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1.
Rev. bras. ativ. fís. saúde ; 23: 1-8, fev.-ago. 2019. fig, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026702

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to analyze acute glycemic effects in different moments of an aerobic training, as well as to analyze the chronic effect of training, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). The participants performed 16 weeks of interval aerobic training with three weekly sessions. The main part of each session consisted of nine blocks of five minutes, in which four minutes consist-ed of stimulus between 85% and 95% of the anaerobic threshold heart rate (ATHR) and one minute consisted of recovery below 85% of the ATHR, totalizing 45 minutes. Capillary glucose was assessed before, immediately after and 30 minutes after the first and the last training sessions. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was assessed before and after the intervention. Paired t-test and Generalized Estimating Equations were performed for the analyses; α = 5%. The participants were seven individ-uals (four women) aged 59.60 ± 6.69 years. In the first session, glucose values immediately after and 30 minutes after exercise were lower than pre-exercise values. On the other hand, in the last training session, only the glucose values immediately after exercise were lower than pre-exercise values. Ana-lyzing the glycemic reductions, the first session presented a greater reduction immediately after (p = 0.042) and 30 minutes after exercise (p = 0.010). Regarding chronic glycemic effects, an increase (p = 0.010) in HbA1c levels was observed after training. It is concluded that, after 16 weeks of training without progression of duration and intensity, the exercise loses its acute glycemic effect, and may be even insufficient to reduce HbA1c levels


O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os efeitos glicêmicos agudos em diferentes momentos de um treinamento aeróbio, bem como o efeito glicêmico crônico deste treinamento, em pacientes com diabetes tipo 2 (DM2). Os participantes realizaram16 semanas de treinamento aeróbio intervalado, com três sessões semanais, sendo a parte principal de cada sessão composta de nove blocos de cinco minutos, tendo cada bloco quatro minutos de estímulo a 85% a 90% da frequência cardíaca referente ao limiar anaeróbio (FCLAN) e um minuto de recu-peração abaixo de 85% da FCLAN, totalizando 45 minutos. A glicemia capilar foi avaliada antes, imediata-mente e 30 minutos após a primeira e a última sessão de treinamento. A hemoglobina glicada (HbA1c) foi avaliada antes e após a intervenção. Teste t pareado e Equações de Estimativas Generalizadas foram usados para as análises; α = 5%. Participaram sete indivíduos (59,60 ± 6,69 anos; quatro mulheres). Na primeira sessão, os valores glicêmicos imediatamente e 30 minutos após o exercício foram menores que os valores pré--exercício. Já na última sessão de treinamento, somente os valores glicêmicos imediatamente após o exercício foram menores que os valores pré-exercício. Analisando as reduções glicêmicas, a primeira sessão apresentou maior redução tanto imediatamente após (p = 0,042) como 30 minutos após o exercício (p = 0,027). Em relação ao efeito glicêmico crônico, observou-se aumento (p = 0,010) dos níveis de HbA1c após o treinamento. Conclui-se que após 16 semanas de treinamento sem progressão de duração e intensidade, o exercício perde efeito glicêmico agudo, podendo inclusive ser ineficiente na redução dos níveis de HbA1c


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Glicemia , Exercício , Diabetes Mellitus , Atividade Motora
2.
Sports Med Open ; 5(1): 22, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aerobic training (AT) improves glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. However, the role of the progression of training variables remains unclear. The objective of this review was to analyze the effects of progressive AT (PAT) and non-progressive AT (NPAT) on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Data sources used were PubMed, Cochrane Central, Embase, SPORTDiscus, and LILACS. Studies that evaluated the effect of at least 12 weeks of PAT and NPAT compared to a control condition on HbA1c levels in type 2 diabetes patients were eligible for analysis. Two independent reviewers screened the search results, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias. Effect sizes (ESs) were calculated using the standardized mean difference in HbA1c levels between the intervention and control groups using a random-effect model. RESULTS: Of 5848 articles retrieved, 24 randomized clinical trials (825 participants) were included. Among the included studies, 92% reported to have performed a randomization process, 8% presented allocation concealment, 21% reported blinding of outcome assessment, and 38% reported complete outcome data. AT reduced HbA1c levels by 0.65% (ES: - 1.037; 95% confidence interval [CI]: - 1.386, - 0.688; p < 0.001). The reduction in HbA1c induced by PAT was 0.84% (ES: - 1.478; 95% CI - 2.197, - 0.759; p < 0.001), and NPAT was 0.45% (ES: - 0.920; 95% CI - 1.329, - 0.512; p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis of the different forms of progression showed a reduction in HbA1c levels of 0.94% (ES: - 1.967; 95% CI - 3.783, - 0.151; p = 0.034) with progression in volume, 0.41% (ES: - 1.277; 95% CI - 2.499, - 0.056; p = 0.040) with progression in intensity, and 1.27% (ES: - 1.422; 95% CI - 2.544, - 0.300; p = 0.013) with progression in both volume and intensity. Subgroup analysis of the different modalities of AT showed a reduction of 0.69% (ES: - 1.078; 95% CI - 1.817, - 0.340; p = 0.004) with walking and/or running and of 1.12% (ES: - 2.614; 95% CI - 4.206, - 1.022; p = 0.001) with mixed protocols while progressive training was adopted. In non-progressive protocols, a significant HbA1c reduction was only found with walking and/or running (- 0.43%; ES: - 1.292; 95% CI - 1.856, - 0.72; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The effect of PAT on glycemic control was greater than that of NPAT, especially when volume and intensity were progressively incremented throughout the interventions.

