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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(4)2021 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810477

RESUMO

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. This disease is characterized by motor symptoms, such as bradykinesia, tremor, and rigidity. Although balance impairment is characteristic of advanced stages, it can be present with less intensity since the beginning of the disease. Approximately 60% of PD patients fall once a year and 40% recurrently. On the other hand, cognitive symptoms affect up to 20% of patients with PD in early stages and can even precede the onset of motor symptoms. There are cognitive requirements for balance and can be challenged when attention is diverted or reduced, linking a worse balance and a higher probability of falls with a slower cognitive processing speed and attentional problems. Cognitive rehabilitation of attention and processing speed can lead to an improvement in postural stability in patients with Parkinson's. Methods: We present a parallel and controlled randomized clinical trial (RCT) to assess the impact on balance of a protocol based on cognitive rehabilitation focused on sustained attention through the NeuronUP platform (Neuronup SI, La Rioja, Spain) in patients with PD. For 4 weeks, patients in the experimental group will receive cognitive therapy three days a week while the control group will not receive any therapy. The protocol has been registered at trials.gov NCT04730466. Conclusions: Cognitive therapy efficacy on balance improvement may open the possibility of new rehabilitation strategies for prevention of falls in PD, reducing morbidity, and saving costs to the health care system.

2.
Foods ; 9(9)2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878017

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of winery byproduct extracts (grape pomace, seed and skin) and a mixture of inulin-type fructans (inulin and FOS) as suitable ingredients for the development of yogurts with antioxidant and antidiabetic properties. Their effect on the physicochemical, textural, microbiological and sensory parameters of yogurts was evaluated during 21 days of refrigerated storage. The incorporation of winery byproduct extracts in yogurt resulted in a significant increase (p < 0.05) in total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, compared to the controls. The grape skin yogurt showed the highest (p < 0.05) TPC (0.09 ± 0.00 mg GAE/g yogurt) and antioxidant capacity (7.69 ± 1.15 mmol TE/g yogurt). Moreover, the grape skin yogurt presented the highest (p < 0.05) inhibition of the activity of the enzyme α-glucosidase (56.46 ± 2.31%). The addition of inulin-type fructans did not significantly (p > 0.05) modify the overall antioxidant capacity or inhibition of the enzyme α-glucosidase of control and winery byproduct extract yogurts. Yogurts containing winery byproduct extracts and dietary fiber achieved high overall acceptance scores (6.33-6.67) and showed stable physicochemical, textural and microbiological characteristics during storage, assuring an optimal 21-day shelf life. According to their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties, we propose the yogurt containing grape skin extract, together with inulin and FOS, as a novel food product for the promotion of sustainable health.

3.
Biomolecules ; 10(9)2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825719

RESUMO

To obtain the coffee beverage, approximately 90% of the edible parts of the coffee cherry are discarded as agricultural waste or by-products (cascara or husk, parchment, mucilage, silverskin and spent coffee grounds). These by-products are a potential source of nutrients and non-nutrient health-promoting compounds, which can be used as a whole ingredient or as an enriched extract of a specific compound. The chemical composition of by-products also determines food safety of the novel ingredients. To ensure the food safety of coffee by-products to be used as novel ingredients for the general consumer population, pesticides, mycotoxins, acrylamide and gluten must be analyzed. According with the priorities proposed by the Food Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) to maximize the benefit for the environment, society and economy, food waste generation should be avoided in the first place. In this context, the valorization of food waste can be carried out through an integrated bio-refinery approach to produce nutrients and bioactive molecules for pharmaceutical, cosmetic, food and non-food applications. The present research is an updated literature review of the definition of coffee by-products, their composition, safety and those food applications which have been proposed or made commercially available to date based on their chemical composition.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357565

