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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35006514

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate differences in prescription rates of commonly used drugs among prostate cancer patients and cancer-free comparisons and between patients diagnosed with localized and non-localized disease. METHODS: We conducted a register-based study including all men aged 50-85 years diagnosed with prostate cancer in Denmark from 1998 to 2015 and an age-matched cancer-free comparison cohort. We calculated the number of new and total prescriptions from three years before to three years after the date of diagnosis of the case for selected drug classes divided by the number of person-months and stratified by stage at diagnosis. RESULTS: We included 54,286 prostate cancer patients and 249,645 matched comparisons. 30,712 patients were diagnosed with localized disease and 12,884 with non-localized disease. The rates of new prescriptions increased considerably among patients within the year before the diagnosis. Hereafter the rates varied between drug classes. For most drug classes, total prescription rates for patients and comparisons increased similarly in the study period. Total prescription rates varied between men with localized and non-localized disease for all drug classes apart from statins. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that a large proportion of prostate cancer cases are likely diagnosed during medical work-up for other reasons than prostate cancer. Increased rates occur within the last year before diagnosis and future studies on the interaction between drug use and prostate cancer should at least include a one year pre-diagnostic lag-time. Post-diagnostic prescription rates demonstrated an increased use of drugs most likely associated with the consequences of the disease.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 150(1): 38-46, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449872

RESUMO

Worldwide, colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer and third cause of cancer death in women. Estrogen exposure has been inversely associated with colorectal cancer. Oophorectomy reduces circulating estrogen, but the effect on colorectal cancer remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the association between unilateral and bilateral oophorectomy and subsequent risk of colorectal cancer, and whether this association varied by menopausal status at time of oophorectomy, use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) at baseline, hysterectomy and baseline body mass index (BMI). The study included 25 698 female nurses (aged ≥45 years) participating in the Danish Nurse Cohort. Nurses were followed from baseline until date of colorectal cancer, death, emigration or end of follow-up at December 31, 2018, whichever came first. We examined the association between oophorectomy and colorectal cancer (all ages and stratified by menopausal status). The potential modifying effects of hysterectomy, HRT use at baseline and BMI were investigated. During 542 140 person-years of follow-up, 863 (3.4%) nurses were diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Bilateral oophorectomy was associated with a 79% increased colorectal cancer rate, adjusted rate ratio (aRR) (95% confidence interval [CI]): 1.79 (1.33-2.42). Effect estimates following unilateral oophorectomy also showed higher rate of colorectal cancer, although less pronounced and nonstatistically significant (aRR) (95% CI): 1.25 (0.86-1.82). Similar results were seen when stratifying by menopausal status. The association was not modified by baseline HRT use, hysterectomy or BMI. Oophorectomy was associated with increased rate of colorectal cancer, with highest rates among women with bilateral oophorectomy.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
3.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 115, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34740347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Road traffic noise has been linked to increased risk of ischemic heart disease, yet evidence on stroke shows mixed results. We examine the association between long-term exposure to road traffic noise and incidence of stroke, overall and by subtype (ischemic or hemorrhagic), after adjustment for air pollution. METHODS: Twenty-five thousand six hundred and sixty female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort recruited in 1993 or 1999 were followed for stroke-related first-ever hospital contact until December 31st, 2014. Full residential address histories since 1970 were obtained and annual means of road traffic noise (Lden [dB]) and air pollutants (particulate matter with diameter < 2.5 µm and < 10 µm [PM2.5 and PM10], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], nitrogen oxides [NOx]) were determined using validated models. Time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) for the associations of one-, three-, and 23-year running means of Lden preceding stroke (all, ischemic or hemorrhagic), adjusting for stroke risk factors and air pollutants. The World Health Organization and the Danish government's maximum exposure recommendations of 53 and 58 dB, respectively, were explored as potential Lden thresholds. RESULTS: Of 25,660 nurses, 1237 developed their first stroke (1089 ischemic, 148 hemorrhagic) during 16 years mean follow-up. For associations between a 1-year mean of Lden and overall stroke incidence, the estimated HR (95% CI) in the fully adjusted model was 1.06 (0.98-1.14) per 10 dB, which attenuated to 1.01 (0.93-1.09) and 1.00 (0.91-1.09) in models further adjusted for PM2.5 or NO2, respectively. Associations for other exposure periods or separately for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke were similar. There was no evidence of a threshold association between Lden and stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to road traffic noise was suggestively positively associated with the risk of overall stroke, although not after adjusting for air pollution.

