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1.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(7)2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218290

RESUMO

Bioceramic scaffolds are appealing for alveolar bone regeneration, because they are emerging as promising alternatives to autogenous and heterogenous bone grafts. The aim of this systematic review is to answer to the focal question: in critical-sized bone defects in experimental animal models, does the use of a bioceramic scaffolds improve new bone formation, compared with leaving the empty defect without grafting materials or using autogenous bone or deproteinized bovine-derived bone substitutes? Electronic databases were searched using specific search terms. A hand search was also undertaken. Only randomized and controlled studies in the English language, published in peer-reviewed journals between 2013 and 2018, using critical-sized bone defect models in non-medically compromised animals, were considered. Risk of bias assessment was performed using the SYRCLE tool. A meta-analysis was planned to synthesize the evidence, if possible. Thirteen studies reporting on small animal models (six studies on rats and seven on rabbits) were included. The calvarial bone defect was the most common experimental site. The empty defect was used as the only control in all studies except one. In all studies the bioceramic materials demonstrated a trend for better outcomes compared to an empty control. Due to heterogeneity in protocols and outcomes among the included studies, no meta-analysis could be performed. Bioceramics can be considered promising grafting materials, though further evidence is needed.

2.
Odontology ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112364

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of two chelating agents: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) combined or not with detergents, and etidronic acid combined with sterile saline. The bacterial inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC, respectively) were determined on Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 4083 strain. Antimicrobial tests were performed on a biofilm model after treatment with the chelating agents at different times (1, 3, and 5 min) using a biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) and confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) assays. Quantification of cell biomass and percentage of live and dead cells in the biomass was assessed for each group. The normality of the distributions for each variable was assessed using the D'Agostino and Pearson's omnibus normality test. The comparison of bacterial viability among groups and between any two groups was performed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and the Dunn's test, respectively. No significant between-group difference was observed regarding biomass reduction. On the other hand, EDTA combined with detergents displayed a substantial increase of the dead bacteria ranging between 35 and 43%; whereas, the number of cells killed in the control group and in the other treated groups always ranged between 1 and 6%, at all experimental times. The addition of detergents to EDTA can improve its anti-biofilm activity by reducing EPS production and enhancing the killing of sessile bacterial cells. Clinical relevance EDTA presents a relevant antimicrobial activity when combined with surface-active agents.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898345

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To report the clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients presenting with edentulous and atrophic ridges and treated with autogenous mandibular bone blocks and rehabilitated with implant-supported prostheses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1997 to 2015, 75 patients presenting with bone defects of the jaws were grafted with autogenous mandibular bone blocks. One-hundred eighty-two implants were placed 4 to 12 months later and loaded 3 to 10 months later: the mean follow-up was 10 years (range: 3-16 years). The following outcomes were recorded: (a) complication rate of the reconstructive procedure; (b) bone graft resorption before implant placement; (c) peri-implant bone resorption; (d) implant-related complications; and (e) implant survival and success rates. RESULTS: Postoperative recovery was uneventful in the majority of patients. An early dehiscence occurred in three patients, but with no significant bone loss, while 3 experienced temporary paraesthesia. The mean vertical and horizontal bone resorption before implant placement was 0.18 mm (standard deviation [SD] = 0.43) and 0.15 mm (SD = 0.42), respectively. The mean peri-implant bone loss ± standard deviation was 1.06 ± 1.19 (range: 0.00-5.05) at patient level and 1.11 ± 1.26 (range: 0.00-5.20) at implant level. Two implants in 2 patients lost integration and were removed; 10 implants in 7 patients developed peri-implantitis, but healed after surgical treatment. The cumulative implant survival and success rates were 98.11% and 85.16%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Implants placed in areas reconstructed with mandibular bone blocks presented survival rates consistent with those obtained for implants placed in native bone.

