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1.
Sex Transm Infect ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess among men who have sex with men (MSM) risk factors for HIV infection, to identify those who require urgent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) prescription. METHODS: All participants enrolled in the placebo arm of the ANRS IPERGAY trial, or infected between screening and day 0, were included. Baseline characteristics were described and HIV incidence rate ratios (RRs) were estimated with their 95% CIs. RESULTS: 203 MSM were included with a median follow-up of 9 months. During the study period, 16 participants acquired HIV infection while not receiving tenofovir disoproxil and emtricitabin (TDF/FTC) over 212.4 person-years (PYs) of follow-up (incidence rate 7.5/100 PYs, 95% CI: 4.3 to 12.2). Being enrolled in Paris was associated with a significant increased risk of HIV infection (RR: 4.1; 95% CI: 1.1 to 28.3). A high number of sexual partners in prior 2 months (≥10 vs <5) and of condomless receptive anal sex episodes in prior 12 months (>5 vs <5) were strong predictors for HIV acquisition (RR: 10.6 (2 to 260.2) and 3.3 (1.2 to 10.2), respectively). Those who reported more often or only receptive sexual practices were also at increased risk (RR: 9.8 (2.0 to 246.6)). The use of recreational drugs in prior 12 months, especially gamma hydroxybutarate/gamma butyrolactone (RR: 5.9; 95% CI: 2 to 21.7), was associated with a significantly increased risk of HIV acquisition even after adjustment for sexual practices. CONCLUSIONS: MSM who have frequent condomless receptive anal sex and multiple partners, or use recreational drugs should be targeted in priority for PrEP prescription especially if they live in an area with a high prevalence of HIV infection.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21126, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702867

RESUMO

Rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals is a cornerstone for the control of virus spread. The sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection by RT-PCR is similar in saliva and nasopharyngeal swabs. Rapid molecular point-of-care tests in saliva could facilitate, broaden and speed up the diagnosis. We conducted a prospective study in two community COVID-19 screening centers to evaluate the performances of a CE-marked RT-LAMP assay (EasyCoV) designed for the detection of SARS-CoV2 RNA from fresh saliva samples, compared to nasopharyngeal RT-PCR, to saliva RT-PCR and to nasopharyngeal antigen testing. Overall, 117 of the 1718 participants (7%) tested positive with nasopharyngeal RT-PCR. Compared to nasopharyngeal RT-PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of the RT-LAMP assay in saliva were 34% and 97%, respectively. The Ct values of nasopharyngeal RT-PCR were significantly lower in the 40 true positive subjects with saliva RT-LAMP (Ct 25.9) than in the 48 false negative subjects with saliva RT-LAMP (Ct 28.4) (p = 0.028). Considering six alternate criteria for reference tests, including saliva RT-PCR and nasopharyngeal antigen, the sensitivity of saliva RT-LAMP ranged between 27 and 44%. The detection of SARS-CoV-2 in crude saliva samples with an RT-LAMP assay had a lower sensitivity than nasopharyngeal RT-PCR, saliva RT-PCR and nasopharyngeal antigen testing.Registration number: NCT04578509.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Teste de Ácido Nucleico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/metabolismo , Adulto , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Reações Falso-Negativas , Reações Falso-Positivas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Medicina Molecular , Nasofaringe/virologia , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Testes Imediatos , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Viral/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(11): 3009-3019, 2021 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent of hepatitis B virus (HBV) suppression and its association with seroclearance of hepatitis 'e' antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in HIV/HBV-coinfected patients undergoing long-term tenofovir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: We prospectively followed 165 HIV/HBV-coinfected patients undergoing tenofovir-based ART. Serum HBV-DNA viral loads and HBeAg and HBsAg status were obtained at tenofovir initiation and every 6-12 months. We calculated the proportion achieving virological response (VR, <60 IU/mL) during follow-up. We also calculated rates of HBeAg- and HBsAg-seroclearance, which were compared between those who achieved versus never achieved VR during follow-up using an Exact binomial test. RESULTS: During a median 8.1 years (IQR = 4.0-13.2) of tenofovir treatment, 152 (92.1%) patients were able to achieve VR and 13 (7.9%) never achieved VR (median HBV-DNA at the end of follow-up = 608 IU/mL, range = 67-52 400 000). The prevalence of individuals with detectable HBV-DNA (≥60 IU/mL) decreased during tenofovir treatment: 15.1% (n = 14/93) at 5 years, 3.2% (n = 2/62) at 10 years and, 3.2% (n = 1/31) at 15 years. 44/96 HBeAg-positive patients (6.15/100 person-years) had HBeAg-seroclearance and 13/165 patients overall (0.87/100 person-years) had HBsAg-seroclearance. No difference in HBeAg-seroclearance was observed between those who achieved versus never achieved VR (7.4 versus 3.7/100 person-years, P = 0.33), while HBsAg-seroclearance was only observed in those with VR (1.0 versus 0/100 person-years, P = 0.49; respectively). Individuals with VR also had a higher frequency of undetectable HIV-RNA during treatment (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: During long-term tenofovir-based ART for HIV/HBV coinfection, persistent HBV viraemia is apparent, but becomes less frequent over time. HBsAg-seroclearance only occurred in those with full HBV and relatively high HIV suppression.

