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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548492

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Amygdala-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) circuitry is disrupted in pediatric anxiety disorders, yet how selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), impact this circuitry is unknown. We examined the impact of SSRI on functional connectivity (FC) within this circuit, and whether early FC changes predict treatment response in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). METHOD: Resting-state functional MR images were acquired before and after 2-weeks of treatment in 41 adolescents with GAD (age: 12-17) who received double-blind escitalopram or placebo over 8 weeks. Change in amygdala-based whole-brain FC and anxiety severity were analyzed. RESULTS: Controlling for age, sex and pretreatment anxiety, escitalopram increased amygdala-VLPFC connectivity compared to placebo (F=17.79, p=0.002 FWE-corrected). This early FC change predicted 76.7% of the variability in improvement trajectory in patients who received escitalopram (p<0.001) but not placebo (p=0.169); the predictive power of early amygdala-VLPFC FC change significantly differed between placebo and escitalopram (p=0.013). Further, this FC change predicted improvement better than baseline FC or demographics. Exploratory analyses of amygdala subfields' FC revealed connectivity of left basolateral amygdala (BLA)-VLPFC (F=19.64, p<0.001 FWE-corrected) and superficial amygdala-posterior cingulate cortex (F=22.92, p=0.001 FWE-corrected) were also increased by escitalopram, but only BLA-VLPFC FC predicted improvement in anxiety over 8 weeks of treatment. CONCLUSION: In adolescents with GAD, escitalopram increases amygdala-prefrontal connectivity within the first 2 weeks of treatment, and the magnitude of this change predicts subsequent clinical improvement. Early normalization of amygdala-VLPFC circuitry might represent a useful tool for identifying future treatment responders as well as a promising biomarker for drug development.

2.
Bipolar Disord ; 2020 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354859

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies and meta-analyses suggested that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was superior to placebo in improving depression in bipolar disorder. However, more recent data, including two larger trials, found that NAC was no more effective than placebo. We conducted a meta-analysis to appraise the possible efficacy of NAC in treating bipolar depression. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of NAC as a treatment augmentation strategy for bipolar depression was carried out in PubMed (1966-2020). We utilized random-effect analysis to evaluate improvement in depressive symptoms from baseline to endpoint as the primary efficacy measure. RESULTS: Six trials including 248 patients were included. Treatment augmentation with NAC showed a moderate effect size favoring NAC over placebo (d = 0.45, 95% C.I.: 0.06-0.84). There was substantial heterogeneity (I2  = 49%). Meta-regression analyses did not identify any moderator that might explain variation in heterogeneity, including baseline depressive symptom scores, mean NAC dose, or duration of study. CONCLUSIONS: Results from six clinical trials suggest that treatment augmentation with NAC for bipolar depression appears to be superior to placebo, with a moderate effect size, but a large confidence interval. Larger clinical trials, investigating possible moderating factors, such as NAC dose, treatment duration, baseline depression severity, or chronicity of illness, are warranted.

3.
Bipolar Disord ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Altered activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, as well as subcortical and amygdala projection sites, was previously reported during a first manic episode in youth with bipolar disorder and observed to be associated with treatment response. To extend these findings, we investigated functional connectivity among these regions in first-episode manic participants who remitted after 8 weeks of treatment compared to those who did not. METHODS: Forty-two participants with bipolar disorder (60% female) during their first manic episode were recruited and received 8 weeks of treatment. Twenty-one remitted following treatment. Participants completed fMRI scans, at baseline and following 8 weeks of treatment, while performing a continuous performance task with emotional and neutral distractors. A healthy comparison group (n = 41) received fMRI evaluations at the same intervals. Differences in functional connectivity of the amygdala and caudate with the rostral anterior cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices at baseline (and changes in functional connectivity following treatment) were modeled between groups. RESULTS: At baseline, non-remitters showed an increase in positive connectivity between right anterior cingulate and caudate and a loss of negative connectivity between right anterior cingulate and amygdala, compared to healthy participants. Individuals who remitted following treatment showed an increase in negative connectivity between amygdala and left anterior cingulate 8 weeks following treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide evidence of alterations in anterior cingulate amygdala and caudate functional connectivity in bipolar disorder non-remitters during a first manic episode and changes in anterior cingulate functional connectivity associated with remission suggesting targets to predict treatment response. Registered at ClinicalTrials.Gov; Functional and Neurochemical Brain Changes in First-episode Bipolar Mania. NCT00609193. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00609193?term=strakowskirank=1.