3.
Contemp Clin Trials Commun ; 15: 100358, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049461

RESUMO

The literature discusses that combined training, aerobic more resistance exercises in the same session, is a suitable strategy for people with obesity and that exercise periodization leads to positive health outcomes; however, the implication of different periodizations of combined training for health outcomes in obese adults requires further investigation. The aim of the study will be to describe the methodology used to compare the effect of linear periodized and non-periodized combined training on health markers and health-related physical fitness in adults with obesity. This is a blinded randomized controlled clinical trial investigating adults with obesity in the age group 20-50 years. The sample will be non-probabilistic, and participants will be allocated randomly into one of three groups: control group (CG), non-periodized group (NG), and periodized group (PG). The intervention will occur in 60-min sessions, 3 days a week for 16 weeks, with 1 week dedicated to familiarization with the training and 15 weeks of combined training (aerobic followed by resistance in the same session). The PG group will perform three mesocycles of 5 weeks each, progressing in intensity throughout the intervention [aerobic: from 40-49% to 60-69% of heart rate reserve (HRR); strength: from 12 to 14 maximum repetitions (MR) to 8 to 10MR]; the NG group will maintain the same relative intensity throughout the study (aerobic: 50-59% of HRR; strength: 2 sets of 10-12 MR). Participants in the CG group will maintain their usual activities without the proposed intervention. Pre- and post-intervention assessments will be performed for biochemical markers, body composition, cardiovascular parameters, cardiorespiratory fitness, maximum upper and lower limb strength, flexibility, and subjective health-related parameters. This project was approved by the Committee of Ethics and Research with Human Beings of the institution of origin (protocol 2,448,674) and registered in the Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials (RBR-3c7rt3).

4.
J Phys Act Health ; 16(6): 477-491, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31023184

RESUMO

Background: The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regressions evaluating the effects of isolated strength training (ST), compared with a control group, on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), C-reactive protein (CRP), and adiponectin of adults. Methods: Embase, PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus data sources were searched up to May 2017. Clinical trials that compared ST with a control group of adults older than 18 years, which evaluated blood TC, TG, LDL, HDL, CRP, or adiponectin as an outcome were included. Random effect was used and the effect size (ES) was calculated by using the standardized mean difference with a 95% confidence interval. Results: ST promotes a reduction in TC (ES: -0.399; P < .001), TG (ES: -0.204; P = .002), LDL (ES: -0.451; P < .001), and CRP (ES: -0.542; P = .01) levels. In addition, ST is associated to an increase in HDL (ES: 0.363; P < .001) and adiponectin concentrations (ES: 1.105; P = .01). Conclusion: ST promotes decreases in TC, TG, LDL, and CRP levels and increases HDL and adiponectin concentrations. Thus, progressive ST could be a potential therapeutic option for improving abnormalities in lipid and inflammatory outcomes in adults.