4.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(11): 2379-2388, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34342768

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal sampling for nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) is the standard diagnostic test of coronavirus disease 2019. Our objectives were to assess, in real-life conditions, the diagnostic accuracy of a nasopharyngeal point-of-care antigen (Ag) test and of saliva NAAT for detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in ambulatory care. This was a prospective cohort study from 19 October through 18 December 2020 in two community COVID-19 screening centers in Paris, France. Two nasopharyngeal swabs and one saliva sample were simultaneously collected. Diagnostic accuracies of nasopharyngeal Ag testing and of three saliva NAAT methods were assessed as compared to nasopharyngeal NAAT. A total of 1452 ambulatory children and adults were included. Overall, 129/1443 (9%) participants tested positive on nasopharyngeal NAAT (102/564 [18%] in symptomatic and 27/879 [3%] in asymptomatic participants). Sensitivity was 94%, 23%, 96%, and 94% for the three different protocols of saliva NAAT and for the nasopharyngeal Ag test, respectively. Estimates of specificity were above 95% for all methods. Diagnostic accuracy was similar in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Diagnostic accuracy of nasopharyngeal Ag testing and of saliva NAAT is similar to that of nasopharyngeal NAAT, subject to compliance with specific protocols for saliva. Registration number: NCT04578509.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico por imagem , Nasofaringe/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/virologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Paris , Testes Imediatos , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In individuals co-infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV), widespread tenofovir (TDF)-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to substantial decreases in HBV-DNA and HIV-RNA detection. However, the link between viral replication, liver fibrosis, and mortality remains unclear. METHODS: 300 HIV-HBV co-infected individuals undergoing ART were prospectively followed. Virological and clinical data were obtained at baseline and every 6-12 months. We quantified the association between HBV-DNA, HIV-RNA, and liver fibrosis with risk of all-cause mortality using a joint longitudinal-survival model. Viral detection, viral loads, and time-averaged cumulative viral loads of HIV and HBV were modeled as three separate exposures. RESULTS: During a median 10.5 years (IQR=4.0-14.6), the proportion undergoing TDF-containing ART (baseline=18.7%, end of follow-up=79.1%) and with undetectable HBV-DNA (baseline=36.7%, end of follow-up=94.8%) substantially increased. HIV-RNA was mostly undetectable during follow-up (76.6%). 42 participants died (incidence rate=1.30/100person-years, 95%CI=0.96-1.76). The leading causes of death were non-AIDS/non-liver-related malignancies (28.6%), followed by liver-related (16.7%), AIDS-related (16.7%), and other (16.7%). All-cause mortality was associated with HBV-DNA viral load (adjusted-HR per log10IU/mL=1.41, 95%CI=1.04-1.93, p=0.03) or time-averaged cumulative HBV-DNA (adjusted-HR per log10IU-years=1.37, 95%CI=1.03-1.83, p=0.03), but not undetectable HBV-DNA (adjusted-HR=0.30, 95%CI=0.08-1.09, p=0.08). Advanced liver fibrosis at baseline was also associated with increased mortality rates (adjusted-HR=2.35, 95%CI=1.16-4.76, p=0.02). No significant association between HIV-RNA replication and mortality was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent and historical HBV replication and liver fibrosis are important drivers of all-cause mortality in largely TDF-treated HIV-HBV co-infected individuals, despite one-fifth of deaths being liver-related. HBV-DNA and liver fibrosis remain important prognostic indicators for this patient population.

