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1.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Young age at breast cancer (BC) diagnosis has historically been a rationale for overtreatment. Limited data with short follow-up exist on the prognostic value of age at diagnosis in HER2-positive BC and the benefit of anti-HER2 therapy in young patients. METHODS: APHINITY (NCT01358877) is an international, placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized phase III trial in HER2-positive early BC patients investigating the addition of pertuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy plus trastuzumab. The prognostic and predictive value of age on invasive disease-free survival (IDFS) as continuous and dichotomous variable (≤40 years and >40 years) was assessed. A STEPP analysis was conducted to illustrate possible treatment-effect heterogeneity based on age as a continuous factor. RESULTS: Out of 4,804 included patients, 768 (16.0%) were ≤40 years at enrollment. Median follow-up was 74 months (IQR 62-75 months). Young age was not prognostic either as dichotomous (HR 1.06; 95% CI 0.84-1.33) or continuous (HR 1.00; 95% CI 1.00-1.01) variable. Lack of prognostic effect of age was observed irrespective of hormone receptor status and treatment arm. No significant interaction was observed between age and pertuzumab effect (Pinteraction=0.605). Adding pertuzumab improved IDFS for both patients in the young (HR 0.86; 95% CI 0.56-1.32) and older (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.62-0.92) cohorts. Similar results were observed irrespective of hormone receptor status. STEPP analysis confirmed the benefit of pertuzumab in 6-year IDFS across age subpopulations. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HER2-positive early BC treated with modern anticancer therapies, young age did not demonstrate either prognostic or predictive value, irrespective of hormone receptor status.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(9)2022 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565264

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women worldwide, and HER2-positive breast cancer accounts for approximately 15% of all breast cancer diagnoses. The advent of HER2-targeting therapies has dramatically improved the survival of these patients, significantly reducing their risk of recurrence and death. However, as a significant proportion of patients ultimately develop resistance to these therapies, it is extremely important to identify new treatments to further improve their clinical outcomes. Immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment and history of several cancer types, and it has already been approved as a standard of care for patients with triple-negative breast cancer. Based on a strong preclinical rationale, immunotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer represents an intriguing field that is currently under clinical investigation. There is a close interplay between HER2-targeting therapies (both approved and under investigation) and the immune system, and several new immunotherapeutic strategies, including immune checkpoint inhibitors, CAR-T cells and therapeutic vaccines, are being studied in this disease. In this narrative review, we discuss the clinical evidence and the future perspectives of immunotherapy for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(9)2022 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35565446

RESUMO

Great improvement has been made in the diagnosis and therapy of breast cancer patients. However, the identification of biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognosis, therapy assessment and monitoring, including drug resistance and the early detection of micro-metastases, is still lacking. Recently, circulating microRNAs (miRNAs), circulating freely in the blood stream or entrapped in extracellular vesicles (EVs), have been shown to have a potential diagnostic, prognostic or predictive power. In this review, recent findings are summarized, both at a preclinical and clinical level, related to miRNA applicability in the context of breast cancer. Different aspects, including clinical and technical challenges, are discussed, describing the potentialities of miRNA use in breast cancer. Even though more methodological standardized studies conducted in larger and selected patient cohorts are needed to support the effective clinical utility of miRNA as biomarkers, they could represent novel and accessible tools to be transferred into clinical practice.

4.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(8)2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35454806

RESUMO

Breast cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. During the past three decades, several improvements in the adjuvant treatment of hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer have been achieved with the introduction of optimized adjuvant chemotherapy and endocrine treatment. However, estimating the risk of relapse of breast cancer on an individual basis is still challenging. The IRIDE (hIGh Risk DEfinition in breast cancer) working group was established with the aim of reviewing evidence from the literature to synthesize the current relevant features that predict hormone-positive/HER2-negative early breast cancer relapse. A panel of experts in breast cancer was involved in identifying clinical, pathological, morphological, and genetic factors. A RAND consensus method was used to define the relevance of each risk factor. Among the 21 features included, 12 were considered relevant risk factors for relapse. For each of these, we provided a consensus statement and relevant comments on the supporting scientific evidence. This work may guide clinicians in the practical management of hormone-positive/HER2-negative early breast cancers.

