreement consistency; and (2) whether global measures of accuracy can be applied to children four and five years of age. The spontaneous speech samples of 112 four- and five-year-olds with specific language impairment (SLI) or typical language were analyzed. Group differences were seen for the developmental level of the children's tense/agreement morpheme use, but diagnostic accuracy did not reach acceptable levels, in contrast to a measure of tense/agreement consistency applied to the same data. A global measure of grammatical accuracy was found to be useful, but more appropriate for screening children already viewed as at risk for language difficulties. These findings suggest that an extended period of tense/agreement inconsistency may be more central to SLI than alternative measures related to tense/agreement morphology.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/diagnóstico , Testes de Linguagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Fonética , Semântica , Medida da Produção da Fala/métodos , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos
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