4.
Menopause ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34726195

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bilateral oophorectomy permanently reduces endogenous estrogen exposure and may increase cardiovascular mortality in women. This study aimed to investigate the association between bilateral oophorectomy and cardiovascular mortality and whether this association was conditional on hysterectomy or on the use of hormone therapy at the time of study entry. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 25,338 female nurses aged ≥ 45 years within the Danish Nurse Cohort. Nurses were enrolled in 1993 or 1999 and followed until death, emigration, or end of follow-up on December 31, 2018, whichever came first. Exposure was bilateral oophorectomy. Outcome was cardiovascular mortality. Associations were estimated using Poisson regression models with log person-years as the offset. RESULTS: A total of 2,040 (8.1%) participants underwent bilateral oophorectomy. During a mean follow-up of 21.2 (SD: 5.6) years, 772 (3.0%) nurses died from cardiovascular disease. In adjusted analyses, a 31% higher rate of cardiovascular mortality was observed after bilateral oophorectomy (aMRR 1.31; 95% CI, 0.88-1.96) compared with women who retained their ovaries. No evidence of effect modification by use of hormone therapy at baseline or by hysterectomy on the association between bilateral oophorectomy and cardiovascular mortality was observed. CONCLUSION: Bilateral oophorectomy may be associated with cardiovascular mortality in women, but the estimate was not statistically significant. Additionally, we were unable to make firm conclusions regarding the possible modifying role of hormone therapy and hysterectomy on this potential association. Additional studies are needed to replicate this work.

5.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550389

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have suggested that antidepressant drugs may possess antineoplastic properties. In a nationwide case-control study, we examined the association between use of antidepressants and endometrial-cancer risk with a particular focus on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). METHODS: From the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified all women with a histologically verified diagnosis of endometrial cancer between 2000 and 2016, and, for each woman, 15 age-matched controls. We obtained information on use of SSRIs, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and other antidepressants based on records of filled prescriptions from the National Prescription Register. Using conditional logistic regression, we calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between use of antidepressants and endometrial-cancer risk compared with non-use. In active comparator analyses, SSRI use was compared with TCA use. RESULTS: The study population comprised 8164 cases and 122 432 controls. Compared with non-use, SSRI use was associated with an OR of 0.88 (95% CI 0.82-0.96) for endometrial cancer, whereas the association with TCA use was close to unity (OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.90-1.22). Use of other antidepressants yielded an OR of 0.86 (95% CI 0.71-1.03). We observed no apparent trends in associations according to cumulative amount. The inverse association with SSRI use persisted when compared with TCA use (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.66-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Use of SSRIs was associated with a decreased risk of endometrial cancer, whereas no inverse association appeared with use of TCAs. The antineoplastic potential of SSRIs should be investigated in future studies.

6.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536296

RESUMO

Several recent observational studies have linked low-dose aspirin use to improved survival in patients with head and neck cancer. However, studies of patterns of aspirin use and risk of cancer-specific mortality are lacking. This nationwide cohort study included all patients in the Danish Cancer Registry with a primary diagnosis of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) during 2000 to 2016, aged 30 to 84 years, without prior cancer (except nonmelanoma skin cancer) and alive 1 year after diagnosis. Nationwide registries provided information on filled prescriptions, mortality and potential confounding factors. For a subpopulation, a clinical database provided additional information, including human papillomavirus (HPV) tumor status. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between postdiagnostic low-dose aspirin use (≥1 prescription within first year after diagnosis) and risk of cancer-specific mortality. We identified 10 770 patients with HNSCC during a median follow-up of 3.9 years. Of these, 1799 (16.7%) were low-dose aspirin users. Postdiagnostic use of low-dose aspirin was associated with a HR of 0.97 (95% CI 0.82-1.15) for cancer-specific mortality. Similar neutral associations were found according to patterns of aspirin use. No apparent trends emerged according to age, sex, topography or stage. A tendency towards a decreased cancer-specific mortality risk with low-dose aspirin use was observed among HPV-positive patients; however, the statistical precision was low. In conclusion, we did not observe an association between postdiagnostic low-dose aspirin use and cancer-specific mortality in a nationwide cohort of patients with HNSCC.

