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1.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(1): 11-21, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31652416

RESUMO

Objective: The increasing prevalence of obesity is expected to promote the demand for endocrine testing. To facilitate evidence guided testing, we aimed to assess the prevalence of endocrine disorders in patients with obesity. The review was carried out as part of the Endocrine Work-up for the Obesity Guideline of the European Society of Endocrinology. Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Methods: A search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science and COCHRANE Library for original articles assessing the prevalence of hypothyroidism, hypercortisolism, hypogonadism (males) or hyperandrogenism (females) in patients with obesity. Data were pooled in a random-effects logistic regression model and reported with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results: Sixty-eight studies were included, concerning a total of 19.996 patients with obesity. The pooled prevalence of overt (newly diagnosed or already treated) and subclinical hypothyroidism was 14.0% (95% CI: 9.7-18.9) and 14.6% (95% CI: 9.2-20.9), respectively. Pooled prevalence of hypercortisolism was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.3-1.6). Pooled prevalence of hypogonadism when measuring total testosterone or free testosterone was 42.8% (95% CI: 37.6-48.0) and 32.7% (95% CI: 23.1-43.0), respectively. Heterogeneity was high for all analyses. Conclusions: The prevalence of endocrine disorders in patients with obesity is considerable, although the underlying mechanisms are complex. Given the cross-sectional design of the studies included, no formal distinction between endocrine causes and consequences of obesity could be made.

2.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 182(1): G1-G32, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855556

RESUMO

Obesity is an emerging condition, with a prevalence of ~20%. Although the simple measurement of BMI is likely a simplistic approach to obesity, BMI is easily calculated, and there are currently no data showing that more sophisticated methods are more useful to guide the endocrine work-up in obesity. An increased BMI leads to a number of hormonal changes. Additionally, concomitant hormonal diseases can be present in obesity and have to be properly diagnosed - which in turn might be more difficult due to alterations caused by body fatness itself. The present European Society of Endocrinology Clinical Guideline on the Endocrine Work-up in Obesity acknowledges the increased prevalence of many endocrine conditions in obesity. It is recommended to test all patients with obesity for thyroid function, given the high prevalence of hypothyroidism in obesity. For hypercortisolism, male hypogonadism and female gonadal dysfunction, hormonal testing is only recommended if case of clinical suspicion of an underlying endocrine disorder. The guideline underlines that weight loss in obesity should be emphasized as key to restoration of hormonal imbalances and that treatment and that the effect of treating endocrine disorders on weight loss is only modest.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Comorbidade , Endocrinologia , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Testes de Função Tireóidea
4.
J Reprod Immunol ; 133: 1-6, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980918

RESUMO

A possible way of immunomodulation of the maternal immune system before pregnancy would be exposure to paternal antigens via seminal fluid to oral mucosa. We hypothesized that women with recurrent miscarriage have had less oral sex compared to women with uneventful pregnancy. In a matched case control study, 97 women with at least three unexplained consecutive miscarriages prior to the 20th week of gestation with the same partner were included. Cases were younger than 36 years at time of the third miscarriage. The control group included 137 matched women with an uneventful pregnancy. The association between oral sex and recurrent miscarriage was assessed with conditional logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) were estimated. Missing data were imputed using Imputation by Chained Equations. In the matched analysis, 41 out of 72 women with recurrent miscarriage had have oral sex, whereas 70 out of 96 matched controls answered positive to this question (56.9% vs. 72.9%, OR 0.50 95%CI 0.25-0.97, p = 0.04). After imputation of missing exposure data (51.7%), the association became weaker (OR 0.67, 95%CI 0.36-1.24, p = 0.21). In conclusion, this study suggests a possible protective role of oral sex in the occurrence of recurrent miscarriage in a proportion of the cases. Future studies in women with recurrent miscarriage explained by immune abnormalities should reveal whether oral exposure to seminal plasma indeed modifies the maternal immune system, resulting in more live births.