6.
Liver Int ; 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Data on liver fibrosis evolution and its involvement in liver-related morbidity are scarce in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection during treatment. We identified profiles of liver fibrosis evolution in coinfected patients undergoing tenofovir (TDF). METHODS: We included 169 HIV-HBV-coinfected patients on TDF-based antiretroviral therapy. Virological and clinical data were obtained at TDF-initiation and every 6-12 months. From data on non-invasive liver fibrosis assessments collected yearly (FibroTest®), we established clusters of individuals with similar liver fibrosis evolution using group-based trajectory models. RESULTS: Four profiles of liver fibrosis evolution were established from a median follow-up of 7.6 years (IQR = 3.1-13.1): low fibrosis with no progression (29.6%, profile A), low fibrosis with progression (22.5%, profile B), moderate fibrosis with high fluctuation (39.6%, profile C), and cirrhosis with no regression (8.3%, profile D). When compared to profile A, baseline HBeAg-positive status was associated with profiles B (P = .007) and C (P = .004), older age with profiles C (P < .001) and D (P = .001), exposure to second-generation protease inhibitors with profile C (P = .004), and CD4+ <500/mm3 at the last visit with profiles C (P = .02) and D (P = .002). Incident liver-related events occurred in profiles other than A (B, n = 1/38; C, n = 6/67; D, n = 3/14) and all five cases of hepatocellular carcinoma occurred in profiles C (n = 2) and D (n = 3). CONCLUSIONS: TDF-treated HIV-HBV coinfected individuals do not seem to benefit from comparable levels of liver fibrosis regression as in HBV mono-infection. Liver-related morbidity occurs mainly in those with fluctuating or consistently high fibrosis levels.

8.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(10): 2675-2680, 2021 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tenofovir diphosphate (TFV-DP) concentration in dried blood spots (DBSs) is a reliable pharmacokinetics biomarker of adherence to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). We aimed to use DBSs to estimate pill intake among participants using on-demand pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and to identify predictive factors associated with higher TFV-DP concentrations. METHODS: DBSs were collected at the last study visit of the open-label phase of the ANRS IPERGAY study, assessing on-demand oral TDF/emtricitabine for PrEP among MSM and transgender female participants. We quantified TFV-DP in DBSs centrally. We assessed correlation between pill count and TFV-DP concentration by Spearman correlation and explored associations between participant demographics, sexual behaviour and PrEP use during sexual intercourse (SI) with TFV-DP concentrations by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: The median age of the 245 participants included in this study was 40 years, with a median body weight of 73 kg. Median (IQR) TFV-DP concentration reached 517 (128-868) fmol/punch, corresponding to an estimated intake of 8-12 tablets per month (2-3 doses per week). Only 39% of participants had a TFV-DP concentration above 700 fmol/punch. TFV-DP concentrations were moderately correlated with pill count (r: 0.59; P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, only systematic use of PrEP during SI and more frequent episodes of SI in the past 4 weeks were significantly associated with higher TFV-DP levels [OR (95% CI): 11.30 (3.62-35.33) and 1.46 (1.19-1.79), respectively; P < 0.001]. CONCLUSIONS: Among participants using on-demand PrEP, estimated pill intake reached 8-12 tablets per month and was correlated with frequency and systematic use of PrEP for SI.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Emtricitabina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Organofosfatos , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico
9.
J Infect Dis ; 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34166492