5.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 90(1): 46-53, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30717634

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the effects of three water-based resistance trainings on neuromuscular parameters of older women. METHOD: Thirty-six women were randomized to groups: simple set of 30 seconds (1 × 30 s, 66.41 ± 4.71 years, n = 12), multiple sets of 10 seconds (3 × 10 s, 66.50 ± 4.74 years, n = 11), and simple set of 10 seconds (1 × 10 s, 65.23 ± 3.93 years, n = 13). Maximal isometric strength concomitantly with neuromuscular activity during extension and flexion knee was evaluated. In the same exercises, rate of force development at different time intervals was measured. Finally, functional capacity was assessed. RESULTS: All trainings promoted similar improvements in the rate of force develpment of extension (effect size RFD 50 ms: 1 × 30 s .49, 3 × 10 s .67, 1 × 10 s .65; ES RFD 100 ms: 1 × 30 s .76, 3 × 10 s .80, 1 × 10 s .63; ES RFD 250 ms: 1 × 30 s .31, 3 × 10 s .49, 1 × 10 s .37) and flexion knee (ES RFD 50 ms: 1 × 30 s .59, 3 × 10 s .31, 1 × 10 s .48; ES RFD 100 ms: 1 × 30 s .41, 3 × 10 s .44, 1 × 10 s .42; ES RFD 250 ms: 1 × 30 s .57, 3 × 10 s .36, 1 × 10 s .43; ES RFD maximal: 1 × 30 s .63, 3 × 10 s .23, 1 × 10 s .26), however only the 3 × 10 s group improved the performance in the 8-foot up-and-go test (ES 3 × 10 s: .93, 1 × 30: .39, 1 × 10 s: .23). There was a maintenance of the isometric force and neuromuscular activity, except for the activity of the rectus femoris that showed an increase after training in all groups (ES 3 × 10 s: .04, 1 × 30: .36, 1 × 10 s: .50). CONCLUSION: Water-based resistance training using simple or multiple sets promotes the same gains in rapid strength, however only multiple sets induced improvement on functional capacity.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Idoso , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Joelho/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Quadríceps/fisiologia , Natação , Água
6.
Motriz (Online) ; 25(1): e101982, 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1002699

RESUMO

Aim: The aim of the present study was to verify the agreement between the ventilatory method (VT) and the alternative method of heart rate deflection point (HRDP) in determining the anaerobic threshold (AT) during incremental treadmill test in dyslipidaemic patients. Methods: Twenty-seven dyslipidaemic patients (61.50 ± 10.46 years) performed an incremental treadmill test, in which the AT was determined using both methods. Bland-Altman statistics was adopted in order to verify the agreement between the methods. Results: Agreement in AT determination between the VT and HRDP methods was observed (p < 0.05) for heart rate (138.00 ± 23.80 and 136.26 ± 22.18 bpm, respectively), oxygen uptake (31.00 ± 10.33 and 31.00 ± 11.17 ml.kg−1.min−1), and treadmill velocity (7.67 ± 1.71 km.h-1and 8.00 ± 1.75 km.h-1). Conclusion: Our results suggest that the HRDP method can be adopted for the determination of the AT in dyslipidaemic patients, showing agreement with the VT method.(AU)

7.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 89(4): 465-473, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30257138

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of water-based aerobic exercises on the performance of water-based resistance exercises by assessing kinematic parameters during protocols and neuromuscular responses after them. METHOD: Ten women performed 2 water-based protocols (i.e., resistance and concurrent water-based exercises) on separate days. We evaluated isometric force and electromyographic signal (sEMG) before and after protocols and analyzed kinematic parameters during a water-based resistance exercise. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between knee extension force production and sEMG from the vastus lateralis during the maximal voluntary contraction performed before and after the protocols. However, sEMG from the rectus femoris presented a significant difference between pretest and posttest measurements in both water-based protocols with greater values in the measurement after the end of the protocol (p = .046). The peak angular velocity of knee extension and mean angular velocity of knee extension and flexion showed similar values among the sets, with no difference between protocols. The peak angular velocity of knee flexion presented greater values in the water-based resistance exercises compared with the water-based concurrent protocol in the last set (p < .001). CONCLUSION: The main impairment induced by the water-based concurrent exercises was the lower peak angular velocity in the knee flexors compared with water-based resistance exercises alone.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Contração Isométrica , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Recrutamento Neurofisiológico , Água
8.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 141: 132-139, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729373

RESUMO

AIMS: Our purpose was to investigate the effects of aerobic periodized training in aquatic and land environments on plasma histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and cytokines levels in peripheral blood of diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) patients. METHODS: The patients underwent 12 weeks of periodized training programs that including walking or running in a swimming pool (aquatic group) or in a track (dry land group). Blood samples were collected immediately before and after both first and last sessions. Plasma cytokine levels and HDAC activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) was measured. RESULTS: The exercise performed in both environments similarly modulated the evaluated acetylation mark, global HDAC activity. However, a differential profile depending on the evaluated time point was detected, since exercise increased acutely HDAC activity in sedentary and after 12 weeks of training period, while a reduced HDAC activity was observed following periodized training (samples collected before the last session). Additionally, the 12 weeks of periodized exercise in both environments increased IL-10 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the hypothesis that the modulation of HDAC activity and inflammatory status might be at least partially related to exercise effects on T2DM. The periodized training performed in both aquatic and land environments impacts similarly epigenetic and inflammatory status.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Exercício/fisiologia , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Histona Desacetilases/sangue , Humanos , Interleucina-10/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Sports Med ; 48(7): 1727-1737, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29651756

