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1.
AIDS ; 2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31764067

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HIV cohort data from high-income European countries were compared to the UNAIDS Spectrum modelling parameters for these same countries to validate mortality rates and excess mortality estimates for people living with HIV (PLHIV) on antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Data from 2000-2015 were analysed from the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) for Austria, Denmark, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland. Flexible parametric models were used to compare All-cause mortality rates in the ART-CC and Spectrum. The percentage of AIDS-related deaths and excess mortality (both are the same within Spectrum) were compared, with excess mortality defined as that in excess of the general population mortality. RESULTS: Analyses included 94026 PLHIV with 585784 person-years of follow-up, from which there were 5515 deaths. All-cause annual mortality rates in Spectrum for 2000-2003 were 0.0121, reducing to 0.0078 in 2012-2015, whilst the ART-CC's corresponding annual mortality rates were 0.0151 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.0130-0.0171) reducing to 0.0049 (95%CI: 0.0039-0.0060). The percentage of AIDS-related deaths in Spectrum was 74.7% in 2000-2003, dropping to 43.6% in 2012-15. In the ART-CC, AIDS-related mortality comprised 45.3% (95%CI: 38.4%-52.9%) of mortality in 2000-2003 and 26.7% (95%CI: 19.0%, 46.0%) between 2012-2015. Excess mortality in the ART-CC was broadly similar to the Spectrum estimates, dropping from 75.3% (95%CI: 60.3%-95.2%) in 2000-2003 to 30.7% (95%CI: 25.5%-63.7%) in 2012-2015. CONCLUSIONS: All-cause mortality assumptions for PLHIV on ART in high-income European settings should be adjusted in Spectrum to be higher in 2000-2003 and decline more quickly to levels currently captured for recent years.

2.
Lancet HIV ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776099

RESUMO

The effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy and its increasing availability globally means that millions of people living with HIV now have a much longer life expectancy. However, people living with HIV have disproportionately high incidence of major comorbidities and reduced health-related quality of life. Health systems must respond to this situation by pioneering care and service delivery models that promote wellness rather than mere survival. In this Series paper, we review evidence about the emerging challenges of the care of people with HIV beyond viral suppression and identify four priority areas for action: integrating HIV services and non-HIV services, reducing HIV-related discrimination in health-care settings, identifying indicators to monitor health systems' progress toward new goals, and catalysing new forms of civil society engagement in the more broadly focused HIV response that is now needed worldwide. Furthermore, in the context of an increasing burden of chronic diseases, we must consider the shift that is underway in the HIV field in relation to burgeoning policy and programmatic efforts to promote healthy ageing.

3.
AIDS ; 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women account for over half of persons living with HIV/AIDS globally. We examined geographic variation in all-cause mortality after antiretroviral therapy (ART) for women living with HIV (WLWH) worldwide. METHODS: We pooled data from WLWH at least 18 years initiating ART 2000-2014 within COHERE (Europe) and IeDEA regions (East Africa, West Africa, South Africa, North America, Latin America/Caribbean). Mortality rates were calculated at 0-3, 3-6, 6-12, 12-24 and 24-48 months after ART, and mortality rate ratios were compared with European rates with piecewise exponential parametric survival models based on Poisson regression. FINDINGS: Nineteen thousand, one hundred and seventy-five WLWH (16% Europe, 47% East Africa, 13% West Africa, 19% South Africa, 1% South America, 3% North America and 2% Central America/Caribbean) were included. The highest death rates occurred 0-3 months after ART [1.51 (95% CI 1.25-1.82) per 100 person-years in Europe, 12.45 (11.30-13.73), 14.03 (13.12-15.02) and 9.44 (8.80-10.11) in East, West and South Africa, and 1.53 (0.97-2.43), 7.83 (5.44-11.27) and 17.02 (14.62-19.81) in North, South America and Central America/Caribbean, respectively] and declined thereafter. Mortality in Europe was the lowest, with regional differences greatest in the first 3 months and smaller at longer ART durations [adjusted rate ratios 24-48 months after ART: 3.63 (95% CI 3.04-4.33), 5.61 (4.84-6.51) and 3.47 (2.97-4.06) for East, West and South Africa; 2.86 (2.26-3.62), 2.42 (1.65-3.55) and 2.50 (1.92-3.26) for North, South America and Central America/Caribbean, respectively]. CONCLUSION: Global variations in short-term and long-term mortality among WLWH initiating ART may inform context-specific interventions.