RESUMO

We compared the proportion of participants achieving of a first undetectable HIV-1-RNA (VL) in seminal plasma (SP) and in blood plasma (BP) of 19 men starting a dolutegravir (DTG)-based-regimen at the time of primary HIV infection (PHI). At baseline, median VL was 6.5 (IQR:5.6-7.9) and 4.5 (IQR:3.5-5.0) log10cp/ml in BP and SP, respectively. Between baseline and W48, a significantly higher proportion of participants achieved a first VL below LOQ in SP (93.0%) than in BP (84.2%; p=0.008). Time to first undetectable VL was 8 weeks in SP (95% CI: 5.6-10.4) and 24 weeks in BP (95% CI: 14.1-33.9).

10.
J Virol ; 95(14): e0001621, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952636

RESUMO

HIV-1 Gag p24 has long been identified as an informative biomarker of HIV replication, disease progression, and therapeutic efficacy, but the lower sensitivity of immunoassays in comparison to molecular tests and the interference with antibodies in chronic HIV infection limit its application for clinical monitoring. The development of ultrasensitive protein detection technologies may help in overcoming these limitations. Here, we evaluated whether immune complex dissociation combined with ultrasensitive digital enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) single-molecule array (Simoa) technology could be used to quantify p24 in plasma samples from people with HIV-1 infection. We found that, among different immune complex dissociation methods, only acid-mediated dissociation was compatible with ultrasensitive p24 quantification by digital ELISA, strongly enhancing p24 detection at different stages of HIV-1 infection. We show that ultrasensitive p24 levels correlated positively with plasma HIV RNA and HIV DNA and negatively with CD4-positive (CD4+) T cells in the samples from people with primary and chronic HIV-1 infection. In addition, p24 levels also correlated with plasma D-dimers and interferon alpha (IFN-α) levels. p24 levels sharply decreased to undetectable levels after initiation of combined antiretroviral treatment (cART). However, we identified a group of people who, 48 weeks after cART initiation, had detectable p24 levels despite most having undetectable viral loads. These people had different virological and immunological baseline characteristics compared with people who had undetectable p24 after cART. These results demonstrate that ultrasensitive p24 analysis provides an efficient and robust means to monitor p24 antigen in plasma samples from people with HIV-1 infection, including during antiretroviral treatment, and may provide complementary information to other commonly used biomarkers. IMPORTANCE The introduction of combined antiretroviral treatment has transformed HIV-1 infection into a manageable condition. In this context, there is a need for additional biomarkers to monitor HIV-1 residual disease or the outcome of new interventions, such as in the case of HIV cure strategies. The p24 antigen has a long half-life outside viral particles, and it is, therefore, a very promising marker to monitor episodes of viral replication or transient activation of the viral reservoir. However, the formation of immune complexes with anti-p24 antibodies makes its quantification difficult beyond acute HIV-1 infection. We show here that, upon immune complex dissociation, new technologies allow the ultrasensitive p24 quantification in plasma samples throughout HIV-1 infection at levels close to those of viral RNA and DNA determinations. Our results further indicate that ultrasensitive p24 quantification may have added value when used in combination with other classic clinical biomarkers.


Assuntos
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Complexo Antígeno-Anticorpo , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
C R Biol ; 343(4): 79-89, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988325

RESUMO

Chikungunya is an infectious disease caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes, and for which there is no licensed vaccine nor antiviral treatments. By using a loss-of-function genetic screen, we have recently identified the FHL1 protein as an essential host factor for CHIKV tropism and pathogenesis. FHL1 is highly expressed in muscles cells and fibroblasts, the main CHIKV-target cells. FHL1 interacts with the viral protein nsP3 and plays a critical role in CHIKV genome amplification. Experiments in vivo performed in FHL1-deficient mice have shown that these animals are resistant to infection and do not develop muscular lesions. Altogether these observations, published in the journal Nature [1], show that FHL1 is a key host factor for CHIKV pathogenesis and identify the interaction between FHL1 and nsP3 as a promising target for the development of new antiviral strategies.