4.
J Prosthet Dent ; 123(3): 419-426, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451193

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: The clinical effectiveness of zirconia implants as an alternative to titanium implants is still controversial. PURPOSE: The purpose of this analysis was to identify and evaluate systematic reviews reporting on the clinical outcomes of zirconia implants for oral rehabilitation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An electronic search was undertaken on MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Oral Health Reviews databases up to December 24, 2018, without language restriction. Eligible reviews were screened and assessed. The eligibility criteria were systematic reviews or meta-analyses, implant survival rate, implant success, marginal bone loss, peri-implant soft tissue status, and biologic and functional complications of zirconia implants. Two review authors independently evaluated the quality assessment of the secondary studies by applying the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool. RESULTS: Nine reviews fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were evaluated. Seven reviews were classified as moderate and 2 as high quality. The overall AMSTAR's quality of these reports was moderate. In the primary studies contained in these reviews, zirconia implant clinical outcomes were found to be similar or inferior to those for titanium implants. The few primary clinical studies contained in these reviews were not homogeneous among each other, presented poor methodology, and only offered promising short-term outcomes due to the lack of long-term follow-ups. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this meta-review, in spite of short-term promising results of zirconia implants, evidence with long term is lacking.

5.
J Clin Med ; 8(12)2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31817177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the survival rates of immediately loaded implants after at least five years. Besides implant failure, the amount of marginal bone loss around implants and the complication type were assessed. METHODS: The electronic search was undertaken on Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials using key terms such as: "immediate loading", "immediate function", "immediate restoration", "immediate temporization", "dental implants", "fully edentulous patients", "partially edentulous patients". The search terms were combined using the Boolean operators AND, OR. The last electronic search was performed on 15 February 2018. Two authors independently screened the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the risk-of bias. The main outcomes recorded for each study were: implant and prosthesis success and survival, marginal bone level change, incidence and type of complications. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate cumulative survival rates. RESULTS: Thirty-four prospective studies with at least five-year follow-up, published between 2007 and 2017 were included. A total of 5349 immediately loaded implants in 1738 patients were analyzed. The mean follow-up was 72.4 months (median 60 months, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 64.53, 80.25 months, range 60 to 147 months). The mean weighted implant survival was 97.4% (median 98.15%, 95% CI: 96.29%, 98.54%, range 83.80% to 100%). Cumulative survival rate of implants placed in the mandible was significantly higher than for the maxilla (p < 0.01). No significant difference in failure rate was found among the types of prosthesis employed (p = 0.27). The mean peri-implant bone level change at the end of the follow-up in each study ranged from 0.3 to 1.7 mm. CONCLUSION: Immediate loading of implants appears to have long-term predictability and success rate under well-defined circumstances.

6.
Aust Endod J ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617650

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess ex vivo the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), as compared to operative microscope, for evaluating pulp chamber size. A total of forty teeth were extracted for periodontal reasons and a horizontal section was done at the most apical level of the cement-enamel junction. The pulp chamber was photographed using a digital camera connected to an optical microscope. Then, the tooth was scanned with CBCT and the horizontal slide matching the anatomical section of pulp chamber was digitally stored. The pulp chamber section area was measured through image analysis software. The two methods provided similar results, either for monoradicular (P = 0.14) or multiradicular teeth (P = 0.93). Correlation was statistically significant (P < 0.0001), being the coefficient r = 0.89 and 0.94 for monoradicular and multiradicular teeth, respectively. Conclusively, CBCT is suitable for pulp chamber morphology evaluation. However, it has limitations in detecting the anatomical variability of small branches in root canal system.