4.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 17(1): 144, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in people living with HIV (PLHIV) has become crucial to evidence-based practice. The goals of this study are to analyze the psychometric properties and evidence of the validity of the Spanish version of WHOQOL-HIV-BREF in a sample of PLHIV in Spain and to examine the more impaired HRQoL facets and dimensions and identify the PLHIV who show the most vulnerable profile. METHODS: A total of 1462 PLHIV participated in an observational cross-sectional ex-post-facto study. Data were collected at 33 Spanish sites through an online survey. In addition to measuring HRQoL, the study used other tools to measure treatment adherence (CEAT-VIH 2.0 version), psychological well-being (GHQ-12) and HIV-related stigma (HSSS). Cronbach's alpha, first- and second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the Pearson coefficient and one-way ANOVA were used to evaluate reliability, construct validity and concurrent and known-group validity, respectively. Differences according to the socio-demographic and epidemiological profiles of participants were analyzed. RESULTS: First- and second-order CFAs confirmed a six-domain first-order structure of the Spanish version of WHOQOL-HIV-BREF and one second-order factor related to overall HRQoL with an acceptable fit to the data, although some minor changes would improve it. The six-domain structure showed an acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha ranged from .61 to .81). Significant moderate to large correlations between domains and overall HRQoL, adherence, psychological well-being and negative self-image were found. Significant differences were found according to participants' self-reported CD4+ cell count in several HRQoL facets and domains. Being female, heterosexual, having low socio-economic and educational statuses, having acquired HIV through an unsafe injection and living more years with HIV were related to poorer HRQoL. PLHIV older than 50 presented lower scores in 19 HRQoL facets. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the Spanish version of the WHOQOL-HIV-BREF is a valid instrument. It also presents the most recent data about HRQoL in PLHIV in Spain with the largest sample to date.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espanha , Traduções
6.
AIDS ; 33(1): 133-143, 2019 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30289806

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: HIV cohorts are an important source of clinical data for informing public health policies and programmes. However, the generalizability of cohort findings to the wider population of people diagnosed with HIV in each country remains unclear. In this work, we assessed the representativeness of six large national HIV cohorts within Europe. DESIGN AND METHODS: Individual-level cohort data were provided from national cohorts in France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom. Analysis focused on new HIV diagnoses reported to The European Surveillance System (TESSy) during three time periods (2000-2004, 2005-2009 and 2010-2013), to allow for temporal changes. Cohort and TESSy records were matched and compared by age, sex, transmission mode, region of origin and CD4+ cell count at diagnosis. The probability of being included in each cohort given demographic characteristics was estimated and used to generate weights inversely proportional to the probability of being included. RESULTS: Participating cohorts were generally representative of the national HIV-diagnosed population submitted to TESSy. However, people who inject drugs, those born in a country other than that reporting the data, those with low CD4 cell counts at diagnosis, and those more than 55 years were generally underrepresented in the cohorts examined. CONCLUSION: These European cohorts capture a representative sample of the HIV-diagnosed populations in each country; however some groups may be underrepresented.

