Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 78
Filtrar
1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 16(5): e0010461, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35617354

RESUMO

Angiostrongylus cantonensis (AC) is well-documented that parasitizes the host brain and causes eosinophilic meningitis. The migration route of AC in permissive hosts is well demonstrated, while in nonpermissive hosts, it remains to be fully defined. In the present study, we exploited live imaging technology, morphological and pathological configuration analysis, and molecular biological technologies to explore the migration route of AC and the accompanying tissue damage in nonpermissive and permissive hosts. Our data indicated that, in nonpermissive host mouse, AC larvae migrated from intestinal wall to liver at 2 hours post-infection (hpi), from liver to lung at 4 hpi and then from lung to brain at 8 hpi. AC larval migration caused fatal lung injury (pneumonia) during acute and early infection phases, along with significant activation of Stat3/IL-6 signaling. In addition, AC induce sustained interstitial pneumonia in mouse and rat and pulmonary fibrosis only in rat during late infection phase. Moreover, during the early and late infection phases, Th2 cytokine expression and Stat3 and IL-6 signaling were persistently enhanced and myeloid macrophage cells were notably enriched in host lung, and administration of Stat3 and IL-6 inhibitors (C188-9 and LMT-28) attenuated AC infection-induced acute pneumonia in mice. Overall, we are the first to provide direct and systemic laboratory evidence of AC migration route in a nonpermissive host and report that infection with a high dose of AC larvae could result in acute and fatal pneumonia through Stat3/IL-6 signaling in mice. These findings may present a feasible to rational strategy to minimize the pathogenesis induced by AC.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus cantonensis , Meningite , Pneumonia , Infecções por Strongylida , Animais , Interleucina-6/genética , Camundongos , Ratos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Infecções por Strongylida/patologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6915, 2022 04 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35484317

RESUMO

Gnathostomiasis is a food-borne zoonotic disease that can affect humans who eat improperly cooked meat containg infective third-stage larvae. Definitive diagnosis is through larval recovery. However, this is an invasive technique and is impractical if the larvae have encysted in inaccessible areas of the body. Antigen or antibody detection might be more interesting techniques for diagnosis. Proteomic could elucidate diagnostic markers and improve our understanding of parasite biology. However, proteomic studies on Gnathostoma spinigerum are hampered by the lack of a comprehensive database for protein identification. This study aimed to explore the protein and antigen profiles of advanced third-stage G. spinigerum larvae (aL3Gs) using interrogation of mass spectrometry data and an in-house transcriptomic database for protein identification. Immunoproteomic analysis found 74 proteins in 24-kDa SDS-PAGE bands, which is size-specific for the immunodiagnosis of gnathostomiasis. Moreover, 13 proteins were found in 2-DE 24-kDa bands. The data suggest that collagenase 3, cathepsin B, glutathione S-transferase 1, cuticle collagen 14, major antigen, zinc metalloproteinase nas-4, major egg antigen, peroxiredoxin, and superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] may be good candidates for novel human gnathostomiasis diagnostic assays. These findings improve our understanding of the parasite's biology and provide additional potential targets for novel therapeutics, diagnostics, and vaccines.


Assuntos
Gnathostoma , Gnatostomíase , Animais , Antígenos de Helmintos , Gnathostoma/genética , Gnatostomíase/diagnóstico , Gnatostomíase/parasitologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Larva , Proteômica , Transcriptoma
3.
Neurol India ; 70(1): 395-398, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263926

RESUMO

Eosinophilic myelitis is an important cause of transverse myelopathy and has to be considered in an appropriate clinical setting. Eosinophilic myelitis due to parasitic infection should be suspected in cases with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) eosinophilia along with migratory serpiginous skin lesions and recent travel to endemic areas. We report a case with a 1-month history of fever followed by truncal paresthesias, erythematous creeping skin eruptions, and paraparesis with blood and CSF eosinophilia on a background history of consuming undercooked fish. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) spine showed long segment T2 hyperintensities with contrast enhancement. He was tested positive for 24kDa antigenic component of Gnathostoma spinigerum in CSF and serum by immunoblot testing. The patient showed significant improvement with parenteral steroids.