5.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 8(1): 1, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013314

RESUMO

The crosstalk between estrogen and HER2 receptors and cell-cycle regulation sustains resistance to endocrine therapy of HER2- and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. We earlier reported that women with HER2 and ER-positive breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant dual HER2-block and palbociclib in the NA-PHER2 trial had Ki67 decrease and 27% pathological complete responses (pCR). We extended NA-PHER2 to Cohort B using dual HER2-block and palbociclib without fulvestrant and report here Ki67 drops at week-2 (mean change -25.7), at surgery (after 16 weeks, mean change -9.5), high objective response (88.5%) and pCR (19.2%). In Cohort C [Ki67 > 20% and HER2low (IHC 1+/2+ without gene amplification)], women also received fulvestrant, had dramatic Ki67 drop at week 2 (-29.5) persisting at surgery (-19.3), and objective responses in 78.3%. In view of the favorable tolerability and of the efficacy-predictive value of Ki67 drop at week-2, the chemotherapy-free approach of NA-PHER2 deserves further investigation in HER2 and ER-positive breast cancer. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02530424.

6.
Tumori ; : 3008916211067568, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34989265

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy has become the preferred treatment in HER2-positive early breast cancer. Several trials investigated the neoadjuvant efficacy of dual HER2 blockade with anthracycline-free chemotherapy, whereas few data are available on single-agent trastuzumab and anthracycline-based regimens, which represent the standard of care in the adjuvant setting. This phase II, single-arm trial assessed anthracycline-based chemotherapy and trastuzumab as neoadjuvant treatment for high-risk HER2-positive breast cancer. METHODS: Forty-three patients with stage II-III HER2-positive breast cancer were treated with 4 courses of neoadjuvant 5-fluorouracil 600 mg/m2, epirubicin 90 mg/m2, cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 (FEC ×4) every 21 days, followed by 12 courses of weekly paclitaxel 80 mg/m2 and trastuzumab 2 mg/Kg IV (loading dose 4 mg/kg). RESULTS: Pathologic complete response (pCR) was observed in 22 (51%) of 43 patients. After a median follow-up of 6 years, the 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival were 85.8% (95% confidence interval 75.9%-97%) and 89.6% (80.4%-99.8%), respectively. A temporary decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction was observed in two patients. No cardiac death or congestive heart failure occurred. One patient died due to febrile neutropenia. CONCLUSIONS: FEC ×4 followed by paclitaxel and trastuzumab was associated with high pCR rates and favorable long-term outcomes. However, this regimen was associated with relevant hematologic toxicity.

7.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 22(1): 78-87, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34750070

RESUMO

Women with metastatic breast cancer remains a heterogeneous group of patients with different prognostic outcomes and therapeutic needs. Young women with de novo metastatic breast cancer (dnMBC) represent a peculiar population with respect to tumor biology, prognosis, clinical management and survivorship issues. Overall, these patients are able to attain long-term survival with a proper management of both primary tumor and distant metastases. On the other hand, they are also at higher risk of experiencing a deterioration in their quality of life (QoL) due to primary cancer-related side effects. Young women are also likely to harbor germline pathogenic variants in cancer predisposition genes which could affect treatment decisions and have a direct impact on the lives of patients' relatives. The loco-regional management of the primary tumor represents another thorny subject, as the surgical approach has shown controversial effects on the survival and the QoL of these patients. This review aims to provide an update on these issues to better inform the clinical management of dnMBC in young women.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Saúde da Mulher , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 191(2): 269-275, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731351