7.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0204738, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339690

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the awareness, knowledge, use, and willingness to use and need of PrEP among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) who attended World Gay Pride (WGP) 2017 in Madrid. DESIGN AND METHODS: Online survey. Participants were recruited through gay-oriented dating apps and HIV Non-Governmental Organizations´ social media. Inclusion criteria included being MSM or TW, age 18 years old or above, and having attended WGP in Madrid. Information regarding the participant's awareness and knowledge, use or willingness to use, and need for PrEP was collected, as well as sociodemographic characteristics. Participants were considered to be in need of PrEP if they met one of the following indication criteria: having practiced unprotected anal intercourse with more than 2 partners, having practiced chemsex, or having engaged in commercial sex-all in the preceding 6 months. Descriptive and multivariable analyses with logistic regression were conducted. RESULTS: 472 participants met the inclusion criteria and completed the questionnaire. The mean age was 38, 97.7% were MSM, 77% had a university education, and 85% were living in Spain, mostly in big cities. Overall, 64% of participants were aware of PrEP, but only 33% knew correctly what PrEP was. 67% of HIV-negative participants were willing to take PrEP, although only 5% were taking it during WGP, mostly due to lack of access. 43% of HIV-negative respondents met at least one PrEP indication criteria. For HIV-negative men living in Spain, university education and living in big cities was associated with PrEP awareness. Lower education level and meeting PrEP criteria was associated with willingness to use PrEP. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that among MSM attending WGP 2017 in Madrid, there was limited PrEP awareness, low accuracy of PrEP knowledge, and a high need and willingness to use PrEP. Health authorities should strengthen existing preventive strategies and implement PrEP.

8.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 922018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177678

RESUMO

The analysis of the available databases related to HIV/AIDS confirms a paradigm shift in the patient's life expectancy: now HIV has become a chronic disease, so patients are aging. However, this advance is accompanied by a negative counterpart: due to the increase in the number of years of life gained, there is a prevalence of comorbidities greater than the general population and at an earlier age. Reducing the risk associated with all the comorbidities that the ageing patient with HIV/AIDS may develop, must now be a health objective; it must be added to the traditional objectives that until now were part of the strategy to reduce the impact of the HIV infection. In the specific case of women, it is also necessary to train peri and postmenopausal women to increase their skills and motivation to care for their health; It is also very important to examine the role that hormone replacement therapy can play in reducing their symptoms.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/terapia , Política de Saúde , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Comorbidade , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Expectativa de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(38): e12238, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30235668

RESUMO

We assessed the effect of co-infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV) on immunological and virological response at 48 weeks from initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART).We included patients from the Cohort of Spanish HIV Research Network (CoRIS) starting ART between January 2004 and November 2014, had at least 1 CD4 T-cell count and viral load measurements both in the previous 6 months and at 48 (±12) weeks from ART initiation, and HCV serology before ART initiation. We used linear regression for mean differences in CD4 T-cell count increase from ART initiation and logistic regression to estimate odds ratios for virological response.Of 12,239 patients by November 30, 2015, 5070 met inclusion criteria: 4382 (86.4%) HIV mono-infected and 688 (13.6%) HIV/HCV co-infected. Co-infected patients were more likely to have acquired HIV through injecting drugs use (57.4% vs. 1.1%), to be women, older, and Spanish, have a lower educational level, and having started ART with lower CD4 counts and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. CD4 T-cell count increase at 48 weeks was 229.7 cell/µL in HIV-monoinfected and 161.9 cell/µL in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. The percentages of patients achieving a virological response at 48 weeks were 87.0% and 78.3% in mono and coinfected patients, respectively. Multivariable analyses showed that at 48 weeks, coinfected patients increased 44.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 24.8-64.3) cells/µL less than monoinfected and had lower probability of virological response (odds ratio: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.44-0.88).HIV/HCV-coinfected patients have lower immunological and virological responses at 48 weeks from ART initiation than monoinfected patients.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Coinfecção/imunologia , Feminino , Hepatite C/imunologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/epidemiologia , Carga Viral
12.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 21 Suppl 4: e25123, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027686