7.
Environ Health Perspect ; 129(8): 87002, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise have been established for ischemic heart disease, but findings have been mixed for atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVES: The goal of the study was to examine associations of long-term exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution with AF. METHODS: Time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate associations of 1-, 3-, and 23-y mean road traffic noise and air pollution exposures with AF incidence in 23,528 women enrolled in the Danish Nurse Cohort (age >44y at baseline in 1993 or 1999). AF diagnoses were ascertained via the Danish National Patient Register. Annual mean weighted 24-h average road traffic noise levels (Lden) at the nurses' residences, since 1970, were estimated using the Nord2000 model, and annual mean levels of particulate matter with a diameter <2.5µm (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were estimated using the DEHM/UBM/AirGIS model. RESULTS: Of 23,528 nurses with no prior AF diagnosis at the cohort baseline, 1,522 developed AF during follow-up. In a fully adjusted model (including PM2.5), the estimated risk of AF was 18% higher [hazard ratio (HR); 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18; 1.02, 1.36] in nurses with residential 3-y mean Lden levels >58 dB vs. <48 dB, with similar findings for 1-y mean exposures. A 3.9-µg/m3 increase in 3-y mean PM2.5 was associated with incident AF before and after adjustment for concurrent exposure to road traffic noise (HR 1.09; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.20 and 1.08; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.19, respectively). Associations with 1-y mean PM2.5 exposures were positive but closer to the null and not significant. Associations with NO2 were null for all time periods before and after adjustment for road traffic noise and inverse when adjusted for concurrent PM2.5. CONCLUSION: Our analysis of prospective data from a cohort of Danish female nurses followed for up to 14 y provided suggestive evidence of independent associations between incident AF and 1- and 3-y exposures to road traffic noise and PM2.5. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP8090.

8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359796

RESUMO

In colorectal cancer (CRC), 20-50% of patients relapse after curative-intent surgery with or without adjuvant therapy. We investigated the lead times and prognostic value of post-adjuvant (8 months from randomisation to adjuvant treatment) serum CEA, CA19-9, IL-6, CRP, and YKL-40. We included 147 radically resected stage II-IV CRC treated with 24 weeks of adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy in the phase III LIPSYT-study (ISRCTN98405441). All 147 were included in lead time analysis, but 12 relapsing during adjuvant therapy were excluded from post-adjuvant analysis. Elevated post-adjuvant CEA, IL-6, and CRP were associated with impaired disease-free survival (DFS) with hazard ratio (HR) 5.21 (95% confidence interval 2.32-11.69); 3.72 (1.99-6.95); 2.58 (1.18-5.61), respectively, and elevated IL-6 and CRP with impaired overall survival (OS) HR 3.06 (1.64-5.73); 3.41 (1.55-7.49), respectively. Elevated post-adjuvant IL-6 in CEA-normal patients identified a subgroup with impaired DFS. HR 3.12 (1.38-7.04) and OS, HR 3.20 (1.39-7.37). The lead times between the elevated biomarker and radiological relapse were 7.8 months for CEA and 10.0-53.1 months for CA19-9, IL-6, CRP, and YKL-40, and the lead time for the five combined was 27.3 months. Elevated post-adjuvant CEA, IL-6, and CRP were associated with impaired DFS. The lead time was shortest for CEA.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma IL-6 and YKL-40 are prognostic biomarkers for OS in patients with different types of solid tumors, but they have not been studied in patients before surgery of metastatic bone disease (MBD) of the extremities. The aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of plasma IL-6 and YKL-40 in patients undergoing surgery for MBD of the extremities. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study included all patients undergoing surgery for MBD in the extremities at a tertiary referral center during the period 2014-2018. Preoperative blood samples from index surgery were included. IL-6 and YKL-40 concentrations in plasma were determined by commercial ELISA. A total of 232 patients (median age 66 years, IQR 58-74; female 51%) were included. RESULTS: Cox regression analysis was performed to identify independent prognostic factors for OS. IL-6 correlated with YKL-40 (rho = 0.46, p < 0.01). In univariate analysis (log2 continuous variable) IL-6 (HR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.16-1.37), CRP (HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.12-1.29) and YKL-40 (HR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.15-1.37) were associated with short OS. In multivariable analysis, adjusted for known risk factors for survival, only log2(IL-6) was independently associated with OS (HR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.08-1.43), whereas CRP and YKL-40 were not. CONCLUSION: High preoperative plasma IL-6 is an independent biomarker of short OS in patients undergoing surgery for MBD.