5.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 33(5): 828-841, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Organ transplant recipients (OTR) have a higher risk of developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) compared to the immunocompetent population. Immunosuppression is often stated as a risk factor for metastasis. However, evidence for this is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cSCC metastasis risk in OTR and the immunocompetent population by systematically reviewing the literature. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed up to January 2018 using: Medline; Embase; Web of Science and ISI Science Citation Index. Studies assessing cSCC metastasis risk in ORT or immunocompetent cohorts were considered. A pooled risk estimate for metastasis was calculated for the immunocompetent population and OTR separately. RESULTS: The pooled metastasis risk estimate for OTR was, respectively, 7.3% (95% CI 6.2-8.4) for cSCC on total body, and 11.0% (95% CI 7.7-14.8) for cSCC of the head neck area. For the immunocompetent population reported risk estimate analysis showed a pooled metastatic risk of 3.1% (95% CI 2.8-3.4) in total body cSCC and of 8.5% (95% CI 7.3-9.8) in cSCC of the head and neck area. Pooled risk estimate per single cSCC in OTR was 1.3% (95% CI 1.0-1.7) in total body cSCC and 4.0% (95% CI 2.7-5.5) in cSCC of the head and neck area. In the immunocompetent population, these pooled risk estimates were, respectively, 2.4% (95% CI 2.1-2.6) and 6.7% (95% CI 5.7-7.8). CONCLUSIONS: Organ transplant recipients show a higher overall risk of cSCC metastasis compared to the immunocompetent population. Metastasis risks per single cSCC were substantially lower in both groups. However, due to heterogeneity and differences between studies, comparisons are difficult. Comprehensive follow-up studies with defined cohorts are necessary to adequately asses the risk for cSCC metastasis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Imunocompetência , Metástase Neoplásica , Transplante de Órgãos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Humanos , Transplantados
6.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 180(2): 135-144, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508413

RESUMO

Introduction The association between type 1 diabetes (T1D) and other auto-immune diseases is well known. However, a quantitative overview of all associated auto-immune diseases and their prevalence in T1D is lacking. Methods We searched PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and Cochrane library in September 2018 to identify relevant articles about the prevalence of the following associated auto-immune diseases in T1D cohorts: auto-immune thyroid disease, celiac disease, gastric autoimmunity including pernicious anemia, vitiligo and adrenal gland insufficiency. A meta-analysis was performed to estimate pooled prevalence using a random-effects model. Furthermore, random-effects meta-regression analysis was performed to assess the association between prevalence and mean age or diabetes duration. Results One hundred eighty articles were eligible including a total of 293 889 type 1 diabetes patients. Hypothyroidism (65 studies) was prevalent in 9.8% (95% CI: 7.5-12.3) of patients. Meta-regression showed that for every 10-year age increase, hypothyroidism prevalence increased 4.6% (95% CI: 2.6-6.6, P < 0.000, 54 studies). Weighted prevalence of celiac disease was 4.5% (95% CI: 4.0-5.5, 87 studies). Gastric autoimmunity was found in 4.3% of patients (95% CI: 1.6-8.2, 8 studies) and vitiligo in 2.4% (95% CI: 1.2-3.9, 14 studies) of patients. The prevalence of adrenal insufficiency was 0.2% (95% CI: 0.0-0.4, 14 studies) and hyperthyroidism was found in 1.3 percent (95% CI: 0.9-1.8, 45 studies) of type 1 diabetes patients. For all analyses, statistical heterogeneity between studies was moderate to high. Conclusions The prevalence of antibody-mediated auto-immune disease is high among type 1 diabetes patients. Especially hypothyroidism and celiac disease are frequently found.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/epidemiologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto
7.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 180(1): 89-98, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407922