4.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(5): 481-488, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132115

RESUMO

Objectives: To prospectively investigate whether baseline clinical characteristics and medication exposure predict development of major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. Methods: Youth aged 9-20 years with at least one biological parent with bipolar disorder and no prior history of mood or psychotic episodes (n=93) were prospectively evaluated and treated naturalistically during the study. Participants were divided into two groups: converters, defined as those who met DSM-IV criteria for a mood episode during follow-up (n=19); or non-converters (n=74). Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between baseline clinical variables and medication exposure during follow-up and risk of developing a first mood episode (conversion). Results: Multivariate regression analyses showed that baseline anxiety disorders and subsyndromal mood disorders were associated with increased risk of conversion during follow-up. Adding medication exposure to the multivariate model showed that exposure to antidepressants during follow-up was associated with increased risk of conversion. Conclusions: Caution should be used when treating bipolar offspring with anxiety and/or emerging depressive symptoms using antidepressant agents, given the increased risk of developing a major mood disorder.

5.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether poor antidepressant tolerability is associated with functional brain changes in children and adolescents of parents with bipolar I disorder (at-risk youth). METHODS: Seventy-three at-risk youth (ages 9-20 years old) who participated in a prospective study and had an available baseline functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan were included. Research records were reviewed for the incidence of adverse reactions related to antidepressant exposure during follow-up. The sample was divided among at-risk youth without antidepressant exposure (n=21), at-risk youth with antidepressant exposure and no adverse reaction (n=12), at-risk youth with antidepressant-related adverse reaction (n=21), and healthy controls (n=20). The fMRI task was a continuous performance test with emotional distracters. Region-of-interest mean activation in brain areas of the fronto-limbic emotional circuit was compared among groups. RESULTS: Right amygdala activation in response to emotional distracters significantly differed among groups (F3,66 = 3.1, p = 0.03). At-risk youth with an antidepressant-related adverse reaction had the lowest amygdala activation, while at-risk youth without antidepressant exposure had the highest activation (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Decreased right amygdala activation in response to emotional distracters is associated with experiencing an antidepressant-related adverse reaction in at-risk youth. Further studies to determine whether amygdala activation is a useful biomarker for antidepressant-related adverse events are needed.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845723

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the effect of CYP2D6 metabolizer status on aripiprazole tolerability in pediatric patients with mood disorders. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical record data for 277 patients ≤18 years of age (at the time of CYP2D6 testing) with a mood disorder, receiving oral aripiprazole, and CYP2D6 genotyped as part of routine care. The maximum aripiprazole dose and concomitant medications were extracted from the medical record. The reason for aripiprazole discontinuation was determined to be from side effects (e.g., weight gain, akathisia, GI upset), nonresponse, or other reasons (e.g., financial). Associations with CYP2D6 were analyzed using multivariate linear regression models and chi-square tests. Results: Of the 277 patients (mean age: 14.3 ± 2.4), 57% were normal metabolizers (NMs), 37% were intermediate metabolizers (IMs), 5% were poor metabolizers (PMs), and 1.4% were ultrarapid metabolizers (UMs). A total of 72.2% of the cohort were concomitantly taking a CYP2D6 inhibitor, resulting in phenoconversion. Accounting for phenoconversion resulted in 27% phenoconverted NMs (pNMs), 24% phenoconverted IMs (pIMs), 48% phenoconverted PMs (pPMs), and <1% phenoconverted ultrarapid metabolizers. CYP2D6 pPMs discontinued treatment due to side effects more often than any other CYP2D6 group (67% for pPM, 51% pIM, 57% pNM, chi-square p = 0.024). Body mass index percentile change was associated with the CYP2D6 phenotype (p = 0.038), the time on aripiprazole (p = 0.001), and the number of concomitant CYP2D6 substrates (p = 0.044) in multivariable models. Conclusions: Phenoconverted CYP2D6 metabolizer status is associated with aripiprazole discontinuation. In addition, dose adjustments based on CYP2D6 metabolizer status and concomitant medications could improve aripiprazole treatment outcomes.