7.
Forensic Sci Int ; 304: 109951, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563559

RESUMO

Hair analysis for the assessment of cannabis active use from passive consumption may be failed when performed by the sole detection of compounds present in plant material as well as in cannabis smoke like Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and cannabinol (CBN). For this reason, the determination of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) has been proposed by the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) in order to prove active cannabis consumption. The identification of THC-COOH in hair will continue to be complicated by its acidic nature and the critical low concentration due to the preferential incorporation of basic compounds into hair shaft. Alternatively, 11-OH-THC may be considered as a complementary marker for THC administration. Our recent study reported an accurate validated procedure for THC, CBD, CBN and 11-OH-THC in hair, based on a GC/MS-MS method in electron ionization mode. However, unlike THC-COOH, a cut-off level for 11-OH-THC in hair has not been fixed yet. For this reason, the aim of this study is to propose a concentration value for 11-OH-THC in hair analysis in order to discriminate between chronic use and external contamination. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was applied for cut-off evaluation after 11-OH-THC quantification in a pool of 672 THC-positive hair samples. Results have shown a concentration range between 0.01-5.34 ng/mg for THC (mean 0.34 ng/mg, median 0.12), 0.00-19.2 pg/mg for THC-COOH (mean 0.72 pg/mg, median 0.19 pg/mg) and 0.01-13.33 ng/mg for 11-OH-THC (mean 1.09 ng/mg, median 0.51 ng/mg) for scalp hair and between 0.03-6.32 ng/mg for THC (mean 0.82 ng/mg, median 0.30), 0.00-42.1 pg/mg for THC-COOH (mean 2.70 pg/mg, median 1.08 pg/mg) and 0.00-7.88 ng/mg for 11-OH-THC (mean 1.70 ng/mg, median 0.89 ng/mg) for body hair. Considering these experimental data collected in our laboratory, we propose a cut-off level of 0.5 for scalp and body hair, as indicative of cannabis active consumption. The ROC curve AUCs for 11-OH-THC were 0.873 and 0.884 in 590 scalp hair and 82 body hair samples, respectively. The comparison of the results for THC-COOH (control method) and 11-OH-THC (test method) was also made by means of the Cohen's kappa statistics providing a good agreement according to both Landis & Koch and Fleiss scales. Additionally, we suggest that the detection of both THC-COOH and 11-OH-THC should be mandatory in order to prove active intake and exclude false positive results from external contamination.


Assuntos
Dronabinol/análogos & derivados , Toxicologia Forense/normas , Cabelo/química , Alucinógenos/análise , Abuso de Maconha/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/análise , Dronabinol/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Valores de Referência
8.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 27: e20180699, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the role of extracellular deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA) on Enterococcus faecalis ( E. faecalis ) biofilm and the susceptibility of E. faecalis to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). METHODOLOGY: E. faecalis biofilm was formed in bovine tooth specimens and the biofilm was cultured with or without deoxyribonuclease (DNase), an inhibitor of eDNA. Then, the role of eDNA in E. faecalis growth and biofilm formation was investigated using colony forming unit (CFUs) counting, eDNA level assay, crystal violet staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The susceptibility of E. faecalis biofilm to low (0.5%) or high (5%) NaOCl concentrations was also analyzed by CFU counting. RESULTS: CFUs and biofilm formation decreased significantly with DNase treatment (p<0.05). The microstructure of DNase-treated biofilms exhibited less structured features when compared to the control. The volume of exopolysaccharides in the DNase-treated biofilm was significantly lower than that of control (p<0.05). Moreover, the CFUs, eDNA level, biofilm formation, and exopolysaccharides volume were lower when the biofilm was treated with DNase de novo when compared to when DNase was applied to matured biofilm (p<0.05). E. faecalis in the biofilm was more susceptible to NaOCl when it was cultured with DNase (p<0.05). Furthermore, 0.5% NaOCl combined with DNase treatment was as efficient as 5% NaOCl alone regarding susceptibility (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of eDNA leads to decrease of E. faecalis biofilm formation and increase of susceptibility of E. faecalis to NaOCl even at low concentrations. Therefore, our results suggest that inhibition of eDNA would be beneficial in facilitating the efficacy of NaOCl and reducing its concentration.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , DNA Bacteriano/farmacologia , Desoxirribonucleases/farmacologia , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Cavidade Pulpar/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Confocal , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(17)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466409