10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180995

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell cancer (TC) incidence peaks in the reproductive age but knowledge on fertility after treatment is insufficient. The aim was to evaluate paternity after today's testicular cancer (TC) treatment. METHODS: Clinical data were extracted from the Danish Testicular Cancer database and patients were divided into four groups: 1) Surveillance; 2) Bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP); 3) BEP + post-chemotherapy retroperitoneal surgery (BEP + surgery); and 4) Abdominal radiotherapy. For each patient, 10 men matched on date of birth were randomly sampled from the normal population. Paternity was defined as date of birth of first child after TC treatment with or without the use of assisted reproductive technology (ART) and was assessed by linkage to the Danish Medical Birth Register and the Danish in vitro fertilization (IVF)-register. RESULTS: We included 4,846 unilateral TC patients and 48,456 men from the normal population. The 20 years predicted chance of obtaining fatherhood for a 30-year-old man was 39.7% in TC patients compared to 42.5 % in the normal population. The chance of obtaining fatherhood was statistically significantly decreased after BEP (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.78-0.97) and BEP + surgery (HR = 0.74 95% CI = 0.63-0.87), but not after radiotherapy (HR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.75-1.06) or surveillance (HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.89-1.02). The risk of needing ART to obtain fatherhood was increased after all treatment modalities. CONCLUSION: The chance of obtaining fatherhood after TC treatment was substantially higher than previously reported. Patients followed on a surveillance program had a similar chance of obtaining fatherhood as non-cancerous men.

11.
Epidemiology ; 32(5): 705-711, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes may increase risk of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related precancer and cancer. We estimated incidence of penile and anal high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (hgPeIN, hgAIN) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in men with diabetes compared with the entire Danish male population without diabetes. METHODS: In this registry-based cohort study, we included all men born 1916-2001 and residing in Denmark (n = 2,528,756). From nationwide registries, we retrieved individual-level information on diabetes, educational level, and diagnoses of hgPeIN, hgAIN, penile SCC, and anal SCC. We used Poisson regression models to estimate incidence of hgPeIN, hgAIN, penile SCC, and anal SCC as a function of diabetes status, attained age, calendar period, and education. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of each outcome in men with diabetes compared with nondiabetic men, both for diabetes overall and separately for type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESULTS: Men with diabetes had increased incidence rate of penile SCC compared with nondiabetic men (IRR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9). We saw similar trends for anal SCC, hgPeIN, and hgAIN. The combined incidence rate of penile and anal SCC was increased in men with T2D (IRR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.3, 1.8), but not with T1D (IRR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.20, 1.4) compared with men without diabetes. CONCLUSION: The incidence of penile and anal high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and SCC in men with diabetes was increased compared with men without diabetes. For penile and anal SCCs, this was primarily due to an increased risk in men with T2D.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Carcinoma in Situ , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Infecções por HIV , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Carcinoma in Situ/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia
12.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 68(9): e29098, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022113

RESUMO

To ensure external validation of a study population in clinical late-effect studies of childhood cancer, the participation rate must be high. This study investigated demographic data in Nordic late-effect studies and potential factors impacting participation rates such as cancer type, time since diagnosis, and duration of clinical examinations. We found 80 published studies originating from 16 cohorts, with median follow-up of 6.0 years (range 3-14). The overall participation rates ranged from 27% to 100%. The highest participation rates were seen in studies of survivors with solid tumors (92%) and the lowest in hematologic malignancies (67%) and central nervous system tumors (73%). The clinical examination in 10 studies (62.5%) lasted for more than 3 hours. Neither duration of the clinical examination nor time since diagnosis seemed to affect the participation rate. We encourage future studies to describe the recruitment process more thoroughly to improve understanding of the factors influencing participation rates.

13.
Gynecol Oncol ; 162(2): 469-474, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between reproductive factors and risk of non-epithelial ovarian cancer and to compare the associations with those in serous ovarian cancer. METHODS: From the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified all ovarian cancer cases (≥20 years old at diagnosis) of germ cell (n = 188), sex cord-stromal (n = 116), or serous (n = 4854) histology during 1982-2016. For each case, 15 age-matched female controls were selected with risk set sampling. Reproductive history was obtained from nationwide registries. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between reproductive factors and the three ovarian cancer types. RESULTS: Compared with nulliparity, ever giving birth was associated with increased odds for germ cell tumors (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 0.85-1.93) and decreased odds for sex cord-stromal (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.44-1.26) and serous tumors (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.64-0.76). Infertility decreased odds for germ cell tumors (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.23-1.76) but increased odds for sex cord-stromal tumors (OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 0.89-5.43) and serous tumors (OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.69-2.30). Finally, use of oral contraceptives decreased the odds for all three tumor types (germ cell: OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.29-0.87; sex cord-stromal: OR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.13-1.22; serous: OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.40-0.62). CONCLUSIONS: Reproductive factors affected the risk of sex cord-stromal and serous ovarian cancer similarly with decreased risk associated with parity and use of oral contraceptives. Oral contraceptives also seemed to decrease the risk of germ cell tumors, whereas parity was associated with increased risk.