8.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 81(5)2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly used to treat pediatric anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD); however, their efficacy and tolerability are difficult to predict. This study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram in adolescents with GAD (DSM-IV-TR) and the impact of variants in HTR2A and serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) genes and cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) phenotypes on response as well as CYP2C19 phenotype on escitalopram pharmacokinetics from February 2015 through November 2018. METHODS: Patients were treated with escitalopram (forced titration to 15 mg/d, then flexible titration to 20 mg/d) (n = 26, mean ± SD age: 14.8 ± 1.7 years) or placebo (n = 25, mean ± SD age: 14.9 ± 1.6 years) for 8 weeks. Outcomes were the change in scores on the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) and Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scales as well as vital signs and adverse events. Plasma escitalopram and desmethylcitalopram area under the curve during 24 hours (AUC0-24) and maximum concentration (Cmax) were determined and compared across CYP2C19 phenotypes. RESULTS: Escitalopram was superior to placebo for mean ± SD baseline-to-endpoint change in PARS (-8.65 ± 1.3 vs -3.52 ± 1.1, P = .005) and CGI scores, and increasing CYP2C19 metabolism was associated with decreases in escitalopram Cmax (P = .07) and AUC0-24 (P < .05). Vital signs, corrected QT interval, and adverse events were similar in patients who received escitalopram and placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Escitalopram reduces anxiety symptoms, and pharmacogenetics variables influence the trajectory and magnitude of improvement. Variation in CYP2C19 metabolism accounts for significant differences in escitalopram pharmacokinetics, raising the possibility that CYP2C19 phenotype should be considered when prescribing escitalopram. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02818751.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Citalopram/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Área Sob a Curva , Criança , Citalopram/análogos & derivados , Citalopram/sangue , Citalopram/farmacocinética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/genética , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C19/metabolismo , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/sangue , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacocinética , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 30(10): 606-616, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721213

RESUMO

Objectives: Placebo response is one of the most significant barriers to detecting treatment effects in pediatric (and adult) clinical trials focusing on affective and anxiety disorders. We sought to identify neurofunctional predictors of placebo response in adolescents with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by examining dynamic and static functional brain connectivity. Methods: Before randomization to blinded placebo, adolescents, aged 12-17 years, with GAD (N = 25) underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Whole brain voxelwise correlation analyses were used to determine the relationship between change in anxiety symptoms from baseline to week 8 and seed-based dynamic and static functional connectivity maps of regions in the salience and ventral attention networks (amygdala, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex [dACC], and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex [VLPFC]). Results: Greater dynamic functional connectivity variability in amygdala, dACC, VLPFC, and regions within salience, default mode, and frontoparietal networks was associated with greater placebo response. Lower static functional connectivity between amygdala and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, dACC and posterior cingulate cortex and greater static functional connectivity between VLPFC and inferior parietal lobule were associated with greater placebo response. Conclusion: Placebo response is associated with a distinct dynamic and static connectivity fingerprint characterized by "variable" dynamic but "weak" static connectivity in the salience, default mode, frontoparietal, and ventral attention networks. These data provide granular evidence of how circuit-based biotypes mechanistically relate to placebo response. Finding biosignatures that predict placebo response is critically important in clinical psychopharmacology and to improve our ability to detect medication-placebo differences in clinical trials.