Assuntos
Febre de Chikungunya , Vírus Chikungunya , Animais , Vírus Chikungunya/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular , Proteínas com Domínio LIM , Camundongos , Proteínas Musculares , Tropismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais , Replicação Viral
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(4): e1009526, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872329

RESUMO

HIV-1 infects CD4 T lymphocytes (CD4TL) through binding the chemokine receptors CCR5 or CXCR4. CXCR4-using viruses are considered more pathogenic, linked to accelerated depletion of CD4TL and progression to AIDS. However, counterexamples to this paradigm are common, suggesting heterogeneity in the virulence of CXCR4-using viruses. Here, we investigated the role of the CXCR4 chemokine CXCL12 as a driving force behind virus virulence. In vitro, CXCL12 prevents HIV-1 from binding CXCR4 and entering CD4TL, but its role in HIV-1 transmission and propagation remains speculative. Through analysis of thirty envelope glycoproteins (Envs) from patients at different stages of infection, mostly treatment-naïve, we first interrogated whether sensitivity of viruses to inhibition by CXCL12 varies over time in infection. Results show that Envs resistant (RES) to CXCL12 are frequent in patients experiencing low CD4TL levels, most often late in infection, only rarely at the time of primary infection. Sensitivity assays to soluble CD4 or broadly neutralizing antibodies further showed that RES Envs adopt a more closed conformation with distinct antigenicity, compared to CXCL12-sensitive (SENS) Envs. At the level of the host cell, our results suggest that resistance is not due to improved fusion or binding to CD4, but owes to viruses using particular CXCR4 molecules weakly accessible to CXCL12. We finally asked whether the low CD4TL levels in patients are related to increased pathogenicity of RES viruses. Resistance actually provides viruses with an enhanced capacity to enter naive CD4TL when surrounded by CXCL12, which mirrors their situation in lymphoid organs, and to deplete bystander activated effector memory cells. Therefore, RES viruses seem more likely to deregulate CD4TL homeostasis. This work improves our understanding of the pathophysiology and the transmission of HIV-1 and suggests that RES viruses' receptors could represent new therapeutic targets to help prevent CD4TL depletion in HIV+ patients on cART.


Assuntos
Antivirais/metabolismo , Quimiocina CXCL12/metabolismo , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/patogenicidade , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Infecções por HIV/fisiopatologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/fisiologia , Homeostase , Humanos , Proteínas do Envelope Viral/metabolismo , Virulência
13.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(3): ofab085, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796598

RESUMO

HIV-related inflammation is associated with poor outcomes. We describe inflammatory biomarkers in 17 participants in a pre-exposure prophylaxis trial who seroconverted with very early initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Inflammation peaked at the time of HIV infection and returned to baseline within 6-12 months. Starting antiretroviral therapy very early could help mitigate long-lasting HIV-related inflammation.

14.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(4): e24731, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821807