RESUMO

This systematic review is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of synthetic block materials for bone augmentation in preclinical in vivo studies. An electronic search was performed on Pubmed, Scopus, EMBASE. Articles selected underwent risk-of-bias assessment. The outcomes were: new bone formation and residual graft with histomorphometry, radiographic bone density, soft tissue parameters, complications. Meta-analysis was performed to compare new bone formation in test (synthetic blocks) vs. control group (autogenous blocks or spontaneous healing). The search yielded 214 articles. After screening, 39 studies were included, all performed on animal models: rabbits (n = 18 studies), dogs (n = 4), rats (n = 7), minipigs (n = 4), goats (n = 4), and sheep (n = 2). The meta-analysis on rabbit studies showed significantly higher new bone formation for synthetic blocks with respect to autogenous blocks both at four-week (mean difference (MD): 5.91%, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.04, 10.79%, p = 0.02) and at eight-week healing (MD: 4.44%, 95% CI: 0.71, 8.17%, p = 0.02). Other animal models evidenced a trend for better outcomes with synthetic blocks, though only based on qualitative analysis. Synthetic blocks may represent a viable resource in bone regenerative surgery for achieving new bone formation. Differences in the animal models, the design of included studies, and the bone defects treated should be considered when generalizing the results. Clinical studies are needed to confirm the effectiveness of synthetic blocks in bone augmentation procedures.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Substitutos Ósseos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Substitutos Ósseos/efeitos adversos , Substitutos Ósseos/química , Cães , Cabras , Coelhos , Ratos , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Ovinos , Suínos , Porco Miniatura
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(14)2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects supporting tissues around teeth, resulting in periodontal tissue breakdown. If left untreated, periodontal disease could have serious consequences; this condition is in fact considered as the primary cause of tooth loss. Being highly prevalent among adults, periodontal disease treatment is receiving increased attention from researchers and clinicians. When this condition occurs around dental implants, the disease is termed peri-implantitis. Periodontal regeneration aims at restoring the destroyed attachment apparatus, in order to improve tooth stability and thus reduce disease progression and subsequent periodontal tissue breakdown. Although many biomaterials have been developed to promote periodontal regeneration, they still have their own set of disadvantages. As a result, regenerative medicine has been employed in the periodontal field, not only to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional biomaterials but also to ensure more predictable regenerative outcomes with minimal complications. Regenerative medicine is considered a part of the research field called tissue engineering/regenerative medicine (TE/RM), a translational field combining cell therapy, biomaterial, biomedical engineering and genetics all with the aim to replace and restore tissues or organs to their normal function using in vitro models for in vivo regeneration. In a tissue, cells are responding to different micro-environmental cues and signaling molecules, these biological factors influence cell differentiation, migration and cell responses. A central part of TE/RM therapy is introducing drugs, genetic materials or proteins to induce specific cellular responses in the cells at the site of tissue repair in order to enhance and improve tissue regeneration. In this review, we present the state of art of gene therapy in the applications of periodontal tissue and peri-implant regeneration. PURPOSE: We aim herein to review the currently available methods for gene therapy, which include the utilization of viral/non-viral vectors and how they might serve as therapeutic potentials in regenerative medicine for periodontal and peri-implant tissues.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética/métodos , Peri-Implantite/terapia , Periodontite/terapia , Vetores Genéticos , Humanos , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos
11.
J Evid Based Dent Pract ; 19(2): 166-176, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31326048