RESUMO

Objective To identify cross-border international registries for rare endocrine conditions that are led from Europe and to understand the extent of engagement with these registries within a network of reference centres (RCs) for rare endocrine conditions. Methods Database search of international registries and a survey of RCs in the European Reference Network for rare endocrine conditions (Endo-ERN) with an overall response rate of 82%. Results Of the 42 conditions with orphacodes currently covered within Endo-ERN, international registries exist for 32 (76%). Of 27 registries identified in the Orphanet and RD-Connect databases, Endo-ERN RCs were aware of 11 (41%). Of 21 registries identified by the RC, RD-Connect and Orphanet did not have a record of 10 (48%). Of the 29 glucose RCs, the awareness and participation rate in an international registry was highest for rare diabetes at 75 and 56% respectively. Of the 37 sex development RCs, the corresponding rates were highest for disorders of sex development at 70 and 52%. Of the 33 adrenal RCs, the rates were highest for adrenocortical tumours at 68 and 43%. Of the 43 pituitary RCs, the rates were highest for pituitary adenomas at 43 and 29%. Of the 31 genetic tumour RCs, the rates were highest for MEN1 at 26 and 9%. For the remaining conditions, awareness and participation in registries was less than 25%. Conclusion Although there is a need to develop new registries for rare endocrine conditions, there is a more immediate need to improve the awareness and participation in existing registries.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Endócrino , Doenças Raras , Sistema de Registros , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
8.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 25(5): 607-612, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30076972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) account for 1.5% of diarrhoeic episodes in patients attending a general practitioner in the Netherlands, but its sources are unknown. We searched for community clusters to recognize localized point sources of CDI. METHODS: Between October 2010 and February 2012, a community-based prospective nested case-control study was performed in three laboratories in the Netherlands with a study population of 2 810 830 people. Bernoulli spatial scan and space-time permutation models were used to detect spatial and/or temporal clusters of CDI. In addition, a multivariate conditional logistic regression model was constructed to test livestock exposure as a supposed risk factor in CDI patients without hospital admission within the previous 12 weeks (community-acquired (CA) CDI). RESULTS: In laboratories A, B and C, 1.3%, 1.8% and 2.1% of patients with diarrhoea tested positive for CDI, respectively. The mean age of CA-CDI patients (n = 124) was 49 years (standard deviation, 22.6); 64.5% were female. No spatial or temporal clusters of CDI cases were detected compared to C. difficile-negative diarrhoeic controls. Except for one false-positive signal, no spatiotemporal interaction amongst CDI cases was found. Livestock exposure was not related to CA-CDI (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-2.24). Ten percent of CA-CDIs was caused by PCR ribotype 078, spatially dispersed throughout the study area. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of clusters of CDI cases in a community cohort of diarrhoeic patients suggests a lack of localized point sources of CDI in the living environment of these patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium/epidemiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental , Gado , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Adulto Jovem
9.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 179(6): 429-436, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30325179