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous large-scale studies have examined the effect of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection on overall and cause-specific mortality in individuals with HIV. However, few studies have collected data on the subclinical indicators of HBV that lead to these severe outcomes in the coinfected population. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aim to describe the procedures of a cohort study extension aimed at assessing HBV-DNA replication, serological markers of HBV (hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg] and hepatitis B surface antigen), and liver fibrosis and how these subclinical outcomes relate to mortality in predominately tenofovir-treated, coinfected patients with HIV-HBV. We assessed the characteristics at cohort inclusion of those who participated in the cohort extension, as well as those who did not participate due to being lost to follow-up or death. METHODS: Patients with HIV and chronic HBV who completed follow-up in a prospective cohort study conducted in 4 outpatient centers (Paris and Lyon, France; 2002-2011) were invited to participate in a cross-sectional visit from November 2016 to March 2018, during which a comprehensive evaluation of HIV- and HBV-related disease was undertaken. Virological and clinical data since the previous study visit were retrospectively collected. RESULTS: Of the 308 individuals enrolled in the cohort, 147 (47.7%) participated in the cross-sectional study. At this visit, most participants were HBeAg negative (111/134, 82.8% with available data), had undetectable HBV DNA (124/132, 93.9% with available data), and were undergoing antiretroviral therapy containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate or tenofovir alafenamide (114/147, 77.6%). There were no significant differences in characteristics at cohort inclusion between those who did and did not complete the cross-sectional visit, except for a lower proportion with an AIDS-defining illness (30/147, 20.5% vs 49/161, 30.4%, respectively; P=.04). Of the 161 nonparticipating individuals, 42 (26.1%) died, 41 (25.4%) were lost to follow-up and known to be alive, and 78 (48.4%) were lost to follow-up with unknown vital status. Most differences in characteristics at cohort inclusion were observed between deceased individuals and those participating in the cross-sectional visit or those lost to follow-up. With this extension, the median follow-up time of the overall cohort is presently 9.2 years (IQR 3.4-14.6). CONCLUSIONS: Extended follow-up of the French HIV-HBV cohort will provide important long-term data on the subclinical trajectory of HBV disease in the coinfected population. The biases due to the relatively high rate of those lost to follow-up need to be assessed in future studies of this cohort. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/24731.

15.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922716

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted bottlenecks in large-scale, frequent testing of populations for infections. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic tests are expensive, reliant on centralized labs, can take days to deliver results, and are prone to backlogs and supply shortages. Antigen tests that bind and detect the surface proteins of a virus are rapid and scalable but suffer from high false negative rates. To address this problem, an inexpensive, simple, and robust 60-minute do-it-yourself (DIY) workflow to detect viral RNA from nasal swabs or saliva with high sensitivity (0.1 to 2 viral particles/µL) and specificity (>97% true negative rate) utilizing reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was developed. ALERT (Accessible LAMP-Enabled Rapid Test) incorporates the following features: (1) increased shelf-life and ambient temperature storage, compared to liquid reaction mixes, by using wax layers to isolate enzymes from other reagents; (2) improved specificity compared to other LAMP end-point reporting methods, by using sequence-specific QUASR (quenching of unincorporated amplification signal reporters); (3) increased sensitivity, compared to methods without purification through use of a magnetic wand to enable pipette-free concentration of sample RNA and cell debris removal; (4) quality control with a nasopharyngeal-specific mRNA target; and (5) co-detection of other respiratory viruses, such as influenza B, by multiplexing QUASR-modified RT-LAMP primer sets. The flexible nature of the ALERT workflow allows easy, at-home and point-of-care testing for individuals and higher-throughput processing for labs and hospitals. With minimal effort, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific primer sets can be swapped out for other targets to repurpose ALERT to detect other viruses, microorganisms, or nucleic acid-based markers.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/virologia , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Nasofaringe/virologia , Testes Imediatos , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(10): 2235-2241, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782783