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the adjunctive use of plasma rich in growth factors in postextraction sites could be beneficial in terms of hard- and soft-tissue healing and patients' comfort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An electronic search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, and CENTRAL. Only controlled clinical trials or randomized clinical trials that used plasma rich in growth factors in the test group were included. The primary outcomes were pain assessment, complications, and adverse events. Secondary outcomes were hard-tissue healing, bone remodeling, and soft-tissue healing. RESULTS: Eight comparative studies (5 randomized clinical trials) were included. Four studies had a split-mouth design. Six hundred fourteen teeth were extracted in 338 patients. Only qualitative analysis could be performed. Postoperative pain and the incidence of complications such as alveolar osteitis were consistently lower in the test group. Hard-tissue healing, evaluated by clinical, radiographic, histologic, and histomorphometric techniques, showed significantly better results for the test group in almost all studies. Better epithelialization, keratinized tissue thickness, and healing score were also reported. CONCLUSION: Plasma rich in growth factors may bring advantages in some relevant clinical and radiographic outcomes, such as bone density and soft-tissue healing, after tooth extraction. It could also represent a useful tool for reducing adverse events, complications, and patients' discomfort, although it is still not quantifiable.

12.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res ; 21(5): 923-930, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The achievement and preservation of an adequate amount of soft tissue around implants is a critical factor for the prognosis of the treatment. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a porcine dermal matrix applied during second stage implant surgery for horizontal soft tissue augmentation and preservation of dimensional stability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients (mean age 50.2 ± 11.9 [SD] years) candidate to implant therapy and requiring soft tissue augmentation were recruited in four centers. Augmentation was performed in 24 cases. A porcine dermal matrix was placed into a buccal split-thickness pouch during uncovering surgery. Silicone impressions were taken before surgery (T0), 2 weeks later at suture removal (T2), 6 months (T3), and 24 months (T4) post augmentation. Dimensional changes of soft tissue were evaluated using superimposition of digitalized study casts. RESULTS: Nineteen patients (23 implants) could be evaluated at 6 months and 13 patients (17 implants) at 24 months. After 6-month follow-up, there was a significant dimensional gain respect to baseline, averaging 0.83 ± 0.64 mm (P < .01). This did not change significantly at 24 months (0.77 ± 0.65 mm, P = .19). The gain was >0.5 mm in 65.2% and 64.7% of the cases, respectively. Soft tissue shrinkage averaged 34.2% ± 77.0% from T2 to T3 (P < .01) and did not change thereafter (P = .39). Shrinkage was more consistent in the posterior mandible than in the maxilla, but not significantly (P = .23 at 6-month and .36 at 24-month). No adverse events occurred. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of this prospective case series, the use of a porcine dermal matrix may provide consistent soft tissue augmentation that maintains up to 24-month follow-up, although graft shrinkage may occur in the first 6 months, depending on the location of surgery.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Adulto , Animais , Tecido Conjuntivo , Gengiva , Humanos , Maxila , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Suínos
13.
J Dent Sci ; 14(2): 157-162, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210889

RESUMO

Background/purpose: In order to prevent reinfection of the pulp canal space and dressing for regenerative purpose, the coronal seal should have a perfect marginal adaptation. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and Biodentine are among the most popular sealing materials. These are commonly used in combination with antibiotic medicaments, to ensure disinfection. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 3 different medicaments on the marginal adaptation of MTA and Biodentine to the dentin. Materials and methods: Teeth were divided into 4 groups (n = 20) that were treated with the following medicaments; triple antibiotic paste (TAP), double antibiotic paste (DAP), a calcium hydroxide (CH) and a control group. The specimens were then assigned into two subgroups (n = 10), which received a coronal barrier of MTA or Biodentine. The specimens were scanned using an ex vivo micro-CT scanner. The data were statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA and the unpaired Student's t-test (P < 0.05). Results: Percentage volume of external voids in the MTA group was as follows: DAP > TAP > Control > CH. In the Biodentine group, the percentage of voids was determined in the following order: TAP ≥ DAP > CH > Control. Significantly lower percentage of voids was observed in the CH-medicated specimens in the MTA group when compared to all test groups (P = 0.04). Conclusion: The application of CH as an intracanal medicament reduced the void occurrence between the ProRoot MTA and root dentin. However, TAP and or DAP decreased the marginal adaptation in both ProRoot MTA and Biodentine.