RESUMO

Objective Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a malignancy with a poor prognosis. Many publications in ACC report on risk factors for a poor outcome; one risk factor studied is hormonal hypersecretion (cortisol, sex-hormones, steroid precursors or aldosterone). The aim of this systematic review was to study the association between hormonal secretion and recurrence or mortality in ACC. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, EMBASE and The Cochrane library (January 2018) for cohort studies examining the association between hormonal secretion on overall or recurrence-free survival in ACC. Methods A random-effects model meta-analysis was performed to obtain a weighted relative risk comparing cortisol-secreting and/or androgen-secreting ACCs to non-secreting tumours regarding overall and recurrence-free survival. Risk of bias assessment was performed for all studies included. Results Nineteen publications were included representing a total of 3814 patients. Most studies were generally considered low/intermediate risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed higher mortality risk for cortisol-secreting ACCs, weighted relative risk 1.71 (95% CI: 1.18-2.47) combining studies that adjusted for tumour stage; also a higher recurrence risk was found for cortisol producing ACCs, relative risk 1.43 (95% CI: 1.18-1.73). Androgen secretion was not clearly associated with survival (RR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.60-1.12). Conclusion This systematic review and meta-analysis show that cortisol-secreting ACCs are associated with a worse overall survival; future research is needed to establish whether this association points to negative effects of cortisol action, whether it signifies a more aggressive ACC subtype or whether cortisol is merely a prognostic marker.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/sangue , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/mortalidade , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/sangue , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/mortalidade , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Neoplasias do Córtex Suprarrenal/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Adrenocortical/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências
10.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 18(1): 67, 2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical hypothyroidism is common in older people and its contribution to health and disease needs to be elucidated further. Observational and clinical trial data on the clinical effects of subclinical hypothyroidism in persons aged 80 years and over is inconclusive, with some studies suggesting harm and some suggesting benefits, translating into equipoise whether levothyroxine therapy provides clinical benefits. This manuscript describes the study protocol for the Institute for Evidence-Based Medicine in Old Age (IEMO) 80-plus thyroid trial to generate the necessary evidence base. METHODS: The IEMO 80-plus thyroid trial was explicitly designed as an ancillary experiment to the Thyroid hormone Replacement for Untreated older adults with Subclinical hypothyroidism randomised placebo controlled Trial (TRUST) with a near identical protocol and shared research infrastructure. Outcomes will be presented separately for the IEMO and TRUST 80-plus groups, as well as a pre-planned combined analysis of the 145 participants included in the IEMO trial and the 146 participants from the TRUST thyroid trial aged 80 years and over. The IEMO 80-plus thyroid trial is a multi-centre randomised double-blind placebo-controlled parallel group trial of levothyroxine treatment in community-dwelling participants aged 80 years and over with persistent subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH ≥4.6 and ≤ 19.9 mU/L and fT4 within laboratory reference ranges). Participants are randomised to levothyroxine 25 or 50 micrograms daily or matching placebo with dose titrations according to TSH levels, for a minimum follow-up of one and a maximum of three years. Primary study endpoints: hypothyroid physical symptoms and tiredness on the thyroid-related quality of life patient-reported outcome (ThyPRO) at one year. Secondary endpoints: generic quality of life, executive cognitive function, handgrip strength, functional ability, blood pressure, weight, body mass index, and mortality. Adverse events will be recorded with specific interest on cardiovascular endpoints such as atrial fibrillation and heart failure. DISCUSSION: The combined analysis of participants in the IEMO 80-plus thyroid trial with the participants aged over 80 in the TRUST trial will provide the largest experimental evidence base on multimodal effects of levothyroxine treatment in 80-plus persons to date. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Nederlands (Dutch) Trial Register: NTR3851 (12-02-2013), EudraCT: 2012-004160-22 (17-02-2013), ABR-41259.058.13 (12-02-2013).


Assuntos
Hipotireoidismo/diagnóstico , Hipotireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Tiroxina/uso terapêutico , Fatores Etários , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 44(9): 1338-1343, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960770

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this EURECCA international comparison is to compare oncologic treatment strategies and relative survival of patients with stage I-III rectal cancer between European countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Population-based national cohort data from the Netherlands (NL), Belgium (BE), Denmark (DK), Sweden (SE), England (ENG), Ireland (IE), Spain (ES), and single-centre data from Lithuania (LT) were obtained. All operated patients with (y)pTNM stage I-III rectal cancer diagnosed between 2004 and 2009 were included. Oncologic treatment strategies and relative survival were calculated and compared between neighbouring countries. RESULTS: We included 57,120 patients. Treatment strategies differed between NL and BE (p < 0.001), DK and SE (p < 0.001), and ENG and IE (p < 0.001). More preoperative radiotherapy as single treatment before surgery was administered in NL compared with BE (59.7% vs. 13.1%), in SE compared with DK (55.1% vs. 10.4%), and in ENG compared with IE (15.2% vs. 9.6%). Less postoperative chemotherapy was given in NL (9.6% vs. 39.1%), in SE (7.9% vs. 14.1%), and in IE (12.6% vs. 18.5%) compared with their neighbouring country. In ES, 55.1% of patients received preoperative chemoradiation and 62.3% postoperative chemotherapy. There were no significant differences in relative survival between neighbouring countries. CONCLUSION: Large differences in oncologic treatment strategies for patients with (y)pTNM I-III rectal cancer were observed across European countries. No clear relation between oncologic treatment strategies and relative survival was observed. Further research into selection criteria for specific treatments could eventually lead to individualised and optimal treatment for patients with non-metastasised rectal cancer.