Assuntos
Eosinofilia , Gnathostoma , Gnatostomíase , Mielite , Doenças da Medula Espinal , Animais , Eosinofilia/complicações , Gnatostomíase/complicações , Gnatostomíase/parasitologia , Humanos , Masculino , Mielite/diagnóstico por imagem
4.
Trop Med Int Health ; 26(12): 1634-1644, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510662

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were two-fold: (1) antigen (Ag) preparation and evaluation of three antigens of Gnathostoma spinigerum infective larvae (GsL3), crude somatic antigen (CSAg), excretory-secretory antigen (ESAg) and partially purified antigens (namely P1Ag, P2Ag and P3Ag) to differentiate IgE, IgG, IgG1-4 and IgM for human gnathostomiasis diagnosis; and (2) application of the selected ELISA for following up stored sera of patients treated with ivermectin (IVM) and albendazole (ABZ). METHODS: Different antigens were analysed by antibodies of gnathostomiasis cases, other parasite infections and healthy controls using indirect ELISA to differentiate IgE, IgG, IgG1-4 and IgM. Then, prominent antigen and immunoglobulin were used in antibody predictions of gnathostomiasis cases treated with albendazole or ivermectin. RESULTS: Sensitivity of all evaluated ELISAs: IgM-, IgG-, IgG1- and IgG4-ELISA, was 100%. IgM-ELISA with CSAg and P3Ag exhibited the highest specificity of 99%. IgG-ELISA with P2Ag resulted in the highest specificity of 92.3%. IgG1-ELISA with P2Ag and P3Ag showed excellent results with 100% specificity. Finally, P2Ag evaluated IgG1 of the followed-up cases with ABZ and IVM. Decreasing antibody IgG1 levels were mostly found in both treatments at Month 9 and long follow-up was over 12 months. A Gnathostoma worm was extracted from each two treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Using IgG1-ELISA against P2Ag and P3Ag gave excellent results with 100% sensitivity and specificity. These tests can be an alternative to immunoblotting for gnathostomiasis. IgG1 decreased at least 9 months in most cases, so long-term treatment should be performed over 1 year.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/imunologia , Gnathostoma/imunologia , Gnatostomíase/sangue , Gnatostomíase/diagnóstico , Testes Imunológicos/métodos , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/sangue , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos/imunologia , Antiparasitários/uso terapêutico , Gnatostomíase/tratamento farmacológico , Gnatostomíase/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Imunoglobulina M/imunologia , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Larva/imunologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
Food Waterborne Parasitol ; 24: e00128, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458598

RESUMO

Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the main causative agent of human neuroangiostrongyliasis, is a food-borne parasitic zoonosis, particularly in Southeast Asia and Mainland China. Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, a cryptic species, has not been unequivocally identified as a causative agent for human angiostrongyliasis. Here, we investigated a local incidence of human angiostrongyliasis in Kalasin Province, northeastern part of Thailand. Field and laboratory investigations, clinical symptoms, and treatment of the disease are also discussed. Five sera and three cerebrospinal fluid samples were taken from each patient who displayed clinical symptoms of mild or severe headache without neck stiffness after ingesting a local dish containing Pila virescens. With molecular evidence using PCR and DNA sequencing approaches, we confirmed the presence of A. malaysiensis and A. cantonensis DNA in the patient samples. In addition, P. virescens and Pomacea canaliculata collected in the vicinity were also examined for the existence of angistrongylid larvae. The rate of infection in the snail population was 33.3% (18 infection out of 54 examined), with A. cantonensis as the predominant species. Notably, two snails were found to be co-infected with both A. malaysiensis and A. cantonensis. This discovery comes after several years of suspicion that it could be a zoonotic pathogen. Therefore, our findings are important for public health and clinical diagnosis since clinicians are not aware of the zoonotic potential of A. malaysiensis in humans.