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses have shown that land training (LT) reduces blood pressure; however, it is not known whether aquatic training (AT) promotes this same effect. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to conduct a meta-analysis on the effects of AT on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in adults and elderly and compare them to those of LT and no training [control group (CG)]. DATA SOURCES: Embase, PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus were searched up to May 2017. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies that evaluated the effect of upright AT (i.e., AT performed in upright position) on the blood pressure of adult individuals and the elderly who did not present with cardiovascular disease (other than hypertension) were included. DATA ANALYSIS: Two independent reviewers screened search results, performed data extraction and assessed risk of bias. Random effect was used, and the effect size (ES) was calculated by using the standardized mean difference with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: AT promoted a reduction in SBP (ES - 1.47; 95% CI - 2.23 to - 0.70; p < 0.01) compared to CG. This effect is maintained with training progression (ES - 1.52; 95% CI - 2.70 to - 0.33; p = 0.01) and no progression (ES - 1.43; 95% CI - 2.64 to - 0.23; p = 0.02). These effects were significant only in hypertensive (ES - 2.20; 95% CI - 2.72 to - 1.68; p < 0.01), and not in pre-hypertensive individuals. AT promoted a decrease in DBP (- 0.92; 95% CI - 1.27 to - 0.57; p < 0.01) after training with progression (- 0.81; 95% CI - 1.62 to - 0.001; p = 0.04) and no progression (- 1.01; 95% CI - 1.40 to - 0.62; p < 0.01) in pre-hypertensive (- 1.12; 95% CI - 1.53 to - 0.70; p < 0.01) and hypertensive patients (- 0.69; 95% CI - 1.31 to - 0.06; p = 0.03). AT promoted similar reductions in SBP compared to LT; however, reduction of DBP in hypertensive patients was lower (1.82; 95% CI 0.84 to 2.79; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: AT promotes blood pressure reduction in adults and elderly. The reduction in SBP in those performing AT is similar to those performing LT, but reduction of DBP is lower in the AT group compared to that in the LT group. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42016049716.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Phys Act Health ; 15(8): 592-599, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29580134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water-based resistance training (WRT) has been indicated to promote strength gains in elderly population. However, no study has compared different training strategies to identify the most efficient one. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 3 WRT strategies on the strength and functional capacity of older women. METHODS: In total, 36 women were randomly allocated to training groups: simple set of 30 seconds [1 × 30s; 66.41 (1.36) y; n = 12], multiple sets of 10 seconds [3 × 10s; 66.50 (1.43) y; n = 11], and simple set of 10 seconds [1 × 10s; 65.23 (1.09) y; n = 13]. Training lasted for 12 weeks. The maximal dynamic strength (in kilograms) and muscular endurance (number of repetitions) of knee extension, knee flexion, elbow flexion, and bench press, as well as functional capacity (number of repetitions), were evaluated. RESULTS: All types of training promoted similar gains in maximal dynamic strength of knee extension and flexion as well as elbow flexion. Only the 1 × 30s and 1 × 10s groups presented increments in bench press maximal strength. All 3 groups showed increases in muscular endurance in all exercises and functional capacity. CONCLUSIONS: WRT using long- or short-duration simple sets promotes the same gains in strength and functional capacity in older women as does WRT using multiple sets.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Idoso , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Clin Exp Hypertens ; 40(2): 179-185, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aerobic training has been widely indicated to patients with type 2 diabetes. However, there are still few studies comparing acute glycemic and blood pressure effects of different methods of aerobic training. The aim is to compare glycemic and pressure acute responses of continuous aerobic exercise to interval aerobic exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a randomized, crossover clinical trial. Fourteen patients with type 2 diabetes performed two sessions of aerobic training with different methods (continuous and interval). Continuous session had duration of 35 minutes with intensity of 85-90% of heart rate corresponding to anaerobic threshold (HRAT), while interval session had 45 minutes, with stimulus in intensity of 85-90% of HRAT with recovery in intensity under 85% of HRAT. Capillary glycemia, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were analyzed before and after the sessions. RESULTS: Patients were 63.5 ± 9.8 years old. Glycemia was reduced in both sessions (p < 0.001). Only glycemia measured at 25 minutes after continuous session was not lower than pre-session values. Systolic blood pressure was also reduced in both sessions (p = 0.010) with similar behavior between them. In the diastolic blood pressure, there were differences only between the values measured immediately after exercise and the values measured 20 minutes (p = 0.002) and 30 minutes after exercise (p = 0.008). CONCLUSION: Both continuous and interval aerobic exercise, in a same intensity, are effective for glycemic and pressure acute reductions in individuals with type 2 diabetes. For patients with greater risk of hypertension, we believe that the interval method is safer.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/fisiologia , Idoso , Limiar Anaeróbio , Estudos Cross-Over , Diástole , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sístole , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Prev Med ; 93: 211-218, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27773709

