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1.
Clin Diabetes ; 38(3): 300-303, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699481

RESUMO

Quality Improvement Success Stories are published by the American Diabetes Association in collaboration with the American College of Physicians and the National Diabetes Education Program. This series is intended to highlight best practices and strategies from programs and clinics that have successfully improved the quality of care for people with diabetes or related conditions. Each article in the series is reviewed and follows a standard format developed by the editors of Clinical Diabetes. The following article describes a project designed to improve the degree and quality of support for lifestyle change provided to patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity in the outpatient endocrinology clinic of a rural academic medical center.

2.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 161: 107996, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935416

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the pooled effectiveness of multidiscipinary care teams (MCTs) in reducing major amputation rates in adults with diabetes. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed, searching databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials.gov thru October 2018. We included only before-after studies comparing amputation rates before and after the implementation of a MCT for the prevention of major amputation in adults with diabetes. Our primary outcome was relative risk of major amputation. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a fixed effects model. RESULTS: Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. Nine studies were included in the meta-analysis, and eleven were included in a qualitative analysis. Exposure to a MCT resulted in a protective effect ranging from a RR of 0.44 [p-value < 0.00001 (95% CI 0.38, 0.51) I2 = 67%] to a RR of 0.61 [p-value < 0.0001, (95% CI 0.50, 0.75) I2 = 0%] after sensitivity analysis, and remained robust in qualitative analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare systems can expect a 39-56% amputation rate reduction after implementing an MCT amputation prevention program. These findings may justify the use of additional resources needed for program implementation by helping healthcare systems predict the anticipated benefit these teams have on "possible limbs saved". FUNDING: None.


Assuntos
Amputação/estatística & dados numéricos , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Adulto , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/terapia , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Endocr Pract ; 25(5): 423-426, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720336

RESUMO

Objectives: To our knowledge, no prior research has explored the prevalence of wearing continuous glucose monitors (CGMs) and/or insulin pumps among in-training fellows and their perception of doing so as part of their education. Our objectives therefore were to estimate the frequency with which wearing a CGM and/or insulin pump is used as a learning opportunity and explore the main motivators and perception on its value. Methods: A multiple-choice survey that addressed each fellow's level of training, type of fellowship training program, and use of CGM and/or insulin pump was sent to all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism program coordinators or program directors. We asked them to forward this survey to their graduating fellows. Their perception on the value of wearing these devices was addressed. Results: Fifty-one graduating fellows responded to the survey; 78.43% and 62.5% of them wore a CGM and insulin pump, respectively. A total of 89.48% and 90% of those who wore a CGM and insulin pump, respectively, thought it was above-average value for their education, and the most common reasons were to learn the technical aspects and understand what patients with diabetes go through. Conclusion: Wearing a CGM and/or insulin pump is perceived by endocrinology graduating fellows as valuable to their education, specifically, to learn the technical aspects, understand the patient's experience, and develop empathy. Abbreviations: ACGME = Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education; CGM = continuous glucose monitor.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Glicemia , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino , Bolsas de Estudo , Humanos , Sistemas de Infusão de Insulina
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27124174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Geisinger Health System implemented the Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS) in 2011 and is fully integrated to the Electronic Medical Record (EMR). Our objective was to assess whether the emergency department (ED) MEWS (auto-calculated by EMR) is associated with admission to the hospital, admission disposition, inpatient mortality, and length of stay (LOS) 4 years after its implementation. METHODS: A random sample of 3,000 patients' first encounter in the ED was extracted in the study period (between January 1, 2014 and May 31, 2015). Logistic regression was done to analyze whether mean, maximum, and median ED MEWS is associated with admission disposition, mortality, and LOS. RESULTS: Mean, maximum, and median ED MEWS is associated with admission to the hospital, admission disposition, and mortality. It correlates weakly with LOS. CONCLUSION: MEWS can be integrated to the EMR, and the score automatically generated still helps predict catastrophic events. MEWS can be used as a triage tool when deciding whether and where patients should be admitted.