Assuntos
Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Vigilância da População , Neoplasias Retais/terapia , Idoso , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Terapia Combinada , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Neoplasias Retais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Suécia
12.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 179(3): 153-160, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29903750

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Epigenetic changes contribute to pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PanNET) development. Hypermethylation of promoter DNA as a cause of tumor suppressor gene silencing is a well-established oncogenic mechanism that is potentially reversible and therefore an interesting therapeutic target. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is the most frequent cause of inherited PanNETs. The aim of this study was to determine promoter methylation profiles in MEN1-related PanNETs. DESIGN AND METHODS: Methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification was used to assess promoter methylation of 56 tumor suppressor genes in MEN1-related (n = 61) and sporadic (n = 34) PanNETs. Differences in cumulative methylation index (CMI), individual methylation percentages and frequency of promoter hypermethylation between subgroups were analyzed. RESULTS: We found promoter methylation of a large number of potential tumor suppressor genes. CMI (median CMI: 912 vs 876, P = 0.207) was the same in MEN1-related and sporadic PanNETs. We found higher methylation percentages of CASP8 in MEN1-related PanNETs (median: 59% vs 16.5%, P = 0.002). In MEN1-related non-functioning PanNETs, the CMI was higher in larger PanNETs (>2 cm) (median: 969.5 vs 838.5; P = 0.021) and in PanNETs with liver metastases (median: 1036 vs 869; P = 0.013). Hypermethylation of MGMT2 was more frequent in non-functioning PanNETs compared to insulinomas (median: 44.7% vs 8.3%; P = 0.022). Hypermethylation of the Von Hippel-Lindau gene promoter was observed in one MEN1-related PanNET and was associated with loss of protein expression. CONCLUSION: Promoter hypermethylation is a frequent event in MEN1-related and sporadic PanNETs. Targeting DNA methylation could be of therapeutic value in MEN1 patients with advanced PanNETs.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína Supressora de Tumor Von Hippel-Lindau/genética
13.
J Infect ; 76(6): 550-562, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29727605

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Successful treatment of haematological malignancies is frequently complicated by Invasive Aspergillosis (IA), a life-threatening fungal infection that occurs in at least 10% of haemato-oncological patients. Case fatality rates (CFR) may fluctuate over time, depending on host pathogen interactions as well as on treatment and quality of patient care. We conducted a systematic review and metaanalysis of current - i.e. 2008-revised EORTC-MSG criteria era - incidence and case fatality rates (CFR) of IA in patients with haematological malignancy. METHODS: A systematic search according to PRISMA guidelines was performed to identify all literature reporting populations with a haematological malignancy and the incidence of IA, defined according to the EORTC/MSG 2008 criteria. Pooled cumulative incidences and CFR within 100 days were estimated using a random effects model for predefined patient populations and stratified by use of prophylaxis. RESULTS: The systematic literature search yielded 1285 publications of which n = 49 met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 16.815 patients were involved of which 1056 (6.3%) developed IA. IA risk ranged from 4% (during remission-induction, with prophylaxis) to 11% (during remission-induction, without prophylaxis). Antifungal prophylaxis was associated with a lower rate of IA, especially in the pre-HSCT population. The pooled CFR within 100 days was 29% (95% CI: 20-38%). DISCUSSION: This study confirms that IA is a relevant threat in the treatment of haematological cancer despite the universal use of antifungal prophylaxis. These outcomes inform scientists and other stakeholders about the current burden of IA and may be used to direct, implement and improve antifungal stewardship programs.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/epidemiologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/microbiologia , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/epidemiologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose/mortalidade , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Incidência , Leucemia/complicações
14.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 26(8): 992-1002, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777863