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the associations of aerobic, resistance, and combined exercise with changes in insulin resistance, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin in children and adolescents who are overweight or obese. DATA SEARCHES: MEDLINE via Pubmed, Cochrane-CENTRAL, SPORTDiscus, and LILACS. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized clinical trials of at least six weeks of duration that evaluated the ability of exercise training to lower at least one of the following outcomes: insulin resistance-HOMA, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin in children and/or adolescents classified as obese or overweight. DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS: Two independent reviewers extracted data and assessed the quality of the included studies. Differences (exercise training group minus control group) in the outcomes evaluated were analyzed using a random effects model. RESULTS: Of 1853 articles retrieved, 17 studies were included. The meta-analysis showed that physical training in general was not associated with a reduction in fasting glucose levels compared to the control, but it was associated with reductions in fasting insulin levels (-3.37µU/ml; CI 95%, -5.16µU/ml to -1.57µU/ml; I2, 54%, p=0.003) and HOMA (-0.61; CI 95%, -1.19 to -0.02; I2, 49%, p=0.040). In addition, each modality (aerobic, resistance, and combined) was compared to the control group. Aerobic exercise was associated with declines in fasting insulin levels (-4.52µU/ml; CI 95%, -7.40 to -1.65; I2, 65%, p=0.002) and in HOMA (-1.33; 95% confidence interval, -2.47 to -0.18; I2, 73%, p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Exercise training, especially aerobic training, is associated with the reduction of fasting insulin levels and HOMA in children and adolescents with obesity and overweight, and may prevent metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 24: 73-7, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27502804

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the acute glucose responses to the first sessions of three mesocycles of water- and land-based aerobic exercise. METHODS: The water-based exercise group (WBE, n = 14; 54.1 ± 9.1 years) performed deep water walking and/or running, while the land-based exercise group (LBE, n = 11; 60.1 ± 7.3 years) performed walking and/or running on athletic track. In the first mesocycle, patients trained at 85-90% of their anaerobic threshold (AT) for 35 min, progressing to 90-95% of the AT in the second mesocycle, and 95-100% of the AT in the last mesocycle. Capillary glucose was assessed before and immediately after the first session of each mesocycle. RESULTS: There was glycemic reduction (p < 0.001) in all sessions, with relative reductions of 19%, 29% and 24% for the WBE and 24%, 29% and 27% for the LBE in the mesocycles 1, 2 and 3, respectively. There were no found differences between groups and between mesocycles. CONCLUSIONS: The acute response of blood glucose to aerobic training between 85 and 100% of the heart rate of AT is effective and independent of the environment in which it is performed. Clinical trial reg. no. NCT01956357, clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Exercício/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Corrida , Caminhada , Água
14.
Arch. med. deporte ; 33(174): 233-238, jul.-ago. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-156833

RESUMO

Aims: The present study aimed to analyze the acute glucose responses in the first and last sessions of four mesocycles along an aquatic aerobic training periodization. Methods: Fourteen patients (6 men and 8 women; 54.3 ± 9.0 years; body mass index of 34.5 ± 3.9 kg/m2) with type 2 diabetes underwent a 12-week training program involving deep-water running. This exercise training was performed by an interval training method, with a frequency of 3 times a week, session duration of 35 minutes and intensity progressing from 85 to 90% to 95 to 100% of the anaerobic threshold heart rate (ATHR) along the periodization. Capillary glucose was assessed before and immediately after the first and last session of each mesocycle. A generalized estimated equation (time x session x mesocycle) was used to assess reductions in glucose levels in different sessions (first and last) along four mesocycles (α = 0.05). Results: All sessions resulted in a reduction in glucose levels (time effect: p <0.001), without differences between the first and last session of each mesocycle (session effect: p = 0.738). With regard to the mesocycles (mesocycle effect: p = 0.003), significant differences were found between mesocycles 2 and 3. In time mesocycle interaction (p = 0.002), in most comparisons, post-session values were lowest that pre-session values, regardless of mesocycle, except for the post-session value of mesocycle 3, which was similar to the pre-values of mesocycles 2 and 4. Conclusion: Aerobic training in deep water with crescent linear periodization over 12 weeks is able to reduce glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes


Objetivo: Analizar las respuestas de glucemia aguda en las primeras y últimas sesiones de cuatro mesociclos a lo largo de una periodización de entrenamiento aeróbico acuático. Métodos: Catorce pacientes (6 hombres y 8 mujeres; 54,3 ± 9,0 años; índice de masa corporal de 34,5 ± 3,9 kg/m2) con diabetes tipo 2 fueron sometidos a un programa de entrenamiento de 12 semanas de carrera en aguas profundas. Se realizó un entrenamiento aeróbico de intervalos, realizado 3 veces por semana, con sesiones de 35 minutos y la intensidad progresando a lo largo de la periodización desde 85% - 90% a 95% - 100% de la frecuencia cardiaca del umbral anaeróbico (FCUA). La glucosa capilar fue evaluada antes e inmediatamente después de la primera y la última sesión de cada mesociclo. Se utilizó una ecuación generalizada estimada (tiempo x sesión x mesociclo) para evaluar las reducciones en los niveles de glucosa en las diferentes sesiones (primera y última) a lo largo de cuatro mesociclos (α = 0.05). Resultados: todas las sesiones resultaran en una reducción en los niveles de glucosa (efecto tiempo: p<0,001), sin diferencias entre la primera y la última sesión de cada mesociclo (efecto de sesión: p = 0,738). Con respecto a los mesociclos (efecto mesociclo: p=0,003) se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los mesociclos 2 y 3. En la interacción tiempo mesociclo (p=0,002), en la mayor.a de las comparaciones, los valores post-sesión fueron menores de los valores pre-sesión, independientemente de mesociclo, excepto para el valor después de la sesión del mesociclo 3, que fue similar a los valores antes de la sesión de los mesociclos 2 y 4. Conclusión: Doce semanas de entrenamiento aeróbico en aguas profundas con la periodización linear y creciente es capaz de reducir los niveles de glucosa en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Glicemia/metabolismo , Ambiente Aquático/métodos , Ambiente Aquático/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Frequência Cardíaca/genética , Exercício , Glicemia/análise , Ambiente Aquático/análise , Ambiente Aquático/classificação , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia
15.
Age (Dordr) ; 38(1): 20, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26841888

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of two periodized training programs of deep water running on functional fitness and blood pressure in the older adults. Thirty-six individuals were divided into continuous group (CONT) and interval group (INT). Both groups were trained for 28 weeks (twice weekly). Measures were performed before the training period, after 12 weeks and training period. Two-way ANOVA and post hoc of Bonferroni were used (α = 0.05). There were no differences between groups in functional tests, with the exception of the flexibility of the upper limbs, in which the INT group showed the highest values. There was a significant improvement in both groups of foot up-and-go test (CONT 6.45 to 5.67; INT 6.59 to 5.78, in seconds), flexibility of lower limbs (CONT -4.76 to -0.61; INT 0.54 to 4.63, in centimeters), strength of upper (CONT 18.76 to 27.69; INT 18.66 to 26.58, in repetitions) and lower limbs (CONT 14.46 to 21.23; INT 14.40 to 21.58, in repetitions), and 6-min walk (CONT 567.50 to 591.16; INT 521.41 to 582.77, in meters). No differences were shown between groups for systolic blood pressure; however, diastolic blood pressure remained higher in CONT during all training. The blood pressure decreased significantly in both groups after the training (CONT 142 ± 16/88 ± 3 to 125 ± 14/77 ± 7 mmHg; INT 133 ± 15/75 ± 7 to 123 ± 17 and 69 ± 11 mmHg). Both programs of deep water running training promoted improvements of similar magnitude in all parameters of functional fitness, with the exception of flexibility of upper limbs, and decreased blood pressure in the older individuals.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Valores de Referência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Apunts, Med. esport (Internet) ; 50(188): 123-128, oct.-dic. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-145113