RESUMO

Cannabis sativa is an aromatic annual flowering plant with several botanical varieties, used for different purposes, like the production of fibers, the production of oil from the seeds, and especially for recreational or medical purposes. Phytocannabinoids (terpenophenolic compounds derived from the plant), include the well-known psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and many non-psychoactive cannabinoids, like cannabidiol. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) comprises of endocannabinoid ligands, enzymes for synthesis and degradation of such ligands, and receptors. This system is widely distributed in the gastrointestinal tract, where phytocannabinoids exert potent effects, particularly under pathological (i.e., inflammatory) conditions. Herein, we will first look at the hemp plant as a possible source of new functional food ingredients and nutraceuticals that might be eventually useful to treat or even prevent gastrointestinal conditions. Subsequently, we will briefly describe the ECS and the general pharmacology of phytocannabinoids. Finally, we will revise the available data showing that non-psychoactive phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol, may be useful to treat different disorders and diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. With the increasing interest in the development of functional foods for a healthy life, the non-psychoactive phytocannabinoids are hoped to find a place as nutraceuticals and food ingredients also for a healthy gastrointestinal tract function.

5.
Nutr Res Rev ; : 1-16, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450931

RESUMO

The present review aims to give dietary recommendations to reduce the occurrence of the Maillard reaction in foods and in vivo to reduce the body's advanced glycation/lipoxidation end products (AGE/ALE) pool. A healthy diet, food reformulation and good culinary practices may be feasible for achieving the goal. A varied diet rich in fresh vegetables and fruits, non-added sugar beverages containing inhibitors of the Maillard reaction, and foods prepared by steaming and poaching as culinary techniques is recommended. Intake of supplements and novel foods with low sugars, low fats, enriched in bioactive compounds from food and waste able to modulate carbohydrate metabolism and reduce body's AGE/ALE pool is also recommended. In conclusion, the recommendations made for healthy eating by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition (SENC) and Harvard University seem to be adequate to reduce dietary AGE/ALE, the body's AGE/ALE pool and to achieve sustainable nutrition and health.

6.
Molecules ; 25(6)2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192041

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the physicochemical, nutritional and sensory properties of gluten-free breads containing isolated coffee cascara dietary fiber (ICCDF) as a food ingredient. ICCDF was obtained by aqueous extraction. The oil and water holding capacity and the nutritional profile of the novel ingredient were determined. Its safety was certificated by analysis of ochratoxin A, caffeine and gluten. Gluten-free bread formulations were prepared enriching a commercial bakery premix in rice protein (8%) and ICCDF (3% and 4.5%). Nutritional profile of the novel gluten-free breads (dietary fiber, protein, amino acids, lipids, fatty acid profile and resistant starch), as well as bread volume, crumb density, moisture, firmness, elasticity and color intensity were determined. A sensory quantitative descriptive analysis of the breads was conducted using eight trained panelists. New breads showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) content of dietary fiber and protein than the control bread. The addition of ICCDF allowed increasing dough yield, a less crumb firmness and a higher crumb elasticity. The nutrition claims "source of protein and high in dietary fiber" were assigned to the new formulations. In conclusion, a certificated gluten-free bread with improved nutritional and physicochemical properties and good sensorial profile was obtained.

7.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383958

RESUMO

Coffee is one of the most popular beverages consumed worldwide. Roasted coffee is a complex mixture of thousands of bioactive compounds, and some of them have numerous potential health-promoting properties that have been extensively studied in the cardiovascular and central nervous systems, with relatively much less attention given to other body systems, such as the gastrointestinal tract and its particular connection with the brain, known as the brain-gut axis. This narrative review provides an overview of the effect of coffee brew; its by-products; and its components on the gastrointestinal mucosa (mainly involved in permeability, secretion, and proliferation), the neural and non-neural components of the gut wall responsible for its motor function, and the brain-gut axis. Despite in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies having shown that coffee may exert multiple effects on the digestive tract, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative effects on the mucosa, and pro-motility effects on the external muscle layers, much is still surprisingly unknown. Further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms of action of certain health-promoting properties of coffee on the gastrointestinal tract and to transfer this knowledge to the industry to develop functional foods to improve the gastrointestinal and brain-gut axis health.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Cafeína/farmacologia , Café/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bebidas , Fibras na Dieta , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Humanos , Membrana Mucosa , Polímeros , Polifenóis
8.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703400