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Symptoms of treatment-induced menopause negatively affect quality of life and adherence to endocrine therapy of breast cancer (BC) survivors. Nevertheless, the use of systemic hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to mitigate these symptoms may be associated with an increased risk of disease recurrence in these patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the safety of systemic HRT on risk of disease recurrence in BC survivors. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed up to April 20, 2021 was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the risk of disease recurrence with the use of HRT in BC survivors. A random-effect model was applied to calculate the risk of recurrence, reported as pooled hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A subgroup analysis was performed to estimate the risk of recurrence according to hormone receptor status. RESULTS: Four RCTs were included in the meta-analysis (n = 4050 patients). Overall, 2022 patients were randomized to receive HRT (estrogen/progestogen combination or tibolone) and 2023 to the control group with placebo or no HRT. HRT significantly increased the risk of BC recurrence compared to placebo (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.12-1.91, p = 0.006). At the subgroup analysis, the risk of BC recurrence with the use of HRT was significantly increased in patients with hormone receptor-positive disease (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.15-2.82, p = 0.010) but not in those with hormone receptor-negative tumors (HR 1.19, 95% CI 0.80-1.77, p = 0.390). CONCLUSION: Use of HRT was associated with a detrimental prognostic effect in BC survivors, particularly in those with hormone receptor-positive disease. Alternative interventions to mitigate menopause-related symptoms should be proposed.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sobreviventes
9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 114(3): 400-408, 2022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850043

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) during chemotherapy is an established strategy to protect ovarian function in premenopausal breast cancer patients, no long-term safety data are available, raising some concerns in women with hormone receptor-positive disease. There are controversial data on its fertility preservation potential. METHODS: The Prevention of Menopause Induced by Chemotherapy: a Study in Early Breast Cancer Patients-Gruppo Italiano Mammella 6 (PROMISE-GIM6) trial is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase III superiority trial conducted at 16 Italian centers from October 2003 to January 2008. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy alone (control arm) or combined with the GnRHa triptorelin (GnRHa arm). The primary planned endpoint was incidence of chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian insufficiency. Post hoc endpoints were disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and post-treatment pregnancies. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: Of 281 randomly assigned patients, 80.4% had hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Median follow-up was 12.4 years (interquartile range = 11.3-13.2 years). No differences in 12-year DFS (65.7% [95% CI = 57.0% to 73.1%] in the GnRHa arm vs 69.2% [95% CI = 60.3% to 76.5%] in the control arm; HR = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.76 to 1.77) or in 12-year OS (81.2% [95% CI = 73.6% to 86.8%] in the GnRHa arm vs 81.3% [95% CI = 73.1% to 87.2%] in the control arm; HR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.67 to 2.03) were observed. In patients with hormone receptor-positive disease, the hazard ratio was 1.02 (95% CI = 0.63 to 1.63) for DFS and 1.12 (95% CI = 0.59 to 2.11) for OS. In the GnRHa and control arms, 9 and 4 patients had a posttreatment pregnancy, respectively (HR = 2.14, 95% CI = 0.66 to 6.92). CONCLUSIONS: Final analysis of the PROMISE-GIM6 trial provides reassuring results on the safety of GnRHa use during chemotherapy as a strategy to preserve ovarian function in premenopausal patients with early breast cancer, including those with hormone receptor-positive disease.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina , Humanos , Gravidez , Pré-Menopausa , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Ovariana Primária/prevenção & controle
10.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 6: e2100198, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35201850