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Subchondral bone abnormalities (SBAs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are observed frequently and associated with disease course in various musculoskeletal disorders. This review aims to map the existing knowledge of their underlying histological features, and to identify needs for future research. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic review following PRISMA guidelines until September 2017, including all studies correlating histological features to on MRI defined SBAs in patients with osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthritis (SpA) and degenerative disc disease (DDD). Two authors independently retrieved articles and assessed study quality. RESULTS: A total of 21 studies (466 patients) correlated histological features to SBAs in OA (n = 13), RA (n = 3), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) (n = 1) and DDD (n = 4). Reported changes in OA were substitution of normal subchondral bone with fibrosis and necrosis, and increased bone remodeling. In contrast, in RA, AS or DDD fibrosis was not reported and SBAs correlated to an increase in inflammatory cell number. In DDD necrosis was observed. Similar to OA, increased bone remodeling was shown in RA and DDD. The risk of bias assessment showed a lack in described patient criteria, blinding and/or adequate topographic correlation in approximately half of studies. There was heterogeneity regarding the investigated histological features between the different disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Current studies suggest that SBAs correlate to various histological features, including fibrosis, cell death, inflammation and bone remodeling. In the majority of studies most quality criteria were not met. Future studies should aim for high quality research, and consistency in investigated features between different disorders.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/patologia , Inflamação/patologia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/patologia , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Humanos , Degeneração do Disco Intervertebral/patologia , Osteoartrite/patologia , Espondilite Anquilosante/patologia
15.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 162: D2163, 2018.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29600924

RESUMO

- In randomised trials on the effects of a medical treatment, the power of the trial corresponds to the conditional probability that the conclusion of the trial will be that the treatment is effective, given a certain treatment effect.- The time to consider the power of a trial is before conducting the study, to ensure that the design of the trial is such that there is a reasonable chance of demonstrating a clinically relevant effect.


Assuntos
Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Probabilidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 162: D2161, 2018.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29393014

RESUMO

- An often provided interpretation of a significant p-value (p < 0.05) is that 'the probability the conclusion is incorrect, is only 5%'. This interpretation is incorrect.- It can be shown that for observational studies, in case of p < 0.05, the probability of a false positive signal is around 50%. This means that significant p-values give us much less certainty about the reliability of a conclusion than we like to believe.- Much would be gained already if the emphasis on p-values would be replaced by: (a) an estimation of the effect size in combination with the corresponding statistical uncertainty (represented by the confidence interval), (b) an assessment of the clinical relevance of that effect, and


Assuntos
Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Probabilidade , Intervalos de Confiança , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Incerteza
17.
J Reprod Immunol ; 126: 46-52, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29481987

RESUMO

HLA-G expressed by trophoblasts at the fetal-maternal interface and its soluble form have immunomodulatory effects. HLA-G expression depends on the combination of DNA polymorphisms. We hypothesized that combinations of specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of HLA-G play a role in unexplained recurrent miscarriage. In a case control design, 100 cases with at least three unexplained consecutive miscarriages prior to the 20th week of gestation were included. Cases were at time of the third miscarriage younger than 36 years, and they conceived all their pregnancies from the same partner. The control group included 89 women with an uneventful pregnancy. The association of HLA-G 3'UTR SNPs and specific HLA-G haplotype with recurrent miscarriage was studied with logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were reported. Individual SNPs were not significantly associated with recurrent miscarriage after correction for multiple comparisons. However, the presence of the UTR-4 haplotype, which included +3003C, was significantly lower in women with recurrent miscarriage (OR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8, p = 0.015). In conclusion, this is the first study to perform a comprehensive analysis of HLA-G SNPs and HLA-G haplotypes in a well-defined group of women with recurrent miscarriage and women with uneventful pregnancy. The UTR-4 haplotype was less frequently observed in women with recurrent miscarriage, suggesting an immunoregulatory role of this haplotype for continuation of the pregnancy without complications. Thus, association of HLA-G with recurrent miscarriage is not related to single polymorphisms in the 3'UTR, but is rather dependent on haplotypes.