RESUMO

This study aimed to complete the scientific basis for the validation of a coffee silverskin extract (CSE) as a novel food ingredient according to European legislation. Nutritional value, safety, effects on biochemical biomarkers and excretion of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in vivo of CSE were assessed. Proteins, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, fiber, simple sugars and micronutrients were analyzed. For the first time, toxicological and physiological effects were evaluated in vivo by a repeated-dose study in healthy Wistar rats. Hormone secretion, antioxidant (enzymatic and no-enzymatic) and anti-inflammatory biomarkers, and dietary fiber fermentability of CSE (analysis of SCFAs in feces) were studied in biological samples. This unique research confirms the feasibility of CSE as a human dietary supplement with several nutrition claims: "source of proteins (16%), potassium, magnesium, calcium and vitamin C, low in fat (0.44%) and high in fiber (22%)". This is the first report demonstrating that its oral administration (1 g/kg) for 28 days is innocuous. Hormone secretion, antioxidant or anti-inflammatory biomarkers were not affected in heathy animals. Total SCFAs derived from CSE fiber fermentation were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in male treated rats compared to male control rats. All the new information pinpoints CSE as a natural, sustainable and safe food ingredient containing fermentable fiber able to produce SCFAs with beneficial effects on gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Café , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/análise , Feminino , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
9.
Foods ; 8(10)2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557849

RESUMO

This work aimed to evaluate the contribution of isoflavones and melatonin to the aqueous extract obtained from the coffee silverskin (CSE) antiglycative properties, which has not been previously studied. To achieve this goal, two model systems constituted by bovine serum albumin (BSA) and reactive carbonyls (glucose or methylglyoxal) in the presence or absence of pure phytochemicals (chlorogenic acid (CGA), genistein, and melatonin) and CSE were employed. Glucose was used to evaluate the effect on the formation of glycation products formed mainly in the early stage of the reaction, while methylglyoxal was employed for looking at the formation of advanced products of the reaction, also called methylglyoxal-derivative advanced glycation end products (AGE) or glycoxidation products. CGA inhibited the formation of fructosamine, while genistein and melatonin inhibited the formation of advanced glycation end products and protein glycoxidation. It was also observed that phenolic compounds from CSE inhibited protein glycation and glycoxidation by forming BSA-phytochemical complexes. CSE showed a significant antiglycative effect (p < 0.05). Variations in the UV-Vis spectrum and the antioxidant capacity of protein fractions suggested the formation of protein-phytochemical complexes. Fluorescence quenching and in silico analysis supported the formation of antioxidant-protein complexes. For the first time, we illustrate that isoflavones and melatonin may contribute to the antiglycative/antiglycoxidative properties associated with CSE. CGA, isoflavones, and melatonin composing CSE seem to act simultaneously by different mechanisms of action.

10.
Food Funct ; 10(8): 4546-4556, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290518

RESUMO

Chrononutrition, or the circadian timing of food intake, proposes that nutrients, bioactive compounds, and foods modulate the peripheral clocks with implications on health. We evaluated the effects of biscuits supplemented with the antioxidant dietary fiber isolated from spent coffee grounds as a food ingredient (SCF-B) or a combination of spent coffee grounds and fructooligosaccharides (SC-FOS-B), and a traditional recipe (TB, without added fiber) on the modulation of circadian rhythm in young adults. The repeated intake (21 days/45 g portion) of SCF-B or SC-FOS-B decreased (p < 0.05) the evening chronotypes. SCF-B and SC-FOS-B consumption enhanced the chronodisruption associated with colonic short chain fatty acid production, thus improving the quality and length of sleep. This is the first study on the positive impact of antioxidant dietary fiber obtained from spent coffee grounds on circadian activity improvement in young adults. Further clinical trials and the role of other bioactive compounds as therapeutic candidates for health disturbances related to circadian dysfunction are necessary to confirm the results.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/dietoterapia , Ritmo Circadiano , Coffea/química , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Ingestão de Alimentos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Adulto , Antioxidantes/análise , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/metabolismo , Transtornos Cronobiológicos/fisiopatologia , Coffea/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Sementes/química , Sementes/metabolismo , Resíduos/análise , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 11(6)2019 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234581