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Migrants are overrepresented in the European HIV epidemic. We aimed to understand the barriers and facilitators to HIV testing and current treatment and healthcare needs of migrants living with HIV in Europe. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 57 HIV clinics in nine countries (Belgium, Germany, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and United Kingdom), July 2013 to July 2015. HIV-positive patients were eligible for inclusion if they were as follows: 18 years or older; foreign-born residents and diagnosed within five years of recruitment. Questionnaires were completed electronically in one of 15 languages and linked to clinical records. Primary outcomes were access to primary care and previous negative HIV test. Data were analysed using random effects logistic regression. Outcomes of interest are presented for women, heterosexual men and gay/bisexual men. RESULTS: A total of 2093 respondents (658 women, 446 heterosexual men and 989 gay/bisexual men) were included. The prevalence of a previous negative HIV test was 46.7%, 43.4% and 82.0% for women, heterosexual and gay/bisexual men respectively. In multivariable analysis previous testing was positively associated with: receipt of post-migration antenatal care among women, permanent residency among heterosexual men and identifying as gay rather than bisexual among gay/bisexual men. Access to primary care was found to be high (>83%) in all groups and was strongly associated with country of residence. Late diagnosis was common for women and heterosexual men (60.8% and 67.1%, respectively) despite utilization of health services prior to diagnosis. Across all groups almost three-quarters of people on antiretrovirals had an HIV viral load <50 copies/mL. CONCLUSIONS: Migrants access healthcare in Europe and while many migrants had previously tested for HIV, that they went on to test positive at a later date suggests that opportunities for HIV prevention are being missed. Expansion of testing beyond sexual health and antenatal settings is still required and testing opportunities should be linked with combination prevention measures such as access to PrEP and treatment as prevention.

14.
AIDS Care ; : 1-5, 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985054

RESUMO

This study performed a content analysis of the language of the Spanish judgements addressing the sexual transmission of HIV in order to determine its possible interrelationship with HIV-related stigma. All judgements and writs dictated by Spanish penal and civil jurisdictions between 1981 and December 2016 were obtained through a systematic search of the Spanish legal databases. The inclusion criterion was that the possible transmission of HIV was judged as an individual infraction, regardless of whether other infractions were involved. Twenty judgements were selected and analysed through direct content analysis assisted by the software MAXQDA 12. The majority of the cases (85%) were brought before the penal jurisdiction. Most of the judgements applied the crimes of bodily harm or grievous bodily harm (75%). Aspects closely related to the determinants of HIV-related stigma, such as the perception of HIV as a severe and easily transmitted infection, and attributions of responsibility and blame to people with HIV, were found in the judgements' reasoning. They were associated with outdated scientific and technical knowledge. Furthermore, some arguments found are repeated literally and successively in several judgments from different years, ignoring medical advances. Most plaintiffs were unaware of their sexual partner's HIV status. The scarce results found regarding the concealment of HIV status suggested that fear of stigma could be the reason thereof. The results suggested that training legal professionals in the epidemiological, clinical, and social aspects of HIV could influence stigma reduction, leading to a more objective consideration of the characteristics of this infection.

15.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29910148

RESUMO

This study focuses on actions at the political and administrative level in Spain in relation to the implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We analysed a whole range of different formal initiatives taken by the political and administrative actors involved. The information was obtained from official public data sources. As of February 2018, PrEP had not been implemented. The decision is dependent on both state and regional governments. The Ministry of Health and some Autonomous Regions are working on different interventions, but without providing an implementation timetable. The political parties have kept a very low profile in terms of initiatives related to the implementation of PrEP. From a legal point of view, proceedings are passing back and forth with the extension of the patent. The role of intergovernmental and interdepartmental institutions is very important for the implementation of PrEP in Spain.