6.
Acta Trop ; 223: 106082, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364893

RESUMO

Helminthiases are common neglected tropical diseases in Thailand, thus regular surveillance is necessary for their control. During fiscal year 2019, the Thailand Ministry of Public Health carried out a cross-sectional nationwide survey in people of all age groups from the 12 Regional Health Offices in 76 provinces of Thailand. Multi-stage cluster random sampling design was employed to assess the prevalence of helminth infections and certain behavioural risk factors. A total of 16,187 stool samples and demographic data were obtained from the participants. Stool examination was done and parasite eggs/lavae were identified microscopically by experienced technicians. Positive stool samples for Opisthorchis viverrini, hookworms, or Ascaris lumbricoides were further quantified and expressed in eggs per gram feces (EPG). The results revealed an overall prevalence of helminthic infections of 9.79% with over 14 species identified. The highest prevalence was hookworms (4.47%) followed by O. viverrini (2.2%) with mean infection intensities of 222.7 EPG and 120.9, respectively. The majority of the infections were low intensity (97.4% for hookworms and 99.1% for O. viverrini). Similarly for A. lumbricoides, 93.9% of the positive cases were low infections. Two major helminthiases caused by hookworms and O. viverrini were highlighted in this report. While the liver fluke was highly endemic in Northeast Thailand, the hookworms were prevalent in the southmost region of the country. Association with demographic characteristics and risk behaviors of the two parasites were analyzed and presented in this study. Overall, this countrywide survey provides basic information of the current status of helminth infections in Thailand. Moreover, the data clearly indicates a dramatic reduction of O. viverrini prevalence likely due to extensive control activities under the national campaign against the liver fluke over the past five years.


Assuntos
Helmintíase , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Fezes , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Opistorquíase , Opisthorchis , Prevalência , Tailândia/epidemiologia
7.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(7): e0009597, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310596

RESUMO

Soil-transmitted helminths, such as roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), whipworms (Trichuris trichiura) and hookworms (Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp.), are gastrointestinal parasites that occur predominantly in low- to middle-income countries worldwide and disproportionally impact children. Depending on the STH species, health status of the host and infection intensity, direct impacts of these parasites include malnutrition, anaemia, diarrhoea and physical and cognitive stunting. The indirect consequences of these infections are less well understood. Specifically, gastrointestinal infections may exert acute or chronic impacts on the natural gut microfauna, leading to increased risk of post-infectious gastrointestinal disorders, and reduced gut and overall health through immunomodulating mechanisms. To date a small number of preliminary studies have assessed the impact of helminths on the gut microbiome, but these studies are conflicting. Here, we assessed STH burden in 273 pre-school and school-aged children in Tha Song Yang district, Tak province, Thailand receiving annual oral mebendazole treatment. Ascaris lumbricoides (107/273) and Trichuris trichiura (100/273) were the most prevalent species and often occurred as co-infections (66/273). Ancylostoma ceylanicum was detected in a small number of children as well (n = 3). All of these infections were of low intensity (<4,999 or 999 eggs per gram for Ascaris and Trichuris respectively). Using this information, we characterised the baseline gut microbiome profile and investigated acute STH-induced alterations, comparing infected with uninfected children at the time of sampling. We found no difference between these groups in bacterial alpha-diversity, but did observe differences in beta-diversity and specific differentially abundant OTUs, including increased Akkermansia muciniphila and Bacteroides coprophilus, and reduced Bifidobacterium adolescentis, each of which have been previously implicated in STH-associated changes in the gut microfauna.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Helmintíase/tratamento farmacológico , Mebendazol/uso terapêutico , Solo/parasitologia , Anti-Helmínticos/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Mebendazol/administração & dosagem , Tailândia/epidemiologia
8.
Parasite ; 28: 53, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142955

RESUMO

Taeniasis remains a prevalent public health problem in Thailand. National helminthiasis surveys report only the incidence of Taenia spp. eggs. The ability to differentiate Taenia species using morphological and molecular techniques is vital for epidemiological surveys. This study detected taeniasis carriers and other helminthic infections by Kato's thick smear technique and identified the Taenia species by multiplex PCR. The study subjects were the ethnic Karen people in Tha Song Yang District, Tak Province, Thailand, bordering Myanmar. In total, 983 faecal samples from villagers were examined for helminthiases. Interview-based questionnaires were used to gather information on possible risk factors for infection. The prevalence of helminth infections was 42.7% (420/983), including single (37.3%, 367/983) and mixed infections (5.4%, 53/983). The most common infection (19.23%, 189/983) was Ascaris lumbricoides, whereas taeniasis carriers comprised 2.8% (28/983). Multiplex PCR of Cox1 was used for species identification of Taenia tapeworms, eggs, or both in 22 taeniasis carriers. Most of the parasites (20 cases) were Taenia solium, with two cases of Taenia saginata. Taenia saginata asiatica was not found in the villagers examined. The analysis of 314 completed questionnaires showed that a statistically significant (p < 0.05) risk of taeniasis was correlated with being male, a history of being allowed to forage during childhood, a history of seeing tapeworm proglottids, and a history of raw or undercooked pork consumption. Health education programmes must seek to reduce and prevent reinfection in these communities.