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The study of plasma cell-free DNA integrity (cfDI) has shown potential for providing useful information in neoplastic patients. The aim of this study is to estimate the accuracy of an electrophoresis-based method for cfDI evaluation in the assessment of pathologic complete response (pCR) in patients with breast cancer (BC) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients with BC undergoing anthracycline-/taxane-based NACT were recruited. Plasma samples were collected from each patient at diagnosis (t0), after anthracycline administration (t1), and after NACT completion (t2). The concentration of differently sized cell-free DNA fragments was assessed by automated electrophoresis. cfDI, expressed as cfDI index, was calculated as the ratio of 321-1,000 bp sized fragment concentration to 150-220 bp sized fragment concentration assessed at t2. cfDI index was then used to build an exploratory classifier for BC response to NACT, directly comparing its sensitivity and specificity with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), through bootstrapped logistic regression. RESULTS: cfDI index was assessed on 38 plasma samples collected from as many patients at t2, maintaining a 30/70 ratio between pCR and non-pCR patients. cfDI index showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve in predicting the achievement of pCR of 81.6, with a cutoff above 2.71 showing sensitivity = 81.8 and specificity = 81.5. The combination of cfDI index and MRI showed, in case of concordance, an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 92.6 with a predictive value of complete response of 87.5 and a predictive value of absence of complete response of 94.7. CONCLUSION: cfDI index measured after NACT completion shows great potential in the assessment of pCR in patients with BC. The evaluation of its use in combination with MRI is strongly warranted in prospective studies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Eletroforese , Feminino , Humanos , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Ther Adv Med Oncol ; 13: 17588359211053416, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients are at higher risk of COVID-19 complications and mortality than the rest of the population. Breast cancer patients seem to have better prognosis when infected by SARS-CoV-2 than other cancer patients. METHODS: We report a subanalysis of the OnCovid study providing more detailed information in the breast cancer population. RESULTS: We included 495 breast cancer patients with a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mean age was 62.6 years; 31.5% presented more than one comorbidity. The most frequent breast cancer subtype was luminal-like (n = 245, 49.5%) and 177 (35.8%) had metastatic disease. A total of 332 (67.1%) patients were receiving active treatment, with radical intent in 232 (47.6%) of them. Hospitalization rate was 58.2% and all-cause mortality rate was 20.3%. One hundred twenty-nine (26.1%) patients developed one COVID-19 complication, being acute respiratory failure the most common (n = 74, 15.0%). In the multivariable analysis, age older than 70 years, presence of COVID-19 complications, and metastatic disease were factors correlated with worse outcomes, while ongoing anticancer therapy at time of COVID-19 diagnosis appeared to be a protective factor. No particular oncological treatment was related to higher risk of complications. In the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 73 (18.3%) patients had some kind of modification on their oncologic treatment. At the first oncological reassessment (median time: 46.9 days ± 36.7), 255 (51.6%) patients reported to be fully recovered from the infection. There were 39 patients (7.9%) with long-term SARS-CoV-2-related complications. CONCLUSION: In the context of COVID-19, our data confirm that breast cancer patients appear to have lower complications and mortality rate than expected in other cancer populations. Most breast cancer patients can be safely treated for their neoplasm during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Oncological treatment has no impact on the risk of SARS-CoV-2 complications, and, especially in the curative setting, the treatment should be modified as little as possible.

12.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 654728, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660706

RESUMO

Background: Women with breast cancer (BC) represent a special population particularly exposed to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, cardiologic assessment in BC is mostly limited to detection of left ventricular dysfunction cardiotoxicity (LVD-CTX) due to anticancer treatments. Our aim was to comprehensively investigate CV profile and events in a contemporary BC cohort. Methods and Results: Records of BC patients referred for a Cardio-Oncologic evaluation before starting anticancer treatments, between 2016 and 2019, were retrospectively reviewed (n = 508). Information regarding prevalence and control of CV risk factors, and novel CVD diagnoses were extracted. Occurrence of LVD-CTX, CV events other than LVD-CTX and mortality was assessed. Mean age of study population was 64 ± 13 years; 287 patients were scheduled to receive anthracycline and 165 anti-HER2 therapy. Overall, 53% of BC women had ≥2 CV risk factors, and 67% had at least one of arterial hypertension, dyslipidaemia or diabetes mellitus not adequately controlled. Eighteen (4%) patients were diagnosed a previously unknown CVD. Over a mean follow-up of 2.5 ± 1 years, 3% of BC patients developed LVD-CTX, 2% suffered from other CV events and 11% died. CV risk factors were not associated with LVD-CTX, except for family history of CAD. On the contrary, patients with other CV events exhibited a worse CV profile. Those who died more commonly experienced CV events other than LVD-CTX (p = 0.02). Conclusions: BC women show a suboptimal CV risk profile and are at risk of CV events not limited to LVD-CTX. A baseline Cardio-Oncologic evaluation was instrumental to implement CV prevention and to optimize CV therapies.