RESUMO

Objetivos: El propósito de este artículo fue evaluar la concordancia entre frecuencia cardíaca (FC) y velocidad en la cinta de correr correspondiente al umbral anaeróbico medido por el segundo umbral ventilatorio (VT2) y por el punto de deflexión de la FC (PDFC) en pacientes con diabetes tipo 2. Métodos: Se evaluaron treinta y dos pacientes sedentarios (56,1 ± 7,7 años) para determinar los valores de los umbrales, los pacientes realizaron una prueba de esfuerzo incremental a una velocidad inicial de 3 km h-1 durante 3 min, con incrementos de 1 km h-1 cada 2 min. Se analizó el grado de concordancia entre VT2 y PDFC mediante el test de Bland-Altman. Resultados: Los pacientes mostraron una FC de 133 ± 16 lpm en VT2 y 133 ± 18 lpm en PDFC. La velocidad media correspondiente a VT2 fue 6,3 ± 0,7 km h-1 y la correspondiente a PDFC fue 6,4 ± 1,1 km h-1. No hubo diferencias significativas entre los métodos evaluados (FC:p = 0,78; velocidad media: p = 0,57). Conclusión: Esta investigación concluye que existe correspondencia entre los métodos VT2 y PDFC en FC y la velocidad media en la cinta de correr, por lo tanto, cualquiera de estos dos métodos puede ser usado en estos pacientes


Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement between heart rate (HR) and treadmill velocity corresponding to the anaerobic threshold measured by second ventilatory threshold (VT2) and the HR deflection point (HRDP) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods: Thirty-two sedentary patients (56.1 ± 7.7 years) were evaluated. To determine the threshold values, patients performed an incremental treadmill test, with an initial velocity of 3 km h-1 for 3 min, which was then increased by 1 km h-1 every 2 min. The degree of agreement between VT2 and HRDP was analyzed using the Bland–Altman test. Results: Patients had a HR of 133 ± 16 bpm at VT2 and 133 ± 18 bpm at HRDP. Mean velocity corresponding to VT2 was 6.3 ± 0.7 km h-1, and that corresponding to HRDP was 6.4 ± 1.1 km h-1. There were no significant differences between the methods evaluated (HR: p = 0.78; mean velocity: p = 0.57). Conclusions: The present investigation concludes that there is an agreement between VT2 and HRDP methods for HR and treadmill velocity, and thus, either method may be used for these patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar/métodos , Músculos Respiratórios/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço
17.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 19(1): 45-52, jan-abr. 2015. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-761379

RESUMO

Atualmente, várias doenças e complicações físicas, associadas ao sedentarismo, têm crescido de forma exponencial. Nesse contexto, a literatura tem mostrado cada vez mais, que a prática regular de atividade física é fator fundamental na prevenção primária e como suporte terapêutico de doenças crônicas. Uma das doenças que vem apresentando grande aumento em sua incidência é a Diabetes Mellitus. A eficácia de modalidades de treinamento resistido não convencionais para o controle da Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 (DMT2), especialmente o Pilates, não tem sido investigada na literatura, apesar do exponencial aumento de sua popularidade. Dessa forma, o presente estudo pretende revisar a literatura acerca dos efeitos de modalidades não convencionais de treinamento físico, primordialmente o método Pilates, na prevenção e no tratamento do DMT2. O presente estudo consiste de uma revisão narrativa onde foram utilizados periódicos das bases de dados Scielo, Bireme, Scopus, Pubmed e busca manual. Os estudos demonstraram a necessidade de realização de mais pesquisas envolvendo o método Pilates e a população com DMT2, para assim conseguirmos elucidar se a prática do mesmo pode realmente ser considerada eficaz no controle da doença.


Nowadays, plenty of diseases and physical complications associated with sedentary lifestyle have grown in an exponential way. In this context, literature has increasingly shown that exercising regularly is an essential factor in the primary prevention of chronic diseases, also acting as therapeutic support. One of the diseases that has been showing an increase in its incidence is Diabetes Mellitus. The effectiveness of the non-conventional resistance training genres for controlling type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), especially Pilates, has not been investigated in literature, in spite of the exponential increase in its popularity. Therefore, the present study intends to review literature about the effects of non-conventional physical training genres, primarily Pilates method, in the prevention and treatment of T2DM. The current study consists of a narrative review where research from the Scielo, Bireme, Scopus and Pubmed databases and manual research were used. The studies demonstrated the need for the development of further research involving the Pilates method and the population with T2DM, in order to elucidate if this practice can actually be considered effective in the control of the diseases.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Composição Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus , Técnicas de Exercício e de Movimento , Doenças Metabólicas
18.
Exp Gerontol ; 64: 55-61, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25700846