TITLE: Facteurs de risque et prévalence de la téniase chez les Karens du district de Tha Song Yang, province de Tak, Thaïlande. ABSTRACT: La téniase reste un problème de santé publique répandu en Thaïlande. Les enquêtes nationales sur les helminthiases ne rapportent que l'incidence des œufs de Taenia spp. La capacité de différencier les espèces de Taenia à l'aide de techniques morphologiques et moléculaires est vitale pour les enquêtes épidémiologiques. Cette étude a détecté des porteurs de téniase et d'autres infections helminthiques par la technique de frottis épais de Kato et a identifié les espèces de Taenia par PCR multiplex. Les sujets de l'étude étaient les Karens du district de Tha Song Yang, province de Tak, Thaïlande, à la frontière du Myanmar. Au total, 983 échantillons de matières fécales provenant de villageois ont été examinés pour les helminthiases. Des questionnaires basés sur des entretiens ont été utilisés pour recueillir des informations sur les facteurs de risque possibles d'infection. La prévalence des helminthes était de 42,7 % (420/983), dont des infections uniques (37,3 %, 367/983) et mixtes (5,4 %, 53/983). L'infection la plus courante (19,23 %, 189/983) était Ascaris lumbricoides, tandis que les porteurs de téniase représentaient 2,8 % (28/983). La PCR multiplexe de Cox1 a été utilisée pour l'identification des adultes ou des oeufs de Taenia, ou des deux, chez 22 porteurs de téniase. La plupart des parasites (20 cas) étaient Taenia solium, avec deux cas de Taenia saginata. Taenia saginata asiatica n'a pas été trouvé chez les villageois examinés. L'analyse de 314 questionnaires a montré qu'un risque statistiquement significatif (p < 0,05) de téniase était en corrélation avec le fait d'être un homme, et des antécédents d'avoir été autorisé à ramasser sa nourriture pendant l'enfance, d'avoir vu des proglottis de ténia et de consommation de porc cru ou insuffisamment cuit. Les programmes d'éducation sanitaire doivent chercher à réduire et à prévenir la réinfection dans ces communautés.


Assuntos
Taenia , Teníase , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Mianmar , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Teníase/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
9.
Cell Mol Neurobiol ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683530

RESUMO

Angiostrongylus cantonensis (AC) can cause severe eosinophilic meningitis or encephalitis in non-permissive hosts accompanied by apoptosis and necroptosis of brain cells. However, the explicit underlying molecular basis of apoptosis and necroptosis upon AC infection has not yet been elucidated. To determine the specific pathways of apoptosis and necroptosis upon AC infection, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis for gene expression microarray (accession number: GSE159486) of mouse brain infected by AC revealed that TNF-α likely played a central role in the apoptosis and necroptosis in the context of AC infection, which was further confirmed via an in vivo rescue assay after treating with TNF-α inhibitor. The signalling axes involved in apoptosis and necroptosis were investigated via immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. Immunofluorescence was used to identify the specific cells that underwent apoptosis or necroptosis. The results showed that TNF-α induced apoptosis of astrocytes through the RIP1/FADD/Caspase-8 axis and induced necroptosis of neurons by the RIP3/MLKL signalling pathway. In addition, in vitro assay revealed that TNF-α secretion by microglia increased upon LSA stimulation and caused necroptosis of neurons. The present study provided the first evidence that TNF-α was secreted by microglia stimulated by AC infection, which caused cell death via parallel pathways of astrocyte apoptosis (mediated by the RIP1/FADD/caspase-8 axis) and neuron necroptosis (driven by the RIP3/MLKL complex). Our research comprehensively elucidated the mechanism of cell death after AC infection and provided new insight into targeting TNF-α signalling as a therapeutic strategy for CNS injury.