13.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e049128, 2021 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34670762

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To measure and explain financial toxicity (FT) of cancer in Italy, where a public healthcare system exists and patients with cancer are not expected (or only marginally) to pay out-of-pocket for healthcare. SETTING: Ten clinical oncological centres, distributed across Italian macroregions (North, Centre, South and Islands), including hospitals, university hospitals and national research institutes. PARTICIPANTS: From 8 October 2019 to 11 December 2019, 184 patients, aged 18 or more, who were receiving or had received within the previous 3 months active anticancer treatment were enrolled, 108 (59%) females and 76 (41%) males. INTERVENTION: A 30-item prefinal questionnaire, previously developed within the qualitative tasks of the project, was administered, either electronically (n=115) or by paper sheet (n=69). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: According to the protocol and the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research methodology, the final questionnaire was developed by mean of explanatory factor analysis and tested for reliability, internal consistency (Cronbach's α test and item-total correlation) and stability of measurements over time (test-retest reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient and weighted Cohen's kappa coefficient). RESULTS: After exploratory factor analysis, a score measuring FT (FT score) was identified, made by seven items dealing with outcomes of FT. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the FT score was 0.87 and the item-total correlation coefficients ranged from 0.53 to 0.74. Further, nine single items representing possible determinants of FT were also retained in the final instrument. Test-retest analysis revealed a good internal validity of the FT score and of the 16 items retained in the final questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: The Patient-Reported Outcome for Fighting FInancial Toxicity (PROFFIT) instrument consists of 16 items and is the first reported instrument to assess FT of cancer developed in a country with a fully public healthcare system. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03473379.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Transversais , Atenção à Saúde , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(17)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503231

RESUMO

Anthracyclines are among the most active chemotherapies (CT) in breast cancer (BC). However, cardiotoxicity is a risk and peculiar side effect that has been limiting their use in clinical practice, especially after the introduction of taxanes. Non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (NPLD) has been developed to optimize the toxicity profile induced by anthracyclines, while maintaining its unquestionable therapeutic index, thanks to its delivering characteristics that increase its diffusion in tumor tissues and reduce it in normal tissues. This feature allows NPLD to be safely administered beyond the standard doxorubicin maximum cumulative dose of 450-480 mg/m2. Following three pivotal first-line phase III trials in HER2-negative metastatic BC (MBC), this drug was finally approved in combination with cyclophosphamide in this specific setting. Given the increasing complexity of the therapeutic scenario of HER2-negative MBC, we have carefully revised the most updated literature on the topic and dissected the potential role of NPLD in the evolving therapeutic algorithms.

15.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(10): 1458-1467, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The benefit of extending aromatase inhibitor therapy beyond 5 years in the context of previous aromatase inhibitors remains controversial. We aimed to compare extended therapy with letrozole for 5 years versus the standard duration of 2-3 years of letrozole in postmenopausal patients with breast cancer who have already received 2-3 years of tamoxifen. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial was done at 69 hospitals in Italy. Women were eligible if they were postmenopausal at the time of study entry, had stage I-III histologically proven and operable invasive hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, had received adjuvant tamoxifen therapy for at least 2 years but no longer than 3 years and 3 months, had no signs of disease recurrence, and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or lower. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 2-3 years (control group) or 5 years (extended group) of letrozole (2·5 mg orally once a day). Randomisation, with stratification by centre, with permuted blocks of size 12, was done with a centralised, interactive, internet-based system that randomly generated the treatment allocation. Participants and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was invasive disease-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Safety analysis was done for patients who received at least 1 month of study treatment. This trial was registered with EudraCT, 2005-001212-44, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01064635. FINDINGS: Between Aug 1, 2005, and Oct 24, 2010, 2056 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive letrozole for 2-3 years (n=1030; control group) or for 5 years (n=1026; extended group). After a median follow-up of 11·7 years (IQR 9·5-13·1), disease-free survival events occurred in 262 (25·4%) of 1030 patients in the control group and 212 (20·7%) of 1026 in the extended group. 12-year disease-free survival was 62% (95% CI 57-66) in the control group and 67% (62-71) in the extended group (hazard ratio 0·78, 95% CI 0·65-0·93; p=0·0064). The most common grade 3 and 4 adverse events were arthralgia (22 [2·2%] of 983 patients in the control group vs 29 [3·0%] of 977 in the extended group) and myalgia (seven [0·7%] vs nine [0·9%]). There were three (0·3%) serious treatment-related adverse events in the control group and eight (0·8%) in the extended group. No deaths related to toxic effects were observed. INTERPRETATION: In postmenopausal patients with breast cancer who received 2-3 years of tamoxifen, extended treatment with 5 years of letrozole resulted in a significant improvement in disease-free survival compared with the standard 2-3 years of letrozole. Sequential endocrine therapy with tamoxifen for 2-3 years followed by letrozole for 5 years should be considered as one of the optimal standard endocrine treatments for postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. FUNDING: Novartis and the Italian Ministry of Health. TRANSLATION: For the Italian translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Letrozol/administração & dosagem , Mastectomia , Pós-Menopausa , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Letrozol/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Moduladores Seletivos de Receptor Estrogênico/administração & dosagem , Tamoxifeno/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(29): 3293-3305, 2021 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197218