14.
Odontology ; 107(4): 521-529, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197618

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface tension and the antimicrobial activity in infected dentin of a NaOCl solution combined with an etidronate powder (Dual Rinse® HEDP), compared to pure NaOCl and the classic NaOCl + EDTA irrigating sequence, respectively. The surface tension of three irrigants was measured by Wilhelmy technique. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the solutions, 26 human teeth were contaminated for 5 days with E. faecalis. After bacterial contamination, ten samples were irrigated with NaOCl followed by EDTA, another ten with NaOCl/Dual Rinse® HEDP, and four were used as positive controls. Two specimens not contaminated were used as negative controls. After live/dead BacLight staining, samples were examined by CLSM for analyzing % of residual live and dead cells. Comparison of bacterial viability between and within groups was performed using the Mann-Whitney test for independent samples and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, respectively. The mean surface tension of EDTA was significantly lower than that of the other irrigants tested (p < 0.001). Conversely, the surface tension of NaOCl/Dual Rinse® HEDP solution was significantly higher than that of all the other solutions (p < 0.001). Residual bacterial viability in the NaOCl/Dual Rinse® HEDP (1.71%) was significantly lower (p = 0.019) than in the NaOCl + EDTA group (3.77%). All of the experimental groups showed significantly lower proportion of viable bacterial cells than the positive control group (p < 0.01). Clinical relevance adding etidronate to NaOCl increases its antimicrobial effect in dentinal tubules even though increases its surface tension.


Assuntos
Ácido Etidrônico , Irrigantes do Canal Radicular , Dentina , Desinfecção , Ácido Edético , Enterococcus faecalis , Humanos , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Tensão Superficial
15.
Int J Implant Dent ; 5(1): 17, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963362

RESUMO

The review aimed at assessing the osteopromotive potential as well as soft tissue and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) cartilage healing properties of simvastatin by summarizing its efficacy on the current dental treatment of periodontal bone and soft tissue defects, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis from the available animals and human studies. An electronic search was performed on MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) using a combination of keywords. A hand search was undertaken on seven oral surgery journals. No limitation of publication year in the English language was placed. Controlled randomized animal and human clinical trials, as well as prospective comparative studies, were included. Data on the comparison of topical/systemic simvastatin on bone healing in intrabony and furcation defects, extraction sockets, distraction osteogenesis, as well as soft tissue healing in mucogingival grafting procedures and cartilage protection in TMJ arthritis were extracted from all the eligible studies. Studies with a minimum of ten participants and follow up at least 6 months were included. Ten animal studies and six clinical studies were included in this study. All the animal studies included a minimum of eight sites per group assessed clinically, histologically, and radiographically. All human studies included clinical and radiological evaluation. The results of the review show that simvastatin administration displays positive treatment outcomes in the full range of therapies investigated in the oral regions such as periodontal infection control, periodontal and alveolar bone regeneration, soft tissue grafting, TMJ inflammation reduction, and cartilage repair. Its mechanism includes stimulating bone formation, promoting soft tissue healing, increasing articular and condylar cartilage thickness, as well as reducing inflammation at surgical sites in TMJ disorders. Simvastatin administration is beneficial to the healing of oral bone and cartilage. More studies are desired to determine its potential in soft tissue healing.