10.
Int J Parasitol ; 51(9): 741-748, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774039

RESUMO

Molecular studies of gastrointestinal infections or microbiotas require either rapid sample processing or effective interim preservation. This is difficult in remote settings in low-income countries, where the majority of the global infectious disease burden exists. Processing or freezing of samples immediately upon collection is often not feasible and the cost of commercial preservatives is prohibitive. We compared fresh freezing (the 'gold standard' method), with low-cost chemical preservation in (i) a salt-based buffer consisting of DMSO, EDTA and NaCl (DESS) or (ii) 2.5% potassium dichromate (PD), for soil-transmitted helminth detection and microbiota characterisation in pre-school and school-aged children from north-western Thailand. Fresh frozen samples were frozen at -20°C on collection and maintained at -80°C within ~3 days of collection until molecular analysis, with international shipping on dry ice. In contrast, chemically preserved samples were collected and stored at ~4°C, transported on wet ice and only stored at -20°C on arrival in Australia ~8 weeks after collection, with international shipping on wet ice. DESS and PD provided better sensitivity for STH diagnosis, estimating higher infection rates (>80% for Ascaris lumbricoides and >60% for Trichuris trichiura; versus 56% and 15% for these parasites in fresh frozen samples) and egg abundance (inferred as gene copy number estimates). All methods performed similarly for microbiota preservation, showing no significant differences in alpha-diversity based on overall richness or inverted Simpson's Index. All three methods performed similarly for RNA and protein preservation in a small subset of samples. Overall, DESS provided the best performance, with the added benefit of being non-toxic, compared with PD, hence making it particularly applicable for studies in remote and resource-poor settings.


Assuntos
Helmintos , Microbiota , Animais , Criança , Fezes , Humanos , Solo , Trichuris
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239264, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925984

RESUMO

Cryptozona siamensis, one of the most widespread land snails, is native to Thailand, and plays a key role as an agricultural pest and intermediate host for Angiostrongylus spp. However, its genetic diversity and population structure has not yet been investigated, and are poorly understood. Therefore, a genetic analysis of the C. siamensis population in Thailand was conducted, based mitochondrial 16S rRNA (402 bp) and COI (602 bp) gene fragment sequences. Cryptozona siamensis randomly collected from 17 locations in four populations across Thailand, between May 2017 and July 2018. Fifty-eight snails were used to examine the phylogeny, genetic diversity, and genetic structure. The maximum likelihood tree based on the 16S rRNA and COI fragment sequences revealed two main clades. A total of 14 haplotypes with 44 nucleotide variable sites were found in the 16S rRNA sequences, while 14 haplotypes with 57 nucleotide variable sites were found in the COI sequences. The genetic diversity of C. siamensis in term of the number of haplotypes and haplotype diversity, was found to be high but the nucleotide diversity showed low levels of genetic differentiation for the COI sequence as also noted with the 16S rRNA sequence. The population genetic structure of C. siamensis revealed genetic difference in most populations in Thailand. However, low genetic difference in some populations may be due to high gene flow. This study provides novel insights into the basic molecular genetics of C. siamensis.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Genética Populacional , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Caramujos/genética , Angiostrongylus/patogenicidade , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Caramujos/parasitologia , Tailândia
12.
Korean J Parasitol ; 58(4): 475-479, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871643

RESUMO

Tegumental and excretory-secretory proteins are reported as diagnostic antigens for human opisthorchiasis. Rhophilin associated tail protein1-like (OvROPN1L) protein of Opisthorchis viverrini sperm tail showed potential as a diagnostic antigen. The OvROPN1L recombinant fragments were assayed for diagnostic antigenicity for human opisthorchiasis using indirect ELISA. The strongest antigenic region was a N-terminus peptide of M1 - P56. One synthetic peptide (P1, L3-Q13) of this region showed the highest antigenicity to opisthorchiasis. Sera from other parasitic infections including Strongyloides stercoralis, hookworm, Taenia spp, minute intestinal flukes, Paragonimus spp showed lower reactivity to P1. Peptide P1 is located in the disordered N-terminus of ROPN1L supporting its suitability as linear epitope. In the Platyhelminthes the N-terminal sequence of ROPN1L is diverging with taxonomic distance further suggesting that peptide P1 has potential as diagnostic tool in the genus Opisthorchis/Clonorchis. It should be further evaluated in combination with peptides derived from other O. viverrini antigens to increase its diagnostic power.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Helmintos/análise , Opistorquíase/diagnóstico , Opistorquíase/parasitologia , Opisthorchis/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Epitopos , Glicosiltransferases/análise , Humanos , Opisthorchis/imunologia
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 1129-1134, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588815