14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 113(10): 1329-1335, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The primary goal of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is to reduce morbidity and mortality from HPV-associated disease, especially cervical cancer. We determined the real-world effectiveness of HPV vaccination against cervical cancer. METHODS: The study included women aged 17-30 years living in Denmark October 2006-December 2019. From nationwide registries, information on HPV vaccination and cervical cancer diagnoses were retrieved. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for cervical cancer according to vaccination status were estimated using Poisson regression with HPV vaccination treated as a time-varying variable and stratified by age at vaccination. We adjusted for attained age, education, and ethnicity. To address the effect of prevalent disease, different buffer periods were used, with 1-year buffer period as primary analysis. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 867 689 women. At baseline, 36.3% were vaccinated at age 16 years and younger, and during follow-up, 19.3% and 2.3% were vaccinated at ages 17-19 years and 20-30 years, respectively. For women vaccinated at ages 16 years and younger or 17-19 years, the IRRs of cervical cancer were 0.14 (95% CI = 0.04 to 0.53) and 0.32 (95% CI = 0.08 to 1.28), respectively, compared with unvaccinated women. In women aged 20-30 years at vaccination, the incidence rate was higher than among unvaccinated women (IRR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.80 to 1.79) but slightly decreased with increasing buffer period (IRR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.55 to 1.32, with 4-year buffer period). CONCLUSION: HPV vaccine effectiveness against cervical cancer at the population level is high among girls vaccinated younger than age 20 years. The lack of immediate effect in women vaccinated at age 20-30 years points to the importance of early age at vaccination.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 149(3): 585-593, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729548

RESUMO

The association between oophorectomy and risk of breast cancer in the general population is uncertain. The aim of our study was to determine the breast cancer rate in women from the general population after oophorectomy (performed before/after menopause), and whether this varies by use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), hysterectomy, body mass index (BMI) and shift work. The study included 24 409 female nurses (aged ≥45 years) participating in the Danish Nurse Cohort. Nurses were followed from cohort entry until date of breast cancer, death, emigration or end of follow-up at 31 December 2018, whichever came first. Poisson regression with log-transformed person-years as the offset examined the association between oophorectomy and breast cancer (all ages and stratified by menopausal status at time of oophorectomy). The potential modifying effect of HRT use, hysterectomy, BMI and shift work on the associations was estimated. During 502 463 person-years of follow-up, 1975 (8.1%) nurses were diagnosed with breast cancer. Bilateral oophorectomy was associated with a reduced breast cancer rate compared to nurses with preserved ovaries, adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.79 (0.64; 0.99). Similar associations (magnitude and direction) were detected for unilateral oophorectomy and when stratifying according to menopausal status at time of oophorectomy, but without statistical significance. Unilateral and bilateral oophorectomy is associated with a reduced breast cancer rate in women from the general population. This association is not modified by use of HRT, hysterectomy, BMI or shift work.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Menopausa , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Gynecol Oncol ; 161(2): 458-462, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583579

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on long-term survival of non-localized ovarian cancer. METHODS: All women in Denmark with a first diagnosis of non-localized epithelial ovarian cancer 1982-2007 were identified in the Cancer Registry and/or the Pathology Registry and followed up until December 2017. The survival probability was estimated after respectively 5 and 10 years, using so-called pseudo observations, and analyzed according to education, income, and marital status defined from nationwide registries. RESULTS: The study cohort included 6486 women, and the estimated 5- and 10-year survival probabilities were 21.4% and 12.7%, respectively. Compared to women with short education, the 5-year survival probability was 7% higher for women with medium (relative survival probability = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.19) and long education (relative survival probability = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.24). Compared with married women, the 5-year survival probability for divorced women/widower was slightly lower (0.85, 95% CI: 0.69, 1.04) and for unmarried women slightly higher (1.08, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.23). Finally, the probability of being alive 5 years after diagnosis was 1.09 times higher (95% CI: 0.95, 1.24) for medium-income women and 1.23 times higher (95% CI: 1.08, 1.41) for high-income women compared with low-income women. Similar patterns were observed for 10-year survival. CONCLUSIONS: Non-localized ovarian cancer patients have a poor prognosis. Our data suggest that among Danish women with advanced ovarian cancer, higher personal income is associated with slightly higher probability of long-term survival, whereas education and marital status did not affect the probability of long-term survival.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/economia , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/economia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros , Classe Social
17.
Cancer Causes Control ; 32(5): 515-523, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620641