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of two deep water training programs on cardiorespiratory and muscular strength responses in older adults. Thirty-four older adults men were placed into two groups: deep water endurance training (ET; n = 16; 66 ± 4 years) and deep water strength prior to endurance training (concurrent training: CT; n = 18; 64 ± 4 years). The training period lasted 12 weeks, with three sessions a week. The resting heart rate and the oxygen uptake at peak (VO2peak) and at the second ventilatory threshold (VO2VT2) were evaluated during a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer before and after training. In addition, maximal dynamic strength (one repetition maximum test--1RM) and local muscular resistance (maximum repetitions at 60% 1RM) of the knee extensors and flexors were evaluated. After the training period, the heart rate at rest decreased significantly, while the VO2peak and VO2VT2 showed significant increases in both groups (p<0.05). Only the VO2VT2 resulted in significantly greater values for the ET compared to the CT group after the training (p<0.05). In addition, after training, there was a significant increase in the maximal dynamic strength of the knee extensors and the local muscular endurance of the knee extensors and flexors, with no difference between the groups (p > 0.05). In summary, the two training programs were effective at producing significant improvements in cardiorespiratory and muscular strength responses in older adult men. However, deep water endurance training at high intensities provides increased cardiorespiratory responses compared to CT and results in similar muscular strength responses.


Assuntos
Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Idoso , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Rev. bras. ciênc. saúde ; 19(3): 241-246, 2015.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-783976

RESUMO

Áreas abrangidas pela moda utilizam-se da buscapela perfeição para exaltar modelos, impondo assim um padrãocorpóreo a ser seguido. Modelos de passarela devem seguiras seguintes medidas: estatura acima de 1,74 m, perímetrode cintura até 60 cm, de quadril até 90 cm e massa corporalpróxima de 20 kg do que o proposto para tal estatura(exemplo: modelo de estatura 1,80m e massa corporal de 60kg). Com o propósito de uma aparência magra, modelosseguem seus próprios conceitos de cuidados, tornando-asmais vulneráveis em aspectos como a aptidão físicarelacionada à saúde, fundamental na prevenção das doençasmais prevalentes na atualidade. Objetivo: Revisar a literaturasobre padrões de beleza e aptidão física relacionada à saúdeem modelos de passarela. Material e Métodos: Foi realizadauma revisão narrativa, sendo os artigos buscados nas basesde dados Scielo, Pubmed e Google Acadêmico, nas línguasportuguesa, inglesa e espanhola. Resultados: A falta deestudos que avaliem a aptidão física relacionada à saúde emmodelos não permite afirmações consistentes. No entanto,percebe-se um movimento importante na busca de saúdepara o público investigado, com recentes campanhas e leisque favorecerão uma atenção especial com modelos emtodos os aspectos referentes à saúde e qualidade de vida.Conclusão: Apesar da falta de estudos com essa temática,percebe-se uma preocupação latente em relação às medidascorporais e à qualidade de vida de modelos de passarela, oque não ocorre acerca das capacidades físicas...


Fashion-related areas lead a pursuit ofperfection to exalt models, thus imposing a corporeal patternto be followed. Runway models must fit into the followingmeasurements: height of 1.74 m or above, waistcircumference up to 60 cm, hip up to 90 cm, and body weightaround 20 kg of the proposed value for such height (example:height of 1.80 m and body weight of 60 kg). In order toachieve a lean look, models follow their own concepts ofcare, which makes them more vulnerable to things like physicalfitness related to health, fundamental in preventing the mostprevalent diseases nowadays. Objective: To review theliterature on standards of beauty and physical fitness relatedto health in runway models. Material and Methods: A narrativereview was carried out based on searches in the databasesScielo, PubMed and Google Scholar, in Portuguese, Englishand Spanish. Results: The lack of studies approaching healthrelatedphysical fitness in models does not allow raisingconsistent statements. However, we could see a significantmovement in the pursuit of health to this population group,with recent campaigns and laws that might favor specialattention to models in all aspects relating to health and qualityof life. Conclusion: Despite the lack of studies on this topic,we perceived a latent concern about body measurementsand quality of life of runway models, but not about theirphysical capabilities...


Assuntos
Humanos , Aptidão Física , Qualidade de Vida
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