16.
J Craniofac Surg ; 30(4): 1089-1094, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30839465

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This prospective study is aimed at investigating clinically and histologically the effectiveness of a biomimetic magnesium-enriched-hydroxyapatite (MgHA)/collagen-based bone substitute for alveolar socket preservation. MATERIALS: Patients scheduled for posterior single tooth extraction were included. The alveolar socket was filled either with MgHA or deproteinized bovine bone matrix (DBBM). In DBBM group, a punch of mucosa was taken from the palate and used to cover the graft. Vertical and horizontal dimensional changes of the alveolar process were assessed clinically with a periodontal probe and with 3-dimensional (3D) analysis of a cast model. Postoperative quality of life was assessed through a questionnaire. After 6 months of healing, an alveolar tissue biopsy was taken for histologic and histomorphometric analysis of the newly formed tissue. After checking normality of the distributions, parametric or nonparametric tests were used for statistical comparisons. RESULTS: Twenty patients (12 males, 8 females, mean age 42.8 ±â€Š5.1 years, range 33-50 years) were treated. After 6 months, vertical and horizontal alveolar ridge resorption was similar in the 2 groups. The 3D analysis of the models showed a significantly higher resorption at the buccal side than at the palatal/lingual side. Histomorphometric analysis showed similar new bone formation for MgHA group (23.07 ±â€Š10.3%) and DBBM (22.77 ±â€Š6.95%), and a significantly higher residual material% for DBBM (15.77 ±â€Š1.95%) than MgHA (5.01 ±â€Š1.04%). Significantly less pain was reported in the first 3 days after surgery in patients of the MgHA group. CONCLUSION: The MgHA was as safe and effective as DBBM and may represent a feasible bone substitute for alveolar socket preservation.


Assuntos
Processo Alveolar/cirurgia , Substitutos Ósseos/uso terapêutico , Colágeno/uso terapêutico , Durapatita/uso terapêutico , Xenoenxertos/transplante , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais , Adulto , Animais , Materiais Biomiméticos/uso terapêutico , Bovinos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Patient Prefer Adherence ; 13: 179-185, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30697038

RESUMO

Purpose: Bone graft materials can be obtained from the patient's own body (autologous graft), animals (xenograft), human cadavers (allograft) and synthetic materials (alloplastic bone graft). Patients may have ethical, religious or medical concerns about the origin of bone grafts, which could lead them to reject the use of certain types of bone graft in their treatments. The aim of this multicenter study, which surveyed patients from five university clinics in Portugal, France, Italy, Spain and Chile, was to analyze patients' opinions regarding the source of bone grafts. Patients and methods: A survey composed of ten questions was translated into local languages and validated. Patients were asked about the degree of acceptance/rejection of each graft and the reasons for rejection. A chi-squared test was used to analyze statistically significant differences. Results: Three hundred thirty patients were surveyed. The grafts that elicited the highest percentage of refusal were allograft (40.4%), autologous bone graft from an extraoral donor site (34%) and xenograft (32.7%). The grafts with the lowest rate of refusal were alloplastic (6.3%) and autologous bone grafts from an intraoral donor site (24.5%). The main reason for autologous bone rejection was the fear of pain and discomfort, for xenograft it was the fear of disease transmission and the rejection of use of animals for human benefit, and for allograft it was ethical/moral motivations and the fear of disease transmission. Religious affiliation influenced patient's preferences. Conclusion: The origin of bone grafts is still conflictive for a high percentage of patients.

18.
Clin Oral Investig ; 23(8): 3257-3265, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the combined role of current radiographic risk indicators and patient age in predicting lower lip sensitivity disturbances after surgical removal of impacted lower third molars. The question was which combinations indicate low or high risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was implemented involving 247 consecutive outpatients who underwent 423 surgical extractions. The predictor variables were patient age and risk indicators observed on panoramic radiographs. The outcome variable was the incidence of self-assessed lip sensitivity alterations. The extractions were subdivided into four groups according to the predictors. RESULTS: Two hundred forty-five teeth were extracted in patients younger than 25 years and 178 in patients 25 years old or older; radiographic risk indicators were associated with 226 out of 423 teeth (53.43%). No permanent neurological damage was observed. Transient lip sensitivity alterations were observed in five cases (1.18%; 95% confidence interval = 0.4 to 2.7%), all in the older group with radiographic risk indicators. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate a low overall incidence of transient lip sensitivity impairment that occurred only in the presence of radiographic risk indicators in patients aged ≥ 25 years. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Informed consent should include the possibility of inferior alveolar nerve injury in mature patients with radiographic risk indicators. Prophylactic removal of impacted teeth with radiographic signs of risk may be indicated when the patient is not yet aged 25 years.