RESUMO

We report evaluation of 30 assays' (17 rapid tests (RDTs) and 13 automated/manual ELISA/CLIA assay (IAs)) clinical performances with 2594 sera collected from symptomatic patients with positive SARS-CoV-2 rRT-PCR on a respiratory sample, and 1996 pre-epidemic serum samples expected to be negative. Only 4 RDT and 3 IAs fitted both specificity (> 98%) and sensitivity (> 90%) criteria according to French recommendations. Serology may offer valuable information during COVID-19 pandemic, but inconsistent performances observed among the 30 commercial assays evaluated, which underlines the importance of independent evaluation before clinical implementation.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Teste Sorológico para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/sangue , Imunoensaio/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Imunoensaio/economia , Imunoglobulina M/sangue , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/genética , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
17.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(6): 813-822, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients co-infected with HIV and tuberculosis, antiretroviral therapy options are limited due to drug-drug interactions with rifampicin. A previous phase 2 trial indicated that raltegravir 400 mg twice a day or efavirenz 600 mg once a day might have similar virological efficacy in patients given rifampicin. In this phase 3 trial, we assessed the non-inferiority of raltegravir to efavirenz. METHODS: We did a multicentre, open-label, non-inferiority, randomised, phase 3 trial at six sites in Côte d'Ivoire, Brazil, France, Mozambique, and Vietnam. We included antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive adults (aged ≥18 years) with confirmed HIV-1 infection and bacteriologically confirmed or clinically diagnosed tuberculosis who had initiated rifampicin-containing tuberculosis treatment within the past 8 weeks. Using computerised random numbers, we randomly assigned participants (1:1; stratified by country) to receive raltegravir 400 mg twice daily or efavirenz 600 mg once daily, both in combination with tenofovir and lamivudine. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with virological suppression at week 48 (defined as plasma HIV RNA concentration <50 copies per mL). The prespecified non-inferiority margin was 12%. The primary outcome was assessed in the intention-to-treat population, which included all randomly assigned patients (excluding two patients with HIV-2 infection and one patient with HIV-1 RNA concentration of <50 copies per mL at inclusion), and the on-treatment population, which included all patients in the intention-to-treat population who initiated treatment and were continuing allocated treatment at week 48, and patients who had discontinued allocated treatment due to death or virological failure. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of the assigned treatment regimen. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02273765. FINDINGS: Between Sept 28, 2015, and Jan 5, 2018, 460 participants were randomly assigned to raltegravir (n=230) or efavirenz (n=230), of whom 457 patients (230 patients in the raltegravir group; 227 patients in the efavirenz group) were included in the intention-to-treat analysis and 410 (206 patients in the raltegravir group; 204 patients in the efavirenz group) in the on-treatment analysis. At baseline, the median CD4 count was 103 cells per µL and median plasma HIV RNA concentration was 5·5 log10 copies per mL (IQR 5·0-5·8). 310 (68%) of 457 participants had bacteriologically-confirmed tuberculosis. In the intention-to-treat population, at week 48, 140 (61%) of 230 participants in the raltegravir group and 150 (66%) of 227 patients in the efavirenz had achieved virological suppression (between-group difference -5·2% [95% CI -14·0 to 3·6]), thus raltegravir did not meet the predefined criterion for non-inferiority. The most frequent adverse events were HIV-associated non-AIDS illnesses (eight [3%] of 229 patients in the raltegravir group; 21 [9%] of 230 patients in the efavirenz group) and AIDS-defining illnesses (ten [4%] patients in the raltegravir group; 13 [6%] patients in the efavirenz group). 58 (25%) of 229 patients in raltegravir group and 66 (29%) of 230 patients in the efavirenz group had grade 3 or 4 adverse events. 26 (6%) of 457 patients died during follow-up: 14 in the efavirenz group and 12 in the raltegravir group. INTERPRETATION: In patients with HIV given tuberculosis treatment, non-inferiority of raltegravir compared with efavirenz was not shown. Raltegravir was well tolerated and could be considered as an option, but only in selected patients. FUNDING: National French Agency for AIDS Research, Ministry of Health in Brazil, Merck. TRANSLATIONS: For the Portuguese and French translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Assuntos
Alcinos/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclopropanos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Raltegravir Potássico/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Costa do Marfim , Cálculos da Dosagem de Medicamento , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Moçambique , Resultado do Tratamento , Vietnã , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 24: 311-315, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Presence of baseline hepatitis C virus (HCV) resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) can impair treatment outcome of direct-acting antivirals. We investigated the prevalence of pre-treatment HCV resistance among recently HCV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) with high risk behaviours, either human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected or at high risk of HIV acquisition and under pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). METHODS: NS5A and NS3 fragments were deep sequenced on pre-treatment samples of 72 subjects using Illumina MiSeq paired-end sequencing technology. Ultra-deep sequencing data were analysed by SmartGene® platform. RASs mentioned in the literature were analysed and interpreted depending on genotype (GT) at 10% cut-off. RESULTS: HCV genotyping showed 36 (50.0%) GT1a, 31 (43.1%) GT4d and 5 (6.9%) GT3a infections. Fifty-five patients (76.4%) were co-infected with HIV and 15 (20.8%) received PrEP. In GT1a viruses, NS3 RASs were found in 4/30 viruses (13.3%; S122 G/N, R155 K and I170 V) and Q80 K polymorphism was present in 14/30 viruses (46.7%). No NS3 RASs were detected in GT4d and GT3a viruses. NS5A RASs were detected in 3/36 GT1a viruses (8.3%; Q30E/R, L31 M and H58 L). NS5A subtype-specific polymorphisms L30R and T58 P were found at high frequencies in 31/31 (100%) and 16/31 (51.6%) GT4d viruses, respectively. One RAS M31 L was also observed along with the polymorphisms L30R and T58 P. No NS5A RASs were detected in GT3a viruses. CONCLUSION: A low level of RASs to NS3 and NS5A inhibitors in pre-treatment samples was detected in the study population. Our findings reassure the clinical management of HCV infection in this high-risk population.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Antivirais/farmacologia , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Assunção de Riscos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/uso terapêutico
19.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(5): 1286-1293, 2021 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ANRS12286/MOBIDIP trial showed that boosted protease inhibitor (bPI) plus lamivudine dual therapy was superior to bPI monotherapy as maintenance treatment in subjects with a history of M184V mutation. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to deep analyse the detection of M184V/I variants at time of switch and at the time of virological failure (VF). METHODS: Ultra-deep sequencing (UDS) was performed on proviral HIV-DNA at inclusion among 265 patients enrolled in the ANRS 12026/MOBIDIP trial, and on plasma from 31 patients experiencing VF. The proportion of M184V/I variants was described and the association between the M184V/I mutation at 1% of threshold and VF was explored with logistic regression models. RESULTS: M184V and I mutations were detected in HIV-DNA for 173/252 (69%) and 31/252 (12%) of participants, respectively. Longer duration of first-line treatment, higher plasma viral load at first-line treatment failure and higher baseline HIV-DNA load were associated with the archived M184V. M184I mutation was always associated with a STOP codon, suggesting defective virus. The 48 week estimated probability of remaining free from VF was comparable with or without the M184V/I mutation for dual therapy. At failure, M184V and major PI mutations were detected in 1/17 and 5/15 patients in the bPI arm and in 2/2 and 0/3 in the bPI+lamivudine arm, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using UDS evidenced that archiving of M184V in HIV-DNA is heterogeneous despite past historical M184V in 96% of cases. The antiviral efficacy of lamivudine-based dual therapy regimens is mainly due to the residual lamivudine activity.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV-1/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Mutação , Inibidores de Proteases/uso terapêutico , Carga Viral
20.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 04 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533916

