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1.
Eur Respir Rev ; 29(156)2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350087

RESUMO

Chitotriosidase (CHIT1) is a highly conserved and regulated chitinase secreted by activated macrophages; it is a member of the 18-glycosylase family (GH18). CHIT1 is the most prominent chitinase in humans, can cleave chitin and participates in the body's immune response and is associated with inflammation, infection, tissue damage and remodelling processes. Recently, CHIT1 has been reported to be involved in the molecular pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis, bronchial asthma, COPD and pulmonary infections, shedding new light on the role of these proteins in lung pathophysiology. The potential roles of CHIT1 in lung diseases are reviewed in this article.

2.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 17(5): 531-540, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32356696

RESUMO

Intensive care units (ICUs) are an appropriate focus of antibiotic stewardship program efforts because a large proportion of any hospital's use of parenteral antibiotics, especially broad-spectrum, occurs in the ICU. Given the importance of antibiotic stewardship for critically ill patients and the importance of critical care practitioners as the front line for antibiotic stewardship, a workshop was convened to specifically address barriers to antibiotic stewardship in the ICU and discuss tactics to overcome these. The working definition of antibiotic stewardship is "the right drug at the right time and the right dose for the right bug for the right duration." A major emphasis was that antibiotic stewardship should be a core competency of critical care clinicians. Fear of pathogens that are not covered by empirical antibiotics is a major driver of excessively broad-spectrum therapy in critically ill patients. Better diagnostics and outcome data can address this fear and expand efforts to narrow or shorten therapy. Greater awareness of the substantial adverse effects of antibiotics should be emphasized and is an important counterargument to broad-spectrum therapy in individual low-risk patients. Optimal antibiotic stewardship should not focus solely on reducing antibiotic use or ensuring compliance with guidelines. Instead, it should enhance care both for individual patients (by improving and individualizing their choice of antibiotic) and for the ICU population as a whole. Opportunities for antibiotic stewardship in common ICU infections, including community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia and sepsis, are discussed. Intensivists can partner with antibiotic stewardship programs to address barriers and improve patient care.

4.
Hum Genomics ; 14(1): 17, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398162

RESUMO

The recent coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, is inarguably the most challenging coronavirus outbreak relative to the previous outbreaks involving SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. With the number of COVID-19 cases now exceeding 2 million worldwide, it is apparent that (i) transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is very high and (ii) there are large variations in disease severity, one component of which may be genetic variability in the response to the virus. Controlling current rates of infection and combating future waves require a better understanding of the routes of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and the underlying genomic susceptibility to this disease. In this mini-review, we highlight possible genetic determinants of COVID-19 and the contribution of aerosol exposure as a potentially important transmission route of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle
5.
Chest ; 157(4): 776-778, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252931
6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 91, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32117248

RESUMO

Bacterial lung infections are major healthcare challenges killing millions of people worldwide and resulting in a huge economic burden. Both basic and clinical research have elucidated host mechanisms that contribute to the bacterial clearance where an indispensable role of immune cells has been established. However, the role of respiratory epithelial cells in bacterial clearance has garnered limited attention due to their weak inflammatory or phagocytic ability compared to immune cells such as macrophages and neutrophils. These studies often underappreciate the fact that epithelial cells are the most abundant cells in the lung, not only serving as building blocks but also providing immune protection throughout the lung. Epithelial cells function either independently to eradicate the pathogen or communicate with immune cells to orchestrate pathogen clearance. The epithelial cells have multiple mechanisms that include mucus production, antimicrobial peptide production, muco-ciliary clearance, and phagocytosis, all of which contribute to their direct antibacterial function. Secretion of cytokines to recruit immune cells and potentiate their antimicrobial activities is a pathway by which the epithelium contributes to bacterial clearance. Successful pathogens outsmart epithelial resistance and find a way to replicate in sufficient numbers to establish infections in the airway or lung epithelial surfaces. In this mini-review, we discuss evidences that establish important roles for epithelial host defense against invading respiratory bacterial pathogens and demonstrate how pathogens outsmart these epithelial immune mechanisms to successfully establish infection. Finally, we discuss briefly how to boost epithelial immunity to improve outcomes in bacterial lung infections.

8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a major healthcare threat. Current method of detection involves qPCR-based technique, which identifies the viral nucleic acids when present in sufficient quantity. False negative results can be achieved and failure to quarantine the infected patient would be a major setback in containing the viral transmission. We here aim to describe the time kinetics of various antibodies produced against the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and evaluate the potential of antibody testing to diagnose COVID-19. METHODS: The host humoral response against SARS-CoV-2 including IgA, IgM and IgG response were examined by using an ELISA based assay on the recombinant viral nucleocapsid protein. Total 208 plasma samples were collected from 82 confirmed and 58 probable cases (qPCR negative but had typical manifestation). The diagnostic value of IgM was evaluated in this cohort. RESULTS: The median duration of IgM and IgA antibody detection were 5 days (IQR 3-6), while IgG was detected on 14 days (IQR 10-18) after symptom onset, with a positive rate of 85.4%, 92.7% and 77.9% respectively. In confirmed and probable cases, the positive rates of IgM antibodies were 75.6% and 93.1%, respectively. The detection efficiency by IgM ELISA is higher than that of qPCR method after 5.5 days of symptom onset. The positive detection rate is significantly increased (98.6%) when combined IgM ELISA assay with PCR for each patient compare with a single qPCR test (51.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 can aid to the diagnosis of COVID-19, including subclinical cases.

12.
Clin Chest Med ; 41(1): 1-24, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008623

RESUMO

Despite advances in our understanding of risk, development, immunologic control, and treatment options for lung cancer, it remains the leading cause of cancer death. Tobacco smoking remains the predominant risk factor for lung cancer development. Nontobacco risk factors include environmental and occupational exposures, chronic lung disease, lung infections, and lifestyle factors. Because tobacco remains the leading risk factor for lung cancer, disease prevention is focused on smoking avoidance and cessation. Other prevention measures include healthy diet choices and maintaining a physically active lifestyle. Future work should focus on smoking cessation campaigns and better understanding disease development and treatment strategies in nonsmokers.

17.
J Vis Exp ; (150)2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498326

RESUMO

Chitinases are the enzymes that cleave chitin. Even in the absence of chitin, mammalians have significant amounts of chitinases present in the body including at baseline. The precise role of chitinase is not known, however it was believed to play important role in digestion and host defense against chitin-containing food and pathogens, respectively. Recent work, including ours, has shown an important role of chitinase and chitinase-like proteins in host immunity and allergic diseases. Importantly, chitinase activities serve as important biomarkers of disease severity in a wide-range of diseases including type 2 inflammatory diseases such as asthma and pulmonary fibrosis. Similarly, patients with genetic disorders like Gaucher disease have significantly elevated chitinase levels, which not only correlate with disease severity but also serve as a reliable biomarker for therapeutic effectiveness. The protocol outlined here describes a simple, quick, and straightforward way to measure chitinase activity in BAL or serum samples of mice and can be widely adapted to human subjects and other model organisms due to the highly conserved nature of the enzymes.

19.
Nature ; 573(7772): 69-74, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435009

RESUMO

Direct recognition of invading pathogens by innate immune cells is a critical driver of the inflammatory response. However, cells of the innate immune system can also sense their local microenvironment and respond to physiological fluctuations in temperature, pH, oxygen and nutrient availability, which are altered during inflammation. Although cells of the immune system experience force and pressure throughout their life cycle, little is known about how these mechanical processes regulate the immune response. Here we show that cyclical hydrostatic pressure, similar to that experienced by immune cells in the lung, initiates an inflammatory response via the mechanically activated ion channel PIEZO1. Mice lacking PIEZO1 in innate immune cells showed ablated pulmonary inflammation in the context of bacterial infection or fibrotic autoinflammation. Our results reveal an environmental sensory axis that stimulates innate immune cells to mount an inflammatory response, and demonstrate a physiological role for PIEZO1 and mechanosensation in immunity.

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