10.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 30(7): 465-469, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614262

RESUMO

Objectives: Despite attentional deficits being a prominent feature of bipolar disorder, there are limited data on the effects of common treatments for bipolar disorder on attention. Thus, we sought to compare the effects of lithium versus quetiapine on attention in adolescents with bipolar disorder. Methods: Adolescents ages 10-17 with bipolar disorder, type I, who were experiencing a manic or mixed episode, were recruited from outpatient settings and the inpatient psychiatric units at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center during their first manic episode. Healthy comparison subjects were recruited from outreach programs in the community. Patients were randomized to lithium or quetiapine, administered in a double-dummy, double-blinded manner for 6 weeks. Attentional deficits were assessed in all groups using the Identical Pairs Continuous Performance Task at baseline and at week 6. Results: Patients with bipolar disorder (n = 79) had impaired attention relative to the healthy group (n = 57) at both baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment. The lithium-treated group (n = 30) had poorer attentional performance than the healthy group at week 6. There was a difference in change in performance between lithium- and quetiapine-treated (n = 49) groups. Conclusion: Youth with bipolar disorder may have impaired attention relative to their healthy peers. Conclusions are limited by the high dropout rate in the lithium-treated group.

11.
J Affect Disord ; 272: 508-520, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the well-documented negative impact of untreated bipolar illness, approaches to early intervention in childhood-onset bipolar and related disorders are not well delineated. METHODS: We reviewed the extant treatment literature on children at high risk for bipolar disorder, with definitions based on family history, childhood adversity, and prodromal symptoms. RESULTS: A panoply of approaches have been described, but most interventions are based on an inadequate database to support their routine implementation. We classify early stage interventions as a function of their safety and tolerability with the hope that these might generate more rigorous study and a stronger database. LIMITATIONS: Critics may rightly argue that identifying viable treatment methods is premature given our lack of ability to reliably predict illness trajectory in very young children. However, many of the psychosocial and pharmacological interventions we present could have nonspecific positive effects across a variety of symptoms, syndromes, and diagnoses, further enhancing the rationale for more rigorous study. CONCLUSIONS: Early stage interventions have the potential to improve functioning in prodromal illness and exert long-term positive effects on the course of illness. Many of the safest interventions deserve consideration for implementation and dissemination studies.

12.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 42(5): 481-488, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To prospectively investigate whether baseline clinical characteristics and medication exposure predict development of major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. METHODS: Youth aged 9-20 years with at least one biological parent with bipolar disorder and no prior history of mood or psychotic episodes (n=93) were prospectively evaluated and treated naturalistically during the study. Participants were divided into two groups: converters, defined as those who met DSM-IV criteria for a mood episode during follow-up (n=19); or non-converters (n=74). Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between baseline clinical variables and medication exposure during follow-up and risk of developing a first mood episode (conversion). RESULTS: Multivariate regression analyses showed that baseline anxiety disorders and subsyndromal mood disorders were associated with increased risk of conversion during follow-up. Adding medication exposure to the multivariate model showed that exposure to antidepressants during follow-up was associated with increased risk of conversion. CONCLUSIONS: Caution should be used when treating bipolar offspring with anxiety and/or emerging depressive symptoms using antidepressant agents, given the increased risk of developing a major mood disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Pais , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 45(8): 1369-1379, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353861