RESUMO

The bioaccessibility, metabolism, and excretion of lipids composing spent coffee grounds (SCGs) were investigated. An analysis of mycotoxins and an acute toxicity study in rats were performed for safety evaluation. Total fat, fatty acids, and diterpenes (cafestol and kahweol) were determined in SCGs and their digests obtained in vitro. A pilot repeated intake study was carried out in Wistar rats using a dose of 1 g SCGs/kg b.w. for 28 days. Fat metabolism was evaluated by analysis of total fat, cholesterol, and histology in liver. The dietary fiber effect of SCGs was measured radiographically. The absence of mycotoxins and toxicity was reported in SCGs. A total of 77% of unsaturated fatty acids and low amounts of kahweol (7.09 µg/g) and cafestol (414.39 µg/g) were bioaccessible after in vitro digestion. A significantly lower (p < 0.1) accumulation of lipids in the liver and a higher excretion of these in feces was found in rats treated with SCGs for 28 days. No lipid droplets or liver damage were observed by histology. SCGs acutely accelerated intestinal motility in rats. SCGs might be considered a sustainable, safe, and healthy food ingredient with potential for preventing hepatic steatosis due to their effect as dietary fiber with a high fat-holding capacity.


Assuntos
Coffea/metabolismo , Diterpenos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Sementes/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Biotransformação , Coffea/toxicidade , Diterpenos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Fezes/química , Feminino , Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Eliminação Intestinal , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Ratos Wistar , Sementes/toxicidade , Fatores de Tempo
12.
J Neurol Sci ; 401: 37-42, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31005763

RESUMO

Wearable technology used in Parkinson's disease (PD) research has become an increasing focus of interest in this field. Our group assessed the feasibility, clinical correlation, reliability, and acceptance of smartwatches in order to quantify arm resting tremors in PD patients. An Android application on a smartwatch was used to obtain raw data from the smartwatch's gyroscopes. Twenty-two PD patients were consecutively recruited and followed for 1 year. Arm rest tremors were video filmed and scored by two independent raters using the motor subscale of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III). The tremor intensity parameter was defined by the root mean square of the angular speed measured by the smartwatch at the wrist. Sixty-four smartwatch evaluations were completed. The Spearman coefficient among the mean of the resting tremor (UPDRS-III) scores and smartwatch measurements for tremor intensity was 0.81 (p < .001); smartwatch reliability to quantify tremors was checked by intraclass reliability coefficient with a resting tremor = 0.89, minimum detectable change = 59.03%. Good acceptance of the system was shown. Smartwatch use for PD tremor analysis is possible, reliable, well-correlated with clinical scores, and well-accepted by patients for clinical follow-up. The results from these experiments suggest that this commodity hardware has the potential to quantify PD patients' tremors objectively in a consulting-room.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/diagnóstico , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Tremor/diagnóstico , Tremor/fisiopatologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença de Parkinson/complicações , Tremor/complicações
13.
Food Res Int ; 118: 72-80, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898355