RESUMO

Gnathostomiasis is a helminthic infection caused by the third-stage larvae of nematodes of the genus Gnathostoma. The life cycle in humans starts with an enteric phase, with the worm perforating the gastric or intestinal mucosa to reach the peritoneal cavity and migrating through the human body. Subsequent penetration through the diaphragm may produce pleuropulmonary symptoms. We herein present a previously healthy 56-year-old Thai man from Southern Thailand who was an ex-smoker presented with chronic dry cough progressing to hemoptysis after consuming grilled swamp eels and freshwater fish. Chest computed tomography showed consolidation at the lingular segment, and the differential diagnosis was primary lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis. The lung tissue biopsied during bronchoscopy displayed segments of organisms with the phenotypic characteristics of Gnathostoma spp., and abundant eosinophils were seen in the alveolar tissue. Gnathostoma spinigerum infection was confirmed by a Western blot assay for G. spinigerum-specific 24-kDa reactive band. The patient received albendazole, and a follow-up chest radiograph revealed improvement in the consolidation in the lung and reduction in hemoptysis. We report the first direct evidence including pathology and immunohistochemistry of Gnathostoma invasion via the human lung, with clinical and radiographic presentations mimicking either malignancy or chronic infection.


Assuntos
Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Gnatostomíase/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Smegmamorpha/parasitologia , Animais , Peixes , Água Doce , Gnathostoma , Gnatostomíase/tratamento farmacológico , Gnatostomíase/parasitologia , Gnatostomíase/patologia , Humanos , Larva , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/parasitologia , Pneumopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumopatias/parasitologia , Pneumopatias/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tailândia
14.
Front Immunol ; 11: 593, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32373112

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a zoonotic and debilitating parasitic disease caused by Schistosoma japonicum. Praziquantel remains the choice for treating schistosomiasis, but its efficacy could be hampered by emergence of resistance. In this study, using large-scale drug screening, we selected out myricetin, a natural flavonol compound, having a good anti-schistosome effect. We found that myricetin exhibited dose and time-dependent insecticidal effect on S. japonicum in vitro, with an LC50 of 600 µM for 24 h, and inhibited female spawning. The drug mainly destroyed the body structure of the worms and induced apoptosis of the worm cells, which in turn led to death. In addition, oral administration of myricetin in mice infected with S. japonicum showed a deworming effect in vivo, as evidenced by a significant reduction in the liver egg load. H&E staining, quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blotting assays showed that myricetin significantly alleviated liver fibrosis in mice infected with S. japonicum. Myricetin also effectively inhibited the expression of TGFß1, Smad2, phospho-Smad2, Smad3, phospho-Smad3, ERK, phospho-ERK, Akt, and phospho-Akt in the liver of infected mice, suggesting that myricetin attenuated liver fibrosis in mice via modulating TGFß1 and Akt signaling. Flow cytometric analysis of Th subtypes (Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg) in the mouse spleen further revealed that myricetin significantly increased the percentage Th1 cells in infected mice and reduced the proportion of Th2 cells and Th17 cells. Immunology multiplex assay further showed that myricetin attenuated S. japonicum-induced rise in the plasma levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, and IL-17A in infected mice while increasing the plasma contents of IFN-γ, IL-12, and IL-7. In conclusion, our study provides the first direct evidence that myricin possesses potent anti-schistosome activities in vitro and in vivo, and offers new insights into the mechanisms of action by myricetin. The present findings suggest that myricetin could be further explored as a therapeutic agent for S. japonicum.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Schistosoma japonicum/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquistossomose Japônica/tratamento farmacológico , Esquistossomose Japônica/imunologia , Animais , Cirrose Hepática/imunologia , Cirrose Hepática/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Coelhos , Esquistossomose Japônica/complicações , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Equilíbrio Th1-Th2/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
15.
Lupus ; 29(6): 539-546, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183590