RESUMO

Schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) are heritable psychiatric disorders with partially overlapping genetic liability. Shared and disorder-specific neurobiological abnormalities associated with familial risk for developing mental illnesses are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of structural brain imaging studies in relatives of patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD to identify overlapping and discrete brain structural correlates of familial risk for mental disorders. Search for voxel-based morphometry studies in relatives of patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD in PubMed and Embase identified 33 studies with 2292 relatives and 2052 healthy controls (HC). Seed-based d Mapping software was used to investigate global differences in gray matter volumes between relatives as a group versus HC, and between those of each psychiatric disorder and HC. As a group, relatives exhibited gray matter abnormalities in left supramarginal gyrus, right striatum, right inferior frontal gyrus, left thalamus, bilateral insula, right cerebellum, and right superior frontal gyrus, compared with HC. Decreased right cerebellar gray matter was the only abnormality common to relatives of all three conditions. Subgroup analyses showed disorder-specific gray matter abnormalities in left thalamus and bilateral insula associated with risk for SCZ, in left supramarginal gyrus and right frontal regions with risk for BD, and in right striatum with risk for MDD. While decreased gray matter in right cerebellum might be a common brain structural abnormality associated with shared risk for SCZ, BD, and MDD, regional gray matter abnormalities in neocortex, thalamus, and striatum appear to be disorder-specific.

14.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 30(6): 376-380, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423240

RESUMO

Objectives: The objective of this research was to understand physician, patient, and parent perspectives on barriers to second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) medication adherence in youth with bipolar spectrum disorders, and attitudes toward treatment of SGA-related weight gain. Methods: Patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder before age 18, parents of children diagnosed before 18, and clinicians with experience prescribing SGAs for these patients completed surveys regarding SGA-related side effects, adherence barriers, and acceptability of weight management strategies. Results: Patients (n = 225), parents (n = 128), and clinicians (n = 54) reported weight gain as the most concerning SGA-related side effect (45.6%, 38.9%, and 70.4%, respectively). Weight gain was also the top adherence barrier for patients (35.9%), but was ranked fourth (41.8%) by parents. Patients (61.5%) were more likely "definitely" willing to co-initiate another medication to manage weight gain upon SGA initiation than parents (20.1%) or clinicians (1.9%). Conversely, parents (54.9%) and clinicians (84.9%) were "definitely" willing to accept/prescribe a second medication aiming to reverse weight gain of ≥10 lbs., and patients (61.1%) were willing to add another medication to reverse any weight gain. Conclusion: SGA-related weight gain impairs medication adherence in young patients with bipolar disorder. Many young patients would start pharmacologic treatment to mitigate SGA-related weight gain at treatment initiation, parents and clinicians are more hesitant. This research informs patient-centered perspectives on SGA adherence barriers and strategies to minimize potential side effects, which may improve adherence in this vulnerable patient population.

15.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 30(5): 293-305, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32167792

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical and neurochemical effects of 12-week fish oil, a source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), in depressed adolescents with a family history of bipolar I disorder. Methods: Adolescents with a current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder or Depressive Disorder not otherwise specified, a Childhood Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R) Version raw score of ≥40, and at least one biological parent with bipolar I disorder were randomized to double-blind treatment with fish oil (2100 mg/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was change in CDRS-R total score, and secondary outcomes measures were change in manic symptoms (Young Mania Rating Scale), global symptom and functioning measures (Clinical Global Impression-Severity [CGI-S] /CGI Improvement [CGI-I], Children's Global Assessment Scale, and Child Behavior Checklist), safety and laboratory measures, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex neurometabolite concentrations using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4 T. Results: Fifty-six patients were randomized, and 42 completed the 12-week trial (placebo: n = 21; fish oil, n = 21). Subjects randomized to fish oil, but not placebo, exhibited a significant baseline to endpoint increase in erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs. Reductions in CDRS-R scores did not differ between treatment groups (p = 0.15), and similar remission (p = 0.58) and response (p = 0.77) rates were observed. Fish oil produced a significantly greater decrease in CGI-S (p = 0.0042) and CGI-I (p = 0.036) scores compared with placebo. Baseline to endpoint change in ACC creatine (p = 0.004) and ACC choline (Cho) (p = 0.024) differed significantly between groups. Baseline ACC Cho levels were inversely correlated with baseline and baseline to endpoint change in CDRS-R scores, and baseline to endpoint change in ACC Cho correlated with baseline-endpoint change in CDRS-R scores and n-3 PUFA. There were no group differences in safety and tolerability ratings or laboratory measures. Conclusions: Fish oil monotherapy was not superior to placebo for reducing depressive symptoms in high-risk youth as assessed by the CDRS-R, but was safe and well tolerated and superior to placebo on clinician ratings of global symptom improvement. Associations among ACC Cho levels, depression symptom severity, and n-3 PUFA warrant additional investigation.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008167

RESUMO

Children of individuals with bipolar disorder (bipolar offspring) are at increased risk for developing mood disorders, but strategies to predict mood episodes are unavailable. In this study, we used support vector machine (SVM) to characterize the potential of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in predicting the first mood episode in youth bipolar offspring. From a longitudinal neuroimaging study, 19 at-risk youth who developed their first mood episode (converters), and 19 without mood episodes during follow-up (non-converters) were selected and matched for age, sex and follow-up time. Baseline 1H-MRS data were obtained from anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). Glutamate (Glu), myo-inositol (mI), choline (Cho), N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), and phosphocreatine plus creatine (PCr + Cr) levels were calculated. SVM with a linear kernel was adopted to classify converters and non-converters based on their baseline metabolites. SVM allowed the significant classification of converters and non-converters across all regions for Cho (accuracy = 76.0%), but not for other metabolites. Considering all metabolites within each region, SVM allowed the significant classification of converters and non-converters for left VLPFC (accuracy = 76.5%), but not for right VLPFC or ACC. The combined mI, PCr + Cr, and Cho from left VLPFC achieved the highest accuracy differentiating converters from non-converters (79.0%). Our findings from this exploratory study suggested that 1H-MRS levels of mI, Cho, and PCr + Cr from left VLPFC might be useful to predict the development of first mood episode in youth bipolar offspring using machine learning. Future studies that prospectively examine and validate these metabolites as predictors of mood episodes in high-risk individuals are necessary.

17.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 30(2): 119-122, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851522

RESUMO

Objectives: To examine metabolic monitoring rates in commercially insured children and adolescents treated with a second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) during calendar years (CYs) 2016 and 2017. Methods: In this retrospective study, data were collected from a large national commercial health plan for the period covering January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2017. Commercially insured children and adolescents, aged 8-19 years with ≥2 SGA prescription claims during the CY, were identified for the CY2016 and CY2017 cohorts. The primary outcome of interest was the percentage of subjects with any glucose or lipid metabolism parameter monitoring. Other calculated metabolic testing rates included glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), other cholesterol (including triglycerides), and combined glucose and lipid metabolism testing (≥1 test for blood glucose or HbA1c and ≥1 test for LDL-C or other cholesterol). Results: In CY2016 and CY2017, 1502 and 1239 subjects, respectively, were identified for this study. The most common psychiatric diagnoses in CY2016 and CY2017 were major depressive disorder (57.1%, 56.5%, respectively), anxiety disorders (42.9%, 47.5%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (41.6%, 45.8%), and bipolar disorder (24.1%, 25.9%). The rate of any metabolic testing was 53.5% in CY2016 and 51.3% in CY2017. Glucose testing (50.3%, 46.9%, respectively) was most common in both CYs, followed by LDL-C testing (31.2%, 28.5%). Rates of combined glucose and lipid metabolism testing were 30.7% in CY2016 and 26.9% in CY2017. Conclusions: Given the known potential for adverse cardiometabolic effects, rates of metabolic monitoring associated with SGA use in children and adolescents urgently need to be improved. There is a critical need for understanding barriers to routine monitoring, particularly of lipids, and developing interventions to enhance metabolic monitoring.

18.
Early Interv Psychiatry ; 14(2): 211-219, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264800

RESUMO

AIM: Previous studies suggest that Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Children (MBCT-C) is feasible and may improve anxiety and emotion regulation in youth with anxiety disorders at-risk for bipolar disorder. However, controlled studies are warranted to replicate and extend these findings. METHODS: In the current study, 24 youth with anxiety disorders who have at least one parent with bipolar disorder participated in a MBCT-C treatment period (n = 24; Mage = 13.6, 75% girls, 79% White) with a subset also participating in a prior psychoeducation waitlist control period (n = 19 Mage = 13.8, 68% girls, 84% White). Participants in both the waitlist and MBCT-C periods completed independently-rated symptom scales at each time point. Participants in the waitlist period received educational materials 12 weeks prior to the beginning of MBCT-C. RESULTS: There were significantly greater improvements in overall clinical severity in the MBCT-C period compared to the waitlist period, but not in clinician- and child-rated anxiety, emotion regulation or mindfulness. However, increases in mindfulness were associated with improvements in anxiety and emotion regulation in the MBCT-C period, but not the waitlist period. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that MBCT-C may be effective for improving overall clinical severity in youth with anxiety disorders who are at-risk for bipolar disorder. However, waitlist controlled designs may inflate effect sizes so interpret with caution. Larger studies utilizing prospective randomized controlled designs are warranted.

19.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 30(4): 267-272, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825249

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the potential effectiveness and tolerability of cariprazine in pediatric bipolar and psychotic disorders. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the electronic health records of patients <21 years of age prescribed cariprazine to treat bipolar and psychotic disorders. Adverse effects, tolerability, therapeutic response (Clinical Global Impression-Improvement [CGI-I]), and severity of illness (Clinical Global Impression-Severity [CGI-S]) were determined through manual chart review. Results: We identified 16 patients aged 6-20 years who were treated with cariprazine (initial dose: 1.5 mg/day, interquartile range [IQR], 1.5-1.5; endpoint dose: 3 mg/day, IQR, 1.5-4.5). No serious adverse events were reported, but the most commonly reported side effect was weight gain (n = 3, 19%). Of the 14 patients for whom baseline and endpoint body mass index (BMI) data were available, neither changes in BMI (p = 0.391; 0.54 kg/m2, IQR, -0.33 to 1.38) nor BMI percentile (p = 0.71; 0.36%, IQR, -0.49 to 3.97) significantly differed between baseline and endpoint. However, patients receiving ≥4.5 mg/day had a significantly greater BMI increases during the course of treatment compared with those receiving ≤3 mg/day (p = 0.034; -1.14 kg/m2, IQR, -3.65 to 0.53 vs. 1.01 kg/m2, IQR, 0.17-4.88). CGI-S scores (p = 0.016; 4.5, IQR, 4-5 vs. 4, IQR, 3-4) significantly differed from baseline to endpoint. The response rate was 44% (n = 7/16), with responders being prescribed higher doses (p = 0.005; 6 mg/day, IQR, 4.875-6 vs. 3 mg/day, IQR, 3-4.125). Conclusions: Cariprazine may be well tolerated and effective for pediatric bipolar and psychotic disorders; however, compared with higher doses, total daily doses ≤3 mg/day appear to be more tolerable. Prospective controlled studies to further evaluate cariprazine in youth are needed.

20.
Bipolar Disord ; 21(8): 720-740, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479581

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To clarify the clinical features preceding the onset of bipolar disorder (BD) has become a public health priority for the prevention of high morbidity and mortality. BD remains frequently under- or misdiagnosed, and under- or mistreated, often for years. METHODS: We assessed the predictive value of precursors and prodromes of BD. We assessed precursors of first-lifetime manic or hypomanic episodes with/without mixed features in retrospective and prospective studies. The task force evaluated and summarized separately assessments of familial risk, premorbid personality traits, retrospective, and prospective studies. RESULTS: Cyclothymic features, a family history of BD, retrospectively reported attenuated manic symptoms, prospectively identified subthreshold symptoms of hypomania, recurrence of depression, panic anxiety and psychotic features, have been identified as clinical precursors of BD. The prodromal symptoms like [hypo]mania often appears to be long enough to encourage early identification and timely intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The predictive value of any risk factor identified remains largely unknown. Prospective controlled studies are urgently needed for prevention and effective treatment.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Sintomas Prodrômicos , Adulto , Comitês Consultivos , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Transtorno Ciclotímico , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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