Assuntos
Dente Impactado , Traumatismos do Nervo Trigêmeo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mandíbula , Nervo Mandibular , Dente Serotino , Pacientes , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia Panorâmica , Autorrelato , Extração Dentária
19.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 34(3): 681­691, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521657

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Scientific publications have recently found that bone graft quality and implant survival rates were not influenced by antrostomy membrane coverage during maxillary sinus floor augmentation with a lateral approach. The aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of the bone substitute after a maxillary sinus floor augmentation procedure with or without using a covering membrane. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated all patients who were enrolled between April 2016 and January 2017. The stability of the bone graft inside the sinus cavity as well at the level of the lateral bone window was assessed through preoperative and postoperative cone beam computed tomography images up to 6-month follow-up. The clinical postoperative morbidity was evaluated following a visual analog scale (VAS) protocol. RESULTS: Maxillary sinus floor augmentation with a lateral approach was performed in 41 patients. In 17 cases (10 women/7 men, mean age: 55.4 years), a barrier membrane was used to cover the lateral bone window (control group), and in 24 cases (13 women/11 men, mean age: 56.2 years), no membrane was used (test group). The bone graft dislodgement within the buccal mucosa at 6 months postoperative ranged from 0 to 12.2 mm (mean value: 3.8 ± 3.1 [standard deviation] mm) in the test group and from 0 to 2.3 mm (mean value: 0.5 ± 0.4 mm) in the control group. The postoperative pain and swelling complications were significantly more important for the test group (3.3 ± 1.4/4.3 ± 4.5, respectively) than for the control group (2.1 ± 0.9/2.7 ± 0.9). CONCLUSION: On the basis of this preliminary study, it appears that the use of a barrier membrane to cover the lateral bone window during maxillary sinus floor augmentation surgery with a lateral approach reduces the postoperative dislodgement of the bone graft throughout the sinus antrostomy and prevents the bone substitute particles penetrating within the buccal mucosa, which is related to postoperative morbidity.


Assuntos
Substitutos Ósseos/normas , Transplante Ósseo/métodos , Seio Maxilar/cirurgia , Levantamento do Assoalho do Seio Maxilar/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Seio Maxilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
J. appl. oral sci ; 27: e20180699, 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012504

RESUMO

Abstract Objective This study investigated the role of extracellular deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA) on Enterococcus faecalis ( E. faecalis ) biofilm and the susceptibility of E. faecalis to sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Methodology E. faecalis biofilm was formed in bovine tooth specimens and the biofilm was cultured with or without deoxyribonuclease (DNase), an inhibitor of eDNA. Then, the role of eDNA in E. faecalis growth and biofilm formation was investigated using colony forming unit (CFUs) counting, eDNA level assay, crystal violet staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The susceptibility of E. faecalis biofilm to low (0.5%) or high (5%) NaOCl concentrations was also analyzed by CFU counting. Results CFUs and biofilm formation decreased significantly with DNase treatment (p<0.05). The microstructure of DNase-treated biofilms exhibited less structured features when compared to the control. The volume of exopolysaccharides in the DNase-treated biofilm was significantly lower than that of control (p<0.05). Moreover, the CFUs, eDNA level, biofilm formation, and exopolysaccharides volume were lower when the biofilm was treated with DNase de novo when compared to when DNase was applied to matured biofilm (p<0.05). E. faecalis in the biofilm was more susceptible to NaOCl when it was cultured with DNase (p<0.05). Furthermore, 0.5% NaOCl combined with DNase treatment was as efficient as 5% NaOCl alone regarding susceptibility (p>0.05). Conclusions Inhibition of eDNA leads to decrease of E. faecalis biofilm formation and increase of susceptibility of E. faecalis to NaOCl even at low concentrations. Therefore, our results suggest that inhibition of eDNA would be beneficial in facilitating the efficacy of NaOCl and reducing its concentration.

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