RESUMO

Background: Strongyloidiasis can be fatal in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, but few epidemiological studies have investigated the burden of this tropical disease among the SLE population. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of strongyloidiasis among SLE patients in Southern Thailand. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 SLE patients attending the Rheumatology Clinic at Songklanagarind Hospital. Stool specimens were collected and examined using the direct smear technique and agar plate culture technique. Serum anti-Strongyloides stercoralis IgG was measured by IgG-ELISA. Results: The overall prevalence of strongyloidiasis by combined parasitologyl and/or serology was 15.6%. The prevalence of strongyloidiasis by parasitological methods was 2.2%. Positive parasitology and/or serology was associated with male sex and a SLE disease duration of less than two years. Conclusion: Strongyloidiasis is highly prevalent among the SLE population. A combination of serological and parasitological methods increases the rate of diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in SLE patients.


Assuntos
Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tailândia/epidemiologia
16.
Parasitol Res ; 119(3): 1011-1021, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932913

RESUMO

Human gnathostomiasis is mainly caused by third-stage larvae of Gnathostoma spinigerum (G. spinigerum L3). Excretory-secretory products (ES) released from infective helminthic larvae are associated with larval migration and host immunity modulation. Natural killer (NK) cells have important immune functions against helminth infection. Currently, the effects of ES from G. spinigerum L3 (G. spinigerum ES) on NK cell activity are unclear. This study investigated whether G. spinigerum ES affected human NK cells. Human normal peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures were used to mimic immune cells within the circulation. PBMC were co-cultured with G. spinigerum ES (0.01-0.05 µg/ml) for 5 or 7 days. Levels of IFN-γ in cultured supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expressions of mRNA encoding NK cell receptors, especially the C type killer cell lectin-like family (KLR; NKG2A, NKG2C, and NKG2D) and IFN-γ in ES induced PBMC were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). ES induced PBMC markedly decreased the levels of IFN-γ and increased the expressions of NKG2A and NKG2D on NK cells. In conclusion, low amounts of G. spinigerum ES modulated NK cells by downregulating the transcription of IFN-γ and upregulating the expressions of KLR (NKG2A and NKG2D receptors) during the 7-day observation period. These findings indicate more in-depth studies of NK cell function are required to better understand the mechanism involved in immune evasive strategies of human gnathostomiasis.


Assuntos
Gnathostoma/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas de Cocultura , Regulação para Baixo , Gnathostoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gnatostomíase/imunologia , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Larva/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
17.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 606605, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469451

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related inflammation is closely associated with the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer. IBD is generally treated with 5-aminosalicylic acid and immune-modulating medication, but side effects and limitations of these therapies are emerging. Thus, the development of novel preventative or therapeutic approaches is imperative. Here, we constructed a dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced IBD mouse model that was infected with monosexual Schistosoma japonicum cercariae (mSjci) at day 1 or administered dexamethasone (DXM) from days 3 to 5 as a positive control. The protective effect of mSjci on IBD mice was evaluated through their assessments of their clinical signs, histopathological lesions and intestinal permeability. To uncover the underlying mechanism, the Th1/Th2 balance and Treg cell population were also examined. Additionally, the alterations in the gut microbiota were assessed to investigate the interaction between the mSjci-modulated immune response and pathogenic microbiome. Mice treated with DSS and mSjci showed fewer IBD clinical signs and less impaired intestinal permeability than DSS-treated mice. Mechanistically, mSjci modulated the Th1/Th2 balance by repressing IFN-γ production, promoting IL-10 expression and enhancing the Treg subset population. Moreover, mSjci notably reshaped the structure, diversity and richness of the gut microbiota community and subsequently exerted immune-modulating effects. Our findings provide evidence showing that mSjci might serve as a novel and effective protective strategy and that the gut microbiota might be a new therapeutic target in IBD.