RESUMO

The aim of the present research was to study the formation of Maillard reaction products (MRPs) during digestive process of meal-resembling systems. An average meal (protein, starch and oil) and sugar-containing meals (protein and glucose or fructose or high fructose corn syrup (HCFS)) were tested. Intestinal simple amino acid systems were also analyzed to gain insight into their contribution to the Maillard reaction (MR). Decrease of lysine (11.7-34%), arginine (24-35%) and other amino acids occurred after digestion of the meals. Fructosamine (42.6±4.7 and 332.9±10.4µg/ml) and fluorescent adducts (22,270±119.6 and 9283±188.3 RFU) were detected in digests of those meals containing HCFS and starch, respectively. Carboxymethyllysine (CML) (5.03±1.09µg/ml) and MGO-derivative AGEs (12.2±1.5µg/ml) were found in the meals composed of fructose and only MGO-derivative AGEs (12.2±1.6µg/ml) in presence of glucose. Physiological intestinal concentrations (43mM) of sugars in simplified systems composed by single amino acids caused formation of MRPs under digestive conditions. Arginine and fructose (314mM) showed formation of fructosamine and different AGEs. Fructose (43mM) gave rise to CML by interaction with lysine, which was observed within 1h of incubation at intestinal conditions. These conditions are possible in the intestine during fructose malabsorption. The results suggest the importance of using meal systems for better understanding of complex chemical events taking place during digestion such as MR. This is the first study proposing the formation of non-fluorescent AGEs associated to the pathogenesis of diabetes during digestion of sugar containing and average meals. This formation may be possible in conditions where sugar absorption is delayed such as fructose malabsorption or intake of a fatty meal. The occurrence of the MR during the digestion process may reduce the bioavailability of essential amino acids and increase the production of MRPs causing health disorders.


Assuntos
Digestão , Reação de Maillard , Refeições , Aminoácidos/análise , Arginina/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Carboidratos/química , Frutosamina/química , Frutose/química , Glucose/química , Intestinos/fisiologia , Lisina/análogos & derivados , Lisina/química , Síndromes de Malabsorção , Proteínas/química , Amido/química , Açúcares/química
14.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(1): 83-97, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656186

RESUMO

Objective: Although the cerebello-thalamo-cortical network has often been suggested to be of importance in the pathogenesis of essential tremor (ET), the origins of tremorgenic activity in this disease are not fully understood. We used a combination of cortical thickness imaging and neurophysiological studies to analyze whether the severity of tremor was associated with anatomical changes in the brain in ET patients. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a neurophysiological assessment were performed in 13 nondemented ET patients. High field structural brain MRI images acquired in a 3T scanner and analyses of cortical thickness and surface were carried out. Cortical reconstruction and volumetric segmentation was performed with the FreeSurfer image analysis software. We used high-density surface electromyography (hdEMG) and inertial measurement units (IMUs) to quantify the tremor severity in upper extrimities of patients. In particular, advanced computer tool was used to reliably identify discharge patterns of individual motor units from surface hdEMG and quantify motor unit synchronization. Results: We found significant association between increased motor unit synchronization (i.e., more severe tremor) and cortical changes (i.e., atrophy) in widespread cerebral cortical areas, including the left medial orbitofrontal cortex, left isthmus of the cingulate gyrus, right paracentral lobule, right lingual gyrus, as well as reduced left supramarginal gyrus (inferior parietal cortex), right isthmus of the cingulate gyrus, left thalamus, and left amygdala volumes. Interpretation: Given that most of these brain areas are involved in controlling movement sequencing, ET tremor could be the result of an involuntary activation of a program of motor behavior used in the genesis of voluntary repetitive movements.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/patologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Tremor Essencial/patologia , Tremor Essencial/fisiopatologia , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Eletromiografia , Tremor Essencial/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiopatologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Extremidade Superior/inervação , Extremidade Superior/fisiopatologia
15.
Front Neurosci ; 12: 714, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30374285