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Laboratory studies have shown anti-neoplastic properties of non-aspirin NSAID; however, no studies have examined the influence of non-aspirin NSAIDs as potential adjuvant cancer therapy in women with endometrial cancer. We therefore examined the association between post-diagnostic use of non-aspirin NSAIDs and endometrial cancer mortality in Denmark. METHODS: We identified all women with a primary endometrial cancer diagnosis between 2000 and 2012, who were alive one year after the diagnosis. Information on drug use, cause-specific mortality and potential confounders was obtained from nationwide health- and demographic registries. Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between post-diagnostic non-aspirin NSAID use and endometrial cancer mortality. RESULTS: Among 6 694 endometrial cancer patients with a maximum follow-up of 13 years, 753 women died from endometrial cancer. Post-diagnostic non-aspirin NSAID use (≥ 1 filled prescription) was associated with an overall HR of 1.15 (95% CI; 0.97-1.36) for endometrial cancer mortality, with higher HRs for the highest intensity of use (HR; 1.40, 95% CI; 1.11-1.77) and largest cumulative amount (HR; 1.56, 95% CI; 1.14-2.14). CONCLUSION: Our findings yielded no evidence that use of non-aspirin NSAIDs was associated with reduced endometrial cancer. Rather, we observed that high-intensity and large cumulative amount of non-aspirin NSAID use may be associated with increased endometrial cancer mortality.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros
18.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 87(3): 1561-1567, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737902

RESUMO

Results concerning a potential preventive effect of aspirin on head and neck cancer (HNC) are conflicting. We examined the association between low-dose aspirin use and HNC risk overall and by degree of human papillomavirus association in a nested case-control study using nationwide registries. Cases (n = 12 389) were all Danish residents diagnosed with primary HNC (2000-2015). Age- and sex-matched population controls (n = 185 835) were selected by risk-set-sampling. Using conditional logistic regression, we estimated multivariable-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for HNC associated with low-dose aspirin use (≥2 prescriptions). No association was observed between low-dose aspirin ever-use and overall HNC (odds ratio: 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 0.97-1.10). Estimates remained neutral according to patterns of use. Low-dose aspirin use appeared to slightly decrease HNC risk among the eldest (71-84 y), independently of human papillomavirus association, while slightly increase HNC risk among younger age groups (30-60, 61-70 y), driven by an increased risk of oral cancer. However, no consistent patterns in risk estimates were found according to duration and consistency of low-dose aspirin use in the age-stratified analyses.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e3220-e3226, 2021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that 1-dose human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination may protect significantly against HPV-related disease. We provide nationwide, real-world data on the risk of genital warts (GWs) after <3 vaccine doses. METHODS: All Danish women born in 1985-2003 were identified, and individual-level vaccination data were retrieved. The cohort was followed up for first occurrence of GWs until 31 December 2016. Using Poisson regression, we calculated incidence rates (IRs) of GWs per 100 000 person-years and IR ratios (IRRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for GWs, according to vaccination status, age at first dose, and calendar time. RESULTS: The cohort comprised 1 076 945 girls and women, of whom 485 408 were vaccinated. For girls initiating vaccination at age 12-14 years and 15-16 years, 1-dose vaccine effectiveness (VE) was 71% (IRR = 0.29; 95% CI, .22-.38) and 62% (0.38; .29-.49), respectively, compared with unvaccinated girls. In the same age groups, 2-dose VE was 78% (IRR, 0.22; 95% CI, .18-.26) and 68% (0.32; .26-.38), respectively. After 2009, the IRRs for 3 versus 1 dose and 2 versus 1 dose increased towards unity over calendar time, being 0.69 (95% CI, .57-.84) and 0.86 (.68-1.08) in 2016, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, 1 or 2 doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine was associated with substantial protection against GWs in girls vaccinated at age ≤16 years. The 1-dose VE approached that of 3 or 2 doses over calendar time, probably reflecting the impact of herd protection.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Condiloma Acuminado , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Condiloma Acuminado/epidemiologia , Condiloma Acuminado/prevenção & controle , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
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