18.
Acta Trop ; 204: 105288, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811864

RESUMO

Gnathostoma spinigerum is a causative agent of human gnathostomiasis and infects people residing in endemic areas as well as travelers. Cutaneous and visceral larval migrants cause clinical manifestations, resulting in severe morbidity and mortality. To survive in hosts, these parasites have evolved various immune evasion mechanisms, including the release of regulatory molecules. Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) that are present in many parasitic helminths are proteins suspected of suppressing host serine protease-related digestion and immune responses. In this study, the serpin secreted by G. spinigerum (GsSerp) was characterized using bioinformatics and molecular biology techniques. The bioinformatics revealed that GsSerp contains 9 helices, 3 ß-sheets, and a reactive central loop, which are conserved structures of the serpin superfamily. Recombinant GsSerp (rGsSerp) was expressed in E. coli (molecular weight, 39 kDa) and could inhibit chymotrypsin. Mouse polyclonal antibody against GsSerp could detect the native GsSerp in crude worm antigen but not the excretory-secretory product (ES) of infective-stage larva (aL3Gs). Moreover, the expression of GsSerp in the aL3Gs tissue was located in the hemolymph and intestinal tissue, indicating its role in parasite homeostasis. Our findings may help develop effective strategies for preventing and controlling gnathostomiasis.


Assuntos
Clonagem Molecular , Gnathostoma/metabolismo , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos , Biologia Computacional , Escherichia coli , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Helminto/genética , Proteínas de Helminto/farmacologia , Humanos , Larva/imunologia , Camundongos , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0223257, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560712

RESUMO

Angiostrongyliasis is a parasitic disease caused by nematodes of the genus Angiostrongylus. Distribution of this worm corresponds to the dispersal of its main intermediate host, the giant African land snail Achatina fulica. Genetic characterization can help identify parasitic pathogens and control the spreading of disease. The present study describes infection of A. fulica by Angiostrongylus, and provides a genetic outlook based on sequencing of specific regions. We collected 343 land snails from 22 provinces across six regions of Thailand between May 2017 and July 2018. Artificial digestion and Baermann's technique were employed to isolate Angiostrongylus larvae. The worm and its intermediate host were identified by sequencing with specific nucleotide regions. Phylogenetic tree was constructed to evaluate the relationship with other isolates. A. fulica from Chaiyaphum province was infected with A. cantonensis, whereas snails collected from Phrae and Chiang Rai provinces were infected with A. malaysiensis. The maximum likelihood tree based on 74 A. fulica COI sequences revealed monophyletic groups and identified two haplotypes: AF1 and AF2. Only AF1, which is distributed in all regions of Thailand, harbored the larvae of A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis. Two mitochondrial genes (COI and cytb) and two nuclear regions (ITS2 and SSU rRNA) were sequenced in 41 Angiostrongylus specimens. The COI gene indicated that A. cantonensis was closely related to the AC10 haplotype; whereas the cytb gene revealed two new haplotypes: AC19 and AC20. SSU rRNA was useful for the identification of A. cantonensis; whereas ITS2 was a good genetic marker for differentiating between A. cantonensis and A. malaysiensis. This study provides genetic information about the parasite Angiostrongylus and its snail intermediate host. The data in this work may be useful for further study on the identification of Angiostrongylus spp., the genetic relationship between intermediate host and parasite, and control of parasites.


Assuntos
Angiostrongylus/genética , Vetores de Doenças , Filogenia , Caramujos/genética , Infecções por Strongylida/parasitologia , Animais , DNA de Helmintos/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita/genética , Larva/genética , Caramujos/parasitologia , Infecções por Strongylida/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Strongylida/transmissão , Tailândia
20.
Acta Trop ; 198: 105075, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295430

RESUMO

Taeniasis is an important parasitic condition in Asia, especially since all three human-infecting Taenia spp., Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica are found in this region. These three species are believed to be sympatrically distributed, with the largest disease burden found in remote and rural areas where people raise pigs and cattle in a traditional manner. Recent studies revealed that T. asiatica and T. saginata are genetically-related sister species that are not completely reproductively isolated from each other. Current evidence indicates that most T. asiatica adult worms are hybrid-derived descendants. Moving forward, nuclear DNA analysis will be critical in further assessing the species circulating locally. Lifestyle choices, such as the consumption of undercooked meat, are important in maintaining the life cycles of these parasites. In addition, poor hygiene and sanitation, in highly endemic areas, make disease control difficult, resulting in the need for sustainable education programs. An overview of the present situation of taeniasis and cysticercosis in Asia is provided, followed by a discussion of molecular approaches to species assessment and the impact of human lifestyles on parasite transmission.


Assuntos
Taenia/classificação , Teníase/epidemiologia , Teníase/parasitologia , Animais , Ásia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Taenia/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...