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Many patients and physicians remain concerned about the potential detrimental effects of pregnancy after breast cancer (BC) in terms of reproductive outcomes and maternal safety. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at providing updated evidence on these topics. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify studies including patients with a pregnancy after BC (PROSPERO number CRD42020158324). Likelihood of pregnancy after BC, their reproductive outcomes, and maternal safety were assessed. Pooled relative risks, odds ratios (ORs), and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were calculated using random effects models. RESULTS: Of 6,462 identified records, 39 were included involving 8,093,401 women from the general population and 112,840 patients with BC of whom 7,505 had a pregnancy after diagnosis. BC survivors were significantly less likely to have a subsequent pregnancy compared with the general population (relative risk, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.49). Risks of caesarean section (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.25), low birth weight (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.31 to 1.73), preterm birth (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.88), and small for gestational age (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.33) were significantly higher in BC survivors, particularly in those with previous chemotherapy exposure, compared with the general population. No significantly increased risk of congenital abnormalities or other reproductive complications were observed. Compared to patients with BC without subsequent pregnancy, those with a pregnancy had better disease-free survival (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.89) and overall survival (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.45 to 0.68). Similar results were observed after correcting for potential confounders and irrespective of patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics, pregnancy outcome, and timing of pregnancy. CONCLUSION: These results provide reassuring evidence on the safety of conceiving in BC survivors. Patients' pregnancy desire should be considered a crucial component of their survivorship care plan.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Complicações Neoplásicas na Gravidez/mortalidade , Sobreviventes de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez
17.
Front Oncol ; 11: 690320, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34150661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Offering ovarian function and/or fertility preservation strategies in premenopausal women with newly diagnosed breast cancer candidates to undergo chemotherapy is standard of care. However, few data are available on uptake and main reasons for refusing these options. METHODS: The PREFER study (NCT02895165) is an observational, prospective study enrolling premenopausal women with early breast cancer, aged between 18 and 45 years, candidates to receive (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy. Primary objective is to collect information on acceptance rates and reasons for refusal of the proposed strategies for ovarian function and/or fertility preservation available in Italy. RESULTS: At the study coordinating center, 223 patients were recruited between November 2012 and December 2020. Median age was 38 years (range 24 - 45 years) with 159 patients (71.3%) diagnosed at ≤40 years. Temporary ovarian suppression with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) was accepted by 58 out of 64 (90.6%) patients aged 41-45 years and by 151 out of 159 (95.0%) of those aged ≤40 years. Among patients aged ≤40 years, 57 (35.8%) accepted to access the fertility unit to receive a complete oncofertility counseling and 29 (18.2%) accepted to undergo a cryopreservation technique. Main reasons for refusal were fear of delaying the initiation of antineoplastic treatments and contraindications to the procedure or lack of interest in future childbearing. Patients with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer had a tendency for a higher acceptance rates of ovarian function and/or fertility preservation strategies than those with hormone-receptor negative disease. CONCLUSIONS: More than 90% of premenopausal women with early breast cancer, and particularly those with hormone receptor-positive disease, were concerned about the potential risk of chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian insufficiency and/or infertility and accepted GnRHa administration. Less than 1 out of 5 women aged ≤40 years accepted to undergo cryopreservation strategies.