16.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29759423

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Spain, which has one of the largest migrant populations in Europe, has committed to eliminating the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HCV among migrant groups in Spain, a country of 46 million people, with an estimated HCV-antibody prevalence of 1.7%. METHODS: Studies on HCV and migration in Spain were identified by systematically searching three databases from the first records to 30 November 2017, and consulting experts at the Ministry of Health and in the 17 Spanish autonomous communities. A meta-analysis was conducted to determine pooled HCV prevalence for the general migrant population. Prevalences were also calculated for high-risk migrant populations and populations who had undergone hospital screening, stratified by region of origin. RESULTS: Out of 243 studies identified, 26 met the eligibility criteria. The meta-analysis of the general migrant population found HCV antibody prevalence to be 1.6%. Migrants originating from European countries, including those at high or moderate risk for HCV, had the highest pooled prevalence (7.1%). In the general migrant population, prevalence was highest among sub-Saharan African migrants (3.1%) and lowest among Latin American migrants (0.2%). CONCLUSION: Based on the limited available data, the prevalence among the general migrant population was found to be the same as the general Spanish population. Further research is needed to more accurately determine HCV prevalence for the overall migrant population and specific migrant subpopulations with a higher risk in the country as a whole and in each of Spain's 17 autonomous communities.

17.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 21(1)2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29334197

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 infection leads to chronic inflammation and to an increased risk of non-AIDS mortality. Our objective was to determine whether AIDS-defining events (ADEs) were associated with increased overall and cause-specific non-AIDS related mortality after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. METHODS: We included HIV treatment-naïve adults from the Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (ART-CC) who initiated ART from 1996 to 2014. Causes of death were assigned using the Coding Causes of Death in HIV (CoDe) protocol. The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for overall and cause-specific non-AIDS mortality among those with an ADE (all ADEs, tuberculosis (TB), Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PJP), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)) compared to those without an ADE was estimated using a marginal structural model. RESULTS: The adjusted hazard of overall non-AIDS mortality was higher among those with any ADE compared to those without any ADE (aHR 2.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.00 to 2.43). The adjusted hazard of each of the cause-specific non-AIDS related deaths were higher among those with any ADE compared to those without, except metabolic deaths (malignancy aHR 2.59 (95% CI 2.13 to 3.14), accident/suicide/overdose aHR 1.37 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.79), cardiovascular aHR 1.95 (95% CI 1.54 to 2.48), infection aHR (95% CI 1.68 to 2.81), hepatic aHR 2.09 (95% CI 1.61 to 2.72), respiratory aHR 4.28 (95% CI 2.67 to 6.88), renal aHR 5.81 (95% CI 2.69 to 12.56) and central nervous aHR 1.53 (95% CI 1.18 to 5.44)). The risk of overall and cause-specific non-AIDS mortality differed depending on the specific ADE of interest (TB, PJP, NHL). CONCLUSIONS: In this large multi-centre cohort collaboration with standardized assignment of causes of death, non-AIDS mortality was twice as high among patients with an ADE compared to without an ADE. However, non-AIDS related mortality after an ADE depended on the ADE of interest. Although there may be unmeasured confounders, these findings suggest that a common pathway may be independently driving both ADEs and NADE mortality. While prevention of ADEs may reduce subsequent death due to NADEs following ART initiation, modification of risk factors for NADE mortality remains important after ADE survival.

18.
Stat Methods Med Res ; : 962280217746437, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29233073

RESUMO

In most HIV-positive individuals, infection time is only known to lie between the time an individual started being at risk for HIV and diagnosis time. However, a more accurate estimate of infection time is very important in certain cases. For example, one of the objectives of the Advancing Migrant Access to Health Services in Europe (aMASE) study was to determine if HIV-positive migrants, diagnosed in Europe, were infected pre- or post-migration. We propose a method to derive subject-specific estimates of unknown infection times using information from HIV biomarkers' measurements, demographic, clinical, and behavioral data. We assume that CD4 cell count (CD4) and HIV-RNA viral load trends after HIV infection follow a bivariate linear mixed model. Using post-diagnosis CD4 and viral load measurements and applying the Bayes' rule, we derived the posterior distribution of the HIV infection time, whereas the prior distribution was informed by AIDS status at diagnosis and behavioral data. Parameters of the CD4-viral load and time-to-AIDS models were estimated using data from a large study of individuals with known HIV infection times (CASCADE). Simulations showed substantial predictive ability (e.g. 84% of the infections were correctly classified as pre- or post-migration). Application to the aMASE study ( n = 2009) showed that 47% of African migrants and 67% to 72% of migrants from other regions were most likely infected post-migration. Applying a Bayesian method based on bivariate modeling of CD4 and viral load, and subject-specific information, we found that the majority of HIV-positive migrants in aMASE were most likely infected after their migration to Europe.

19.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 3(4): e84, 2017 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29109072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a heavy and disproportionate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among migrant communities living in Europe. Despite this, the published evidence related to HIV testing, prevention, and treatment needs for migrants is sparse. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with access to primary care and HIV testing among migrant groups living in Europe. METHODS: A Web-based survey (available in 14 languages) was open to all people aged 18 years and older, living outside their country of birth in the World Health Organization (WHO) European area. Community organizations in 9 countries promoted the survey to migrant groups, focusing on those at a higher risk of HIV (sub-Saharan Africans, Latin Americans, gay or bisexual men, and people who inject drugs). Multivariable analysis examined factors associated with access to primary care and previous history of an HIV test. RESULTS: In total, 559 women, 395 heterosexual men, and 674 gay or bisexual men were included in the analysis, and 68.1% (359/527) of women, 59.5% (220/371) of heterosexual men, and 89.6% (596/664) of gay or bisexual men had tested for HIV. Low perceived risk was the reason given for not testing by 62.3% (43/69) of gay or bisexual men and 83.3% (140/168) of women and heterosexual men who reported never having tested for HIV. Access to primary care was >60% in all groups. Access to primary care was strongly positively associated with living in Northern Europe compared with Southern Europe (women: adjusted odds ratio, aOR 34.56 [95% CI 11.58-101]; heterosexual men: aOR 6.93 [95% CI 2.49-19.35], and gay or bisexual men: aOR 2.53 [95% CI 1.23-5.19]), whereas those with temporary residency permits were less likely to have access to primary care (women: aOR 0.41 [95% CI 0.21-0.80] and heterosexual men: aOR 0.24 [95% CI 0.10-0.54] only). Women who had experience of forced sex (aOR 3.53 [95% CI 1.39-9.00]) or postmigration antenatal care (aOR 3.07 [95% CI 1.55-6.07]) were more likely to have tested for HIV as were heterosexual men who had access to primary care (aOR 3.13 [95% CI 1.58-6.13]) or reported "Good" health status (aOR 2.94 [95% CI 1.41-5.88]). CONCLUSIONS: Access to primary care is limited by structural determinants such as immigration and health care policy, which varies across Europe. For those migrants who can access primary care and other health services, missed opportunities for HIV testing remain a barrier to earlier testing and diagnosis for migrants in Europe. Clinicians should be aware of these potential structural barriers to HIV testing as well as low perception of HIV risk in migrant groups.

20.
J Infect Dis ; 216(9): 1063-1069, 2017 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968755

RESUMO

Background: Previous genetic association studies of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) progression have focused on common human genetic variation ascertained through genome-wide genotyping. Methods: We sought to systematically assess the full spectrum of functional variation in protein coding gene regions on HIV-1 progression through exome sequencing of 1327 individuals. Genetic variants were tested individually and in aggregate across genes and gene sets for an influence on HIV-1 viral load. Results: Multiple single variants within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region were observed to be strongly associated with HIV-1 outcome, consistent with the known impact of classical HLA alleles. However, no single variant or gene located outside of the MHC region was significantly associated with HIV progression. Set-based association testing focusing on genes identified as being essential for HIV replication in genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) studies did not reveal any novel associations. Conclusions: These results suggest that exonic variants with large effect sizes are unlikely to have a major contribution to host control of HIV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/genética , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Carga Viral/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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