5.
J Gastrointest Cancer ; 46(1): 21-8, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25412859

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to delineate the epidemiology of gastric adenocarcinoma in Central America and contrast it with Hispanic-Latino populations in the USA. METHODS: Published literature and Central America Ministry of Health databases were used as primary data sources, including national, population-based, and hospital-based registries. US data was obtained from the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Epidemiology End Results Program (SEER) registry. Incident gastric adenocarcinoma cases were analyzed for available data between 1985 and 2011, including demographic variables and pathology information. RESULTS: In Central America, 19,741 incident gastric adenocarcinomas were identified. Two thirds of the cases were male, 20.5 % were under age 55, and 58.5 %were from rural areas. In the SEER database (n = 7871), 57.8 % were male and 28.9 % were under age 55. Among the US Hispanics born in Central America with gastric cancer (n = 1210), 50.3 % of cases were male and 38.1 % were under age 55. Non-cardia gastric cancer was more common in Central America (83.3 %), among US Hispanics (80.2 %), and Hispanics born in Central America (86.3 %). Cancers of the antrum were more common in Central America (73.6 %), whereas cancers of the corpus were slightly more common among US Hispanics (54.0 %). Adenocarcinoma of the diffuse subtype was relatively common, both in Central America (35.7 %) and US Hispanics (69.5 %), although Lauren classification was reported in only 50 % of cases. CONCLUSIONS: A significant burden of gastric adenocarcinoma is observed in Central America based upon limited available data. Differences are noted between Central America and US Hispanics. Strengthening population-based registries is needed for improved cancer control in Central America, which may have implications for the growing US Hispanic population.


Assuntos
Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Gástricas/etnologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , América Central/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 12: 169, 2012 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22721269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have highlighted the effects the use of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist can have on lowering mortality and surgical complications. Implementation of the checklist is not easy and several barriers have been identified. Few studies have addressed personnel's acceptance and attitudes toward the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist. Determining personnel's acceptance might reflect their intention to use the checklist while their awareness and knowledge of the checklist might assess the effectiveness of the training process. METHODS: Through an anonymous self- responded questionnaire, general characteristics of the respondents (age, gender, profession and years spent studying or working at the hospital), knowledge of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist (awareness of existence, knowledge of objectives, knowledge of correct use), acceptance of the checklist and its implementation (including personal belief of benefits of using the checklist), current use, teamwork and safety climate appreciation were determined. RESULTS: Of the 147 surgical personnel who answered the questionnaire, 93.8% were aware of the existence of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist and 88.8% of them reported knowing its objectives. More nurses than other personnel knew the checklist had to be used before the induction of anesthesia, skin incision, and before the patient leaves the operating room. Most personnel thought using the WHO Surgical Safety Checklist is beneficial and that its implementation was a good decision. Between 73.7% and 100% of nurses in public and private hospitals, respectively, reported the checklist had been used either always or almost always in the general elective surgeries they had participated in during the current year. CONCLUSIONS: Despite high acceptance of the checklist among personnel, gaps in knowledge about when the checklist should be used still exist. This can jeopardize effective implementation and correct use of the checklist in hospitals in Guatemala City. Efforts should aim to universal awareness and complete knowledge on why and how the checklist should be used.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Cirurgia Geral , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/psicologia , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Cidades , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 14: 58, 2011 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22182532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Guatemala among the general population is 0.79%, and 94% of transmission is directly related to sexual contact. Studies have been conducted on high- prevalence HIV-positive populations (men who have sex with men, commercial sex workers and prisoners). Heterosexual transmission has gained importance in the epidemic in Central America. To our knowledge, no study addressing knowledge of mechanisms of HIV transmission and condom use has been done on HIV-positive heterosexual men and women. METHODS: A closed-ended structured interview that addressed knowledge of mechanisms of HIV transmission and condom use was conducted on 283 heterosexual HIV-positive men (54.8%) and women (45.2%) outpatients who attend the Roosevelt Hospital's Clinic of Infectious Diseases in Guatemala City. Differences between selected characteristics were examined for significance using the Chi-square test. A multiple logistic regression was done to determine socio-demographic variables associated with inconsistent condom use. RESULTS: Of the interviewed persons, 68.5% were either living with a partner or married, and 94.3% were currently using antiretroviral therapy. Most respondents knew the mechanisms of transmission of HIV. 81.7% and 87.3% reported always using a condom with their regular and casual sexual partner in the past year, respectively. There was no statistically difference in condom use according to the patient's formal education, gender, type of partner (regular or casual)or number of sexual partners. According to the interviewees, 72% of sexual partners in the past year were either HIV negative or of an unknown serostatus. Potentially, these HIV-negative persons are at risk of contracting the virus. Among the main reasons given for not using a condom were: "my partner did not want to use a condom"; and "the condom irritates or makes my partner uncomfortable". CONCLUSIONS: Since no socio-demographic or sexual behavior variable was associated with inconsistent condom use, we recommend intensive and regular condom counselling for every heterosexual HIV-positive outpatient who attends the clinic. Further studies should be done to determine condom use negotiation between partners; and to determine social, interpersonal and psychological factors that might affect the decision to use a condom or not.


Assuntos
Preservativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Guatemala , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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