18.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 7(1): 82, 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183674

RESUMO

The GIM2 phase III trial demonstrated the benefit of dose-dense chemotherapy in node-positive early breast cancer (eBC). To better define the dose-dense effect in the hormone receptor-positive subgroup, we evaluated its benefit through a composite measure of recurrence risk. We conducted an ancillary analysis of the GIM2 trial evaluating the absolute treatment effect through a composite measure of recurrence risk (CPRS) in patients with hormone receptor-positive HER2-negative eBC. CPRS was estimated through Cox proportional hazards models applied to the different clinicopathological features. The treatment effect was compared to the values of CPRS by using the Sub-population Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) process. The Disease-Free Survival (DFS)-oriented STEPP analysis showed distinct patterns of relative treatment effect with respect to CPRS. Overall, 5-year DFS differed across CPRS quartiles ranging from 95.2 to 66.4%. Each CPRS quartile was characterized by a different patients' composition, especially for age, lymph node involvement, tumor size, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression, and Ki-67. A number needed to treat of 154 and 6 was associated with the lowest and the highest CPRS quartile, respectively. Dose-dense adjuvant chemotherapy showed a consistent benefit in node-positive eBC patients with hormone receptor-positive HER2-negative disease, but its effect varied according to CPRS.

19.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 163: 103365, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to estimate mortality in adult patients with solid or hematological malignancies and SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: A systematic search of PubMed, up to 31 January 2021, identified publications reporting the case-fatality rate (CFR) among adult patients with solid or hematological malignancies and SARS-CoV-2 infection. The CFR, defined as the rate of death in this population, was assessed with a random effect model; 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: Among 135 selected studies (N = 33,879 patients), the CFR was 25.4% (95% CI 22.9%-28.2%). At a sensitivity analysis including studies with at least 100 patients, the CFR was 21.9% (95% CI 19.1%-25.1%). Among COVID-19 patients with lung (N = 1,135) and breast (N = 1,296) cancers, CFR were 32.4% (95% CI 26.5%-39.6%) and 14.2% (95% CI 9.3%-21.8%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with solid or hematological malignancies and SARS-CoV-2 infection have a high probability of mortality, with comparatively higher and lower CFRs in patients with lung and breast cancers, respectively.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , COVID-19 , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pulmão , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Oncotarget ; 12(9): 936-947, 2021 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33953847

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common tumour in women and the first cause of death for cancer in the female population. Preserving the quality of life has therefore become an important objective in the management of the disease. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with HR+ HER2- early breast cancer should always be balanced against its potential short and long-term adverse effects, and identifying the appropriate patients for whom chemotherapy can offer the highest clinical benefit is critical. Besides clinical and pathological factors, today four multigene tests able to guide the choice of the adjuvant therapy early breast cancer are available in Italy: Oncotype DX®, EndoPredict®, MammaPrint® e Prosigna®. This review evaluates the main characteristics of these diagnostic tests, the studies on clinical utility, their economic impact and their inclusion in international and national guidelines. The Oncotype DX Breast Recurrence Score® test is the only multigene test validated, with level IA evidence, to guide the adjuvant therapy decisions: hormone therapy alone for most patients with RS results 0-25, and chemotherapy for patients with RS results 26-100. Clinical data demonstrate that the Oncotype DX test is able to significantly impact therapeutic decisions, reducing chemotherapy use up to 49% and supporting the use of chemotherapy (up to 12%) in potentially under-treated patients. Based on the level of clinical evidence and established clinical utility, several multigene tests have been included in the main international guidelines, with recommendations ranging from "strong" to "moderate".

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