RESUMO

Objectives: Characterizing pharmacological response in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients may be a challenge in early stages but gives valuable clues for diagnosis. Neurotropic drugs may modulate Electroencephalography (EEG) microstates (MS). We investigated EEG-MS default-mode network changes in response to dopaminergic stimulation in PD. Methods: Fourteen PD subjects in HY stage III or less were included, and twenty-one healthy controls. All patients were receiving dopaminergic stimulation with levodopa or dopaminergic agonists. Resting EEG activity was recorded before the first daily PD medication dose and 1 h after drug intake resting EEG activity was again recorded. Time and frequency variables for each MS were calculated. Results: Parkinson's disease subjects MS A duration decreases after levodopa intake, MS B appears more often than before levodopa intake. MS E was not present, but MS G was. There were no significant differences between control subjects and patients after medication intake. Conclusion: Clinical response to dopaminergic drugs in PD is characterized by clear changes in MS profile. Significance: This work demonstrates that there are clear EEG MS markers of PD dopaminergic stimulation state. The characterization of the disease and its response to dopaminergic medication may be of help for early therapeutic diagnosis.

16.
Nutrients ; 10(10)2018 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249001

RESUMO

The valorization of food wastes and byproducts has become a major subject of research to improve the sustainability of the food chain. This narrative review provides an overview of the current trends in the use of food byproducts in the development of dairy foods. We revised the latest data on food loss generation, the group of byproducts most used as ingredients in dairy product development, and their function within the food matrix. We also address the challenges associated with the sensory properties of the new products including ingredients obtained from byproducts, and consumers' attitudes towards these sustainable novel dairy foods. Overall, 50 studies supported the tremendous potential of the application of food byproducts (mainly those from plant-origin) in dairy foods as ingredients. There are promising results for their utilization as food additives for technological purposes, and as sources of bioactive compounds to enhance the health-promoting properties of dairy products. However, food technologists, nutritionists and sensory scientists should work together to face the challenge of improving the palatability and consumer acceptance of these novel and sustainable dairy foods.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Laticínios , Aditivos Alimentares , Indústria Alimentícia , Alimento Funcional , Resíduos Industriais , Paladar , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
17.
Food Chem ; 261: 253-259, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29739591

RESUMO

Antioxidant dietary fiber extracted from spent coffee grounds (FSCG) was evaluated as a potential functional food ingredient when incorporated in a food model (biscuits), and digested in vitro under simulated human gastrointestinal conditions. FSCG added to biscuits increased its total dietary fiber, antioxidant capacity after in vitro digestion, bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds (gallic acid and catechin) and amino acids. Furthermore, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), involved in chronic diseases, decreased up to 6-folds in the biscuits containing FSCG when compared with the traditional biscuit. The digestible fraction of biscuits containing the highest amount of FSCG (5 g) displayed the higher inhibiting α-glucosidase activity, correlating with the bioaccessibility of ascorbic acid and catechin. Our study seems to indicate that anti-diabetic compounds may be released in the small intestine during FSCG digestion, where biscuits containing FSCG may be able to beneficially regulate sugar metabolism thereby helping in producing foods friendly for diabetes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Coffea/química , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Sementes/química , Resíduos/análise , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Café/química , Ácido Gálico/análise , Ácido Gálico/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
18.
J Neurosci Methods ; 303: 95-102, 2018 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29481820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of wearable technology is an emerging field of research in movement disorders. This paper introduces a clinical study to evaluate the feasibility, clinical correlation and reliability of using a system based in smartwatches to quantify tremor in essential tremor (ET) patients and check its acceptance as clinical monitoring tool. NEW METHOD: The system is based on a commercial smartwatch and an Android smartphone. An investigational Android application controls the process of recording raw data from the smartwatch three-dimensional gyroscopes. Thirty-four ET patients were consecutively enrolled in the experiments and assessed along one year. Arm tremor was videofilmed and scored using the Fahn-Tolosa-Marin Tremor Rating Scale (FTM-TRS). Tremor intensity was quantified with the root mean square of angular velocity measured in the patients' wrists. RESULTS: Eighty-two assessments with smartwatches were performed. Spearman's correlation coefficients (ρ) between clinical tremor (FTM-TRS) scores and smartwatch measures for tremor intensity were 0.590 at rest; ρ = 0.738 in steady posture; ρ = 0.189 in finger-to-nose maneuvers; and ρ = 0.652 in pouring water task. Smartwatch reliability was checked by intraclass realiability coefficients: 0.85, 0.95, 0.91, 0.95 respectively. Most of patients showed good acceptance of the system. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHOD(S): This commodity hardware contributes to quantify tremor objectively in a consulting-room by customized Android smart devices as clinical monitoring tool. CONCLUSIONS: The NetMD system for tremor analysis is feasible, well-correlated with clinical scores, reliable and well-accepted by patients to tremor follow-up. Therefore, it could be an option to objectively quantify tremor in ET patients during their regular follow-up.


