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Materials (Basel) ; 15(7)2022 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35407825


Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques allow the production of complex geometries unattainable through other traditional technologies. This advantage lends itself well to rapidly iterating and improving upon the design of microwave photonic crystals, which are structures with intricate, repeating features. The issue tackled by this work involves compounding a high-permittivity material that can be used to produce 3D microwave photonic structures using polymer extrusion-based AM techniques. This material was acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)-based and used barium titanate (BaTiO3) ceramic as the high-permittivity component of the composite and involved the use of a surfactant and a plasticizer to facilitate processing. Initial small amounts of the material were compounded using an internal batch mixer and studied using polymer thermal analysis techniques, such as thermogravimetric analysis, rheometry, and differential scanning calorimetry to determine the proper processing conditions. The production of the material was then scaled up using a twin-screw extruder system, producing homogeneous pellets. Finally, the thermoplastic composite was used with a screw-based, material extrusion additive manufacturing technique to produce a slab for measuring the relative permittivity of the material, as well as a preliminary 3D photonic crystal. The real part of the permittivity was measured to be 12.85 (loss tangent = 0.046) in the range of 10 to 12 GHz, representing the highest permittivity ever demonstrated for a thermoplastic AM composite at microwave frequencies.

Nature ; 600(7890): 647-652, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937899


Spin-ordered electronic states in hydrogen-terminated zigzag nanographene give rise to magnetic quantum phenomena1,2 that have sparked renewed interest in carbon-based spintronics3,4. Zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs)-quasi one-dimensional semiconducting strips of graphene bounded by parallel zigzag edges-host intrinsic electronic edge states that are ferromagnetically ordered along the edges of the ribbon and antiferromagnetically coupled across its width1,2,5. Despite recent advances in the bottom-up synthesis of GNRs featuring symmetry protected topological phases6-8 and even metallic zero mode bands9, the unique magnetic edge structure of ZGNRs has long been obscured from direct observation by a strong hybridization of the zigzag edge states with the surface states of the underlying support10-15. Here, we present a general technique to thermodynamically stabilize and electronically decouple the highly reactive spin-polarized edge states by introducing a superlattice of substitutional N-atom dopants along the edges of a ZGNR. First-principles GW calculations and scanning tunnelling spectroscopy reveal a giant spin splitting of low-lying nitrogen lone-pair flat bands by an exchange field (~850 tesla) induced by the ferromagnetically ordered edge states of ZGNRs. Our findings directly corroborate the nature of the predicted emergent magnetic order in ZGNRs and provide a robust platform for their exploration and functional integration into nanoscale sensing and logic devices15-21.