Assuntos
Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Aborto Habitual/genética , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA-G/genética , Trofoblastos/fisiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Haplótipos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez
18.
Eur. j. endocrinol ; 178(1)Jan. 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | BIGG | ID: biblio-947315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pituitary tumours are common and easily treated by surgery or medical treatment in most cases. However, a small subset of pituitary tumours does not respond to standard medical treatment and presents with multiple local recurrences (aggressive pituitary tumours) and in rare occasion with metastases (pituitary carcinoma). The present European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) guideline aims to provide clinical guidance on diagnosis, treatment and follow-up in aggressive pituitary tumours and carcinomas. METHODS: We decided upfront, while acknowledging that literature on aggressive pituitary tumours and carcinomas is scarce, to systematically review the literature according to the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. The review focused primarily on first- and second-line treatment in aggressive pituitary tumours and carcinomas. We included 14 single-arm cohort studies (total number of patients = 116) most on temozolomide treatment (n = 11 studies, total number of patients = 106). A positive treatment effect was seen in 47% (95% CI: 36-58%) of temozolomide treated. Data from the recently performed ESE survey on aggressive pituitary tumours and carcinomas (165 patients) were also used as backbone for the guideline. SELECTED RECOMMENDATION: (i) Patients with aggressive pituitary tumours should be managed by a multidisciplinary expert team. (ii) Histopathological analyses including pituitary hormones and proliferative markers are needed for correct tumour classification. (iii) Temozolomide monotherapy is the first-line chemotherapy for aggressive pituitary tumours and pituitary carcinomas after failure of standard therapies; treatment evaluation after 3 cycles allows identification of responder and non-responder patients. (iv) In patients responding to first-line temozolomide, we suggest continuing treatment for at least 6 months in total. Furthermore, the guideline offers recommendations for patients who recurred after temozolomide treatment, for those who did not respond to temozolomide and for patients with systemic metastasis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/tratamento farmacológico
19.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 41(6): 655-661, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29134609

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are a major manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). This tumor syndrome is caused by germline mutations in MEN1, encoding menin. Insight into pathogenesis of these tumors might lead to new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for these patients. Several lines of evidence point towards a role for p27Kip1 and p18Ink4c in MEN1-related tumor development in animal models for MEN1, but their contribution to human MEN1-related pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor development is not known. METHODS: In this study, we characterized protein expression of p27Kip1 and p18Ink4c in human MEN1-related PanNETs by immunohistochemistry. From the nationwide DutchMEN1 Study Group database including > 90% of the Dutch MEN1 population, MEN1-patients, who underwent pancreatic surgery, were selected. A tissue micro-array was constructed with available paraffin tissue blocks, and PanNETs from 61 MEN1 patients were eligible for analysis. RESULTS: Expression of p27Kip1 was high in 57 (93%) PanNETs and 67% of the tumors showed low expression of p18Ink4c (67.3%). No association was found between expression of either p27Kip1 or p18Ink4c and clinic-pathological characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that loss of p18Ink4c, but not p27Kip1, is a common event in the development of MEN1-related PanNETs. Restoration of p18Ink4c function through CDK4/6 inhibitors could be a therapeutic option for MEN1-related PanNETs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p18/metabolismo , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p27/metabolismo , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1/complicações , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/etiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/etiologia , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
20.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 27(2): 186-198, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27989254

RESUMO

AIMS: Several authors claimed that expression of suicidal ideation is one of the most important predictors of completed suicide. However, the strength of the association between suicidal ideation and subsequent completed suicide has not been firmly established in different populations. Furthermore, the absolute suicide risk after expression of suicidal ideation is unknown. In this meta-analysis, we examined whether the expression of suicidal ideation predicted subsequent completed suicide in various populations, including both psychiatric and non-psychiatric populations. METHODS: A meta-analysis of cohort and case-control studies that assessed suicidal ideation as determinant for completed suicide in adults. Two independent reviewers screened 5726 articles for eligibility and extracted data of the 81 included studies. Pooled risk ratios were estimated in a random effects model stratified for different populations. Meta-regression analysis was used to determine suicide risk during the first year of follow-up. RESULTS: The risk for completed suicide was clearly higher in people who had expressed suicidal ideation compared with people who had not, with substantial variation between the different populations: risk ratio ranging from 2.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43-3.87) in affective disorder populations to 8.00 (95% CI 5.46-11.7) in non-psychiatric populations. In contrast, the suicide risk after expression of suicidal ideation in the first year of follow-up was higher in psychiatric patients (risk 1.40%, 95% CI 0.74-2.64) than in non-psychiatric participants (risk 0.23%, 95% CI 0.10-0.54). Past suicide attempt-adjusted risk ratios were not pooled due to large underreporting. CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of suicidal ideation is of priority in psychiatric patients. Expression of suicidal ideation in psychiatric patients should prompt secondary prevention strategies to reduce their substantial increased risk of suicide.


Assuntos
Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Suicídio/psicologia
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