Assuntos
Tremor Essencial/diagnóstico , Aplicativos Móveis , Smartphone , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
Food Res Int ; 100(Pt 1): 791-797, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873751

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to validate the food safety of CSE, by studying its effect on cytotoxicity (100-20000µg/ml) and genotoxicity (10, 100 and 1000µg/ml) and also to investigate its preventive potential (1, 10 and 100µg/ml) against B(a)P induced DNA damage. Prior to analyses, the antioxidant capacity and the microbiological quality of CSE were tested. DNA damage (strand breaks and oxidized purines/pyrimidines) was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay. HepG2 cells were pre-treated with CSE (1, 10 and 100µg/ml) for 24h followed by the addition of 100µM B(a)P in presence of CSE for other 24h. Detection of oxidized purines and pyrimidines was carried out using Formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase or Endonuclease III enzymes, respectively. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), the major antioxidant present in coffee, was used as a control. Treatment with 100 µM B(a)P significantly increased (p<0.05) levels of DNA strand breaks and oxidized purine and pyrimidine bases. Treatment of HepG2 cells with CSE did not induce either cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. CSE significantly inhibited (p<0.05) genotoxicity induced by B(a)P and the observed effect may be associated to its antioxidant capacity. CGA alone at the concentration present in CSE was effective against B(a)P. Thus, CGA seems to be a contributor to the preventive effect of CSE against B(a)P induced DNA damage in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, CSE presents potential as a natural sustainable chemoprotective agent against the chemical carcinogen B(a)P.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Café/química , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Benzo(a)pireno/toxicidade , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Ácido Clorogênico/farmacologia , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sementes/química , Testes de Toxicidade
20.
Nutrients ; 9(7)2017 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28677657

RESUMO

This study assessed the in vitro effects of the bioaccessible food components released during the simulated human digestion of a coffee fibre-containing biscuit (CFB) on α-glucosidase activity, antioxidant capacity and satiety hormones. Digest of CFB presented a significantly (p < 0.05) lower amount of sugar (68.6 mg/g) and a higher antioxidant capacity (15.1 mg chlorogenic acid eq./g) than that of a sucrose-containing biscuit (SCB). The CFB significantly reduced (p < 0.05) α-glucosidase activity (IC50 = 3.3 mg/mL) compared to the SCB (IC50 = 6.2 mg/mL). Serotonin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) release by differentiated Caco-2 and HuTu-80 cells, respectively, was stimulated by the CFB (355% at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL and 278% at a concentration of 0.05 mg/mL) to the same order of magnitude as those of the SCB. To summarize, the CFB was demonstrated to reduce monosaccharide bioaccessibility, to inhibit a diabetes-related digestive enzyme, and to improve the release of satiety hormones.


Assuntos
Coffea/química , Fibras na Dieta , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Stevia/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Duodenais/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/genética , Peptídeo 1 Semelhante ao Glucagon/metabolismo , Glucose-6-Fosfato Isomerase , Humanos , Serotonina/metabolismo , alfa-Glucosidases/genética
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