RESUMO

Several studies have analyzed antiviral immune pathways in late-stage severe COVID-19. However, the initial steps of SARS-CoV-2 antiviral immunity are poorly understood. Here we have isolated primary SARS-CoV-2 viral strains and studied their interaction with human plasmacytoid predendritic cells (pDCs), a key player in antiviral immunity. We show that pDCs are not productively infected by SARS-CoV-2. However, they efficiently diversified into activated P1-, P2-, and P3-pDC effector subsets in response to viral stimulation. They expressed CD80, CD86, CCR7, and OX40 ligand at levels similar to influenza virus-induced activation. They rapidly produced high levels of interferon-α, interferon-λ1, IL-6, IP-10, and IL-8. All major aspects of SARS-CoV-2-induced pDC activation were inhibited by hydroxychloroquine. Mechanistically, SARS-CoV-2-induced pDC activation critically depended on IRAK4 and UNC93B1, as established using pDC from genetically deficient patients. Overall, our data indicate that human pDC are efficiently activated by SARS-CoV-2 particles and may thus contribute to type I IFN-dependent immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/metabolismo , Plasticidade Celular/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Quinases Associadas a Receptores de Interleucina-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Biomarcadores , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , COVID-19/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/farmacologia , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunomodulação , Imunofenotipagem , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Interferon Tipo I/metabolismo